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China's Advanced Sciences

Discussion in 'China & Asia Pacific' started by Martian, Apr 16, 2010.

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  1. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    Nanoparticles promise to revolutionise medicine (BBC News; see second newslink below)

    Are you aware of the current Chinese advances in nanotechnology, drug delivery, quantum cryptography, material science, etc.?

    Here is a sample of the cool products that might result from China's R&D.

    Nanotechnology: Tom Mackenzie on China's giant step into nanotech | Technology | The Guardian
    http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2009/...echnology-china

    BBC NEWS | Health | Nanoparticle lung threat blocked
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/8091141.stm

    'Nano-raspberries' for Steamy Windows
    http://www.nano.org.uk/news/may2009/latest1871.htm

    Polymers release insulin in response to glucose trigger
    http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2009/May/07050902.asp

    China develops world's first quantum cryptography network
    http://www.nanowerk.com/news/newsid=10504.php

    New Super-bouyant Material: Life Preserver Might Float A Horse
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/...90316092837.htm

    [Note: Thank you to "snow is red" for finding the stories.]
     
    Last edited: Jul 27, 2010
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  2. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    China Building Large Radio Telescope For Space Observation

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    Milky Way

    China Building Large Radio Telescope For Space Observation

    "China Building Large Radio Telescope For Space Observation
    by Staff Writers
    Shanghai (XNA) Jan 04, 2010

    Construction of a 65-meter-diameter radio telescope started Tuesday in Shanghai, an official from one of funders said Wednesday. The telescope, a form of directional radio antenna used in radio astronomy, will be used in tracking and collecting data from satellites and space probes including Chinese astronomical projects like Chang'e lunar