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A brief history of NE

Discussion in 'Internal Affairs' started by tenzin, Mar 12, 2014.

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  1. tenzin

    tenzin FULL MEMBER

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    Well all of us know how the Britishers conquered the Indian sub continenet but very few know about NE history....So I am giving a brief introduction..

    History of How The Britishers established their influence on North East India..
    Before the Anglo Burmese War the Britishers had never thought about expanding into the North East India. But when the Burmese kingdom attacked the Ahom kingdom of Assam and massacred many people their king fled to Rangpur and later West Bengal and requested the Britisherers stationed their to help. The Britishers themselves being threatened by the growing power and expansion of the Burmese kingdom decided to help.
    The anglo Burmese war came to an end after the fall of Rangur with thesigning of a treaty known as treaty of Yandaboo.This treaty divided Assam into 2 parts Upper Assam and Lower Assam. With the upper part being ruled by the puppet Ahom King and the Lower part by the Britishers. As tea and oil were discovered in Upper Assam, they removed the Ahom king and established their rule. From here they gradually penetrated and annexed the hill tracts.

    1.Sadiya: Sadiya was ruled by a Khampti chief Sadiya Khowa Gohain(previously the Ahom used to rule). He was recognized by the British Government as lawful ruler. He was not to pay any tribute to the British but was to maintain a force of 200 hundred men for the British who were trained by the Assam light infantry. Similarly Singpho Chief were exempted from paying any tribute but was to supply 80 men whenever necessary.

    2.Matak: This territory lied between Brahmaputra and Buridihing river and was ruled by bar Senapati. In 1826, a treaty was concluded between the Matak kingdom and Britishers based on which the Matak chief had to pay 12000 rupees a year and 300 troops to the Britishers.

    3. Sikkim: The East India Company first contacted with Sikkim in 1814-15. They signed a treaty on 1817. The British Govt. intervened in many Lepcha war against Nepal, Bhutan and Tibet in favour of the Sikkimese king. Finally, Sikkim became a protectorate of British Govt. John Claude White was posted to Sikkim as Political officer in 1889.

    4.Meghalaya: prior to British, the state was ruled by many indigenous village chief. Among them the Jaintia kingdom was the most powerful and struggled the most against the British. The Britishers first came in contact with the inhabitants when it was granted the Diwani of Sylhet. In 1835, the British annexed the JAintia and the Khasi hills with headquarters at Jaintiapur and Cherrapunji respectively.

    5.Naga Hills: Nagas frequently raided and block the route between Assam and Manipur. So, the British suppressed and controlled them. Angami territory were annexed in 1875. The same year the Lotha Naga territory too falled. Mr. Damant (Political Officer) and his escorts were killed at khonoma by the Nagas. So Sir James jonstone took 200 Manipur forces in kohima and controlled the situation there. The Naga headmen agreed to pay revenue and supply labour to the British Govt. as per British-Naga agreement of 1890.

    6. Mizo hills: The Mizo chiefs frequently raided and kidnapped people from British territories. So the British organized a number of expeditions against the Mizos. Finally they established an outpost on Mizo hills in 1889 Ad by creating North and South Lusai hill districts with headquarters at Aizawl and Lungei respectively.the former was placed under Assam and later under Chittagong Division. The Chin Hill Regulation Act 1886 put restriction on the movement of outsiders in Mizoram which bring stability in the Mizo areas.

    7.Manipur: After the treaty of Yandaboo the British frequently contacted the Manipur kingdom ruled by Gambir Singh. The Britishers wanted to keep Manipur an independent kingdom so as to create a buffer. But in 1891, they fought a bitter war in which the Manipur kingdom was defeated and the Britishers seized the power and annexed the state but kept it as an independent state.

    8.Cachar: The Cachar chief Tularam who was commanding Officer of foot soldiers of King Govind Chandra of Cachar was declared king of North Cachar. David Scott bought an agreement between Tularam and Govind Chandra. But in 1830, Tularam killed Govind Chandra at the instigation of Gambir Singh, King of Manipur.in 1832, Cachar was annexed and Tularam was arrested. He surrendered his territory and agreed to pay a tribute. He was reduced to a titular chief.

    9. Tripura: The British recognized the Kindom of Tripura as a princely state till India's indeoendence. But the kings were a puppet of the British. During the reign of Krishna Manikya, the British conquered the state. Snce then the state's status was reduced to a subject of the British Empire.
     
  2. Zeus_@21

    Zeus_@21 Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Tripura: A brief History

    Tripura is located in the south-west extreme corner of the north-eastern region, between latitudes 22*57' and 24*33' N and longitudes 91*10' and 92*20' E. The state is situated between the river valley Myanmar and Bangladesh, and is bounded by Bangladesh on the north, west, south and southeast; in the east it has a common boundary with Assam and Mizoram.
    Tripura is a land locked state and its geographical limits touch both national and inter national boundaries. Its length of international boundary line with Bangladesh measures 839 km. Its national boundaries with Assam and Mizoram measure 53 km and 109 km respectively.

    The terrain by and large consists of parallel hills and ridges running from the northwest to the southeast direction, with alternating narrow valleys .

    The range of hills rises from the plains of Sylhet in Bangladesh at the north and proceeds southwards until they join the hills of the Chittagong hill tracts in Bangladesh. The elevation of hills gradually increases in the east. The eastern range of the Jampui is situated at an elevation of 914 meters above MSL and the western range of the Baramura, Deotamura with its elevation of 244 meters above MSL is the lowest.

    Tripura, currently a full-fledged state of North-East India, was formerly a princely state that had a long list of tribal kings stretching back into antiquity. According to versions presented in different editions of 'Rajmala', princely Tripura's court chronicle , altogether 184 or 179 kings of the Manikya dynasty had ruled the state . Scholars on Tripura's history , however, attribute all the pre-fifteenth century kings to the realm of mythology though continued sway of the Manikya dynasty has been attested since the year 1432.

    The partition of India in 1947 and political upheavals that had preceded and followed the momentous development had brought an end to princely rule of Manikya dynasty in Tripura. After India became independent, Tripura acceded to the Indian Union on 15 October, 1949 as a "C" category state and became a Union Territory in November 1956. A popularly elected ministry was formed in Tripura in July 1963 and since then, the State has had governments elected on the basis of universal adult franchise. Tripura attained full statehood on January 21, 1972. Tripura is also rich in its composite cultural heritage embodied in archaeological remains , architecture and sculpture.
     
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  3. Zeus_@21

    Zeus_@21 Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    According to my grand-father who was a teacher under the Tripuri Kings, Chittagong hill tracts(now in BD) was under the the rule of Tripuri kings. The majority population there are still Tripuri Tribes like Mogh/Marma's & Chakma.

    That area was bound to be under the state of Tripura. But looks like Nehru was sleeping while the country was getting divided. Else, North-East would have access to sea port through our state.
     
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  4. Zeus_@21

    Zeus_@21 Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Population pattern and demography have always been sensitive issues in Tripura over the past century which saw an actual decline in indigenous tribal population in terms of percentage because of resettlement of non-tribals in the state, particularly in the aftermath of the partition of the country in 1947. In 1901 Tripura's population was 1.73 lakh, with tribals making up nearly 52.89 per cent (rest were Bengalis and a tint of Manipuris) of the whole. By 1941, the total population rose to 5.13 lakh with a 50.09 per cent tribal majority. But by 1981, the tribal population dipped to 28.44 per cent of a total population of 2.05 million.(The situation changed after the 71 war. Because some of the refugees of 1971 war didn't returned back after the war. They make 9% of our population, now. Lungi-walas do breed at a brisk pace, madarsa-effect :troll:). Evidently, the tribal people were reduced from over a half to barely more than a quarter of the state's population in a century. The demographic changes, the economic pressures created by the sudden influx of people and the spread of education through missionary influence among the Mizos, Kukis and other tribes, have generated new impulses and a mix of expectations and aspirations. A feature of note is that around 97.4 per cent of the tribal population is rural. Human development among tribal people is thus very closely tied to the evolution of the rural economy.

    Current Status of Demographics:

    According to final results of 2011 census, the state's population stood at 36.74 lakh, with a density of 350 persons per sq. km. The percentage of Tripuri Tribes rose to 31.9% (rest are Bengali (majority), Manipuri and small population of Gorkhas). Thanks to border fencing and BSF, infiltration bid reduced substantially.
     
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  5. sangos

    sangos Lt. Colonel ELITE MEMBER

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    We can claim it now with the genuine history. It was some British guy Radcliffe who gave Chittagong Hill tracts to Pakistan. But does it include the Chittagong port?
     
  6. layman

    layman Aurignacian STAR MEMBER

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    partition was a messup. Well nothing can be done about it now....
     
  7. Zeus_@21

    Zeus_@21 Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    No, we can't claim it now. It has been 65 years since partition and our leaders never rose a voice while this was being done. So, it is now a legitimate territory under Republic of Bangladesh.

    As far as I know, Old map of Tripura includes entire area of Chittagong as a part of it. So, yes! it includes Chittagong port.
     
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  8. sangos

    sangos Lt. Colonel ELITE MEMBER

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    Does the king of Tripura have historical records of political control over the CHT and the port? Tripura can file a case in the International Courts if we have the records of intransigence and negligence by Imperialist rulers.
     
  9. rocky.idf

    rocky.idf BANNED BANNED

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    After the surrender of Pak Eastern Command, govts of India and BD ensured that 100% refugees were returned to their home in BD.
     
  10. Zeus_@21

    Zeus_@21 Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    The Britishers created rift among(Hindu-Muslim) us with a reason. They thought that, this would weaken India right from its root and it will fall back into their hands again. They stoke the strings of muslims being mis-behaved in united India. Hence, Md. Jinnah and leaders of Muslim league wanted a separate country.

    Winston Churchill hated India and its independence. Here is the proof.
    "Power will go to rascals, rogues, freebooters. . . .
    All leaders will be of low caliber & men of straw. . .
    They'll have sweet tongues & silly hearts. . .
    They will fight amongst themselves for power & the two countries will be
    lost in political squabbles. . . .
    A day would come when even air & water will be taxed.
    "

    Apparently these words were uttered by Winston Churchill on the topic of
    granting India independence


    [​IMG]

    This is the old map of Tripura. According to 'Rajmala' a documentation of the history of the princely state. Since, It was at the juncture of United India's Bengal and British Burma. There were great cultural exchanges between the Tripuri King's and that time Bengal. Even they adopted the Bengali 'lipi' (scripture) in documenting their history and other official works.

    There was nice blend of Bengali and Tripuri people present at that time Tripura. So, There came the Bengali muslims too & hence forth the division based on majority. According to me CHT shouldn't have been a part of BD.

    But its been a long time since partition. So, We don't have a legitimate right to call it as ours. If that area was contested for from day one(since partition) then we would have done something. Moreover, The kingship of Tripura became a puppet of Britishers after the 1900's. May be, They didn't have a strong hold over that area and too much of muslims may have invaded. Hence, Division based on majority.

    Looks like I need to read Rajmala to be more precise and grand-pa is dead else he would have told me the full story..... :tongue1:
     
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  11. Zeus_@21

    Zeus_@21 Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Sorry to hurt you. But that's not the ground reality.
     
  12. Zeus_@21

    Zeus_@21 Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    And don't worry, we are not like Bangladesh that butchers hindus every now and then. We don't have any problem with them living here. They are treated as legitimate Indians now(43 years of existence is good enough to be called as Indians). And we treat each other with respect. :smile:
     
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  13. sangos

    sangos Lt. Colonel ELITE MEMBER

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    Do you have a larger map, where it clearly shows the historical kingdom? This is very interesting.
     
  14. Zeus_@21

    Zeus_@21 Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    At the moment, I don't have the documentation/Rajmala.

    Though I will collect the book from state library and share the info. That's Enough for today!!

    see you later, bro!! :wave:
     
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  15. tenzin

    tenzin FULL MEMBER

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    Well the Chakmatribes and the Bangladeshis create alot of problem in NE and Arunachal
     
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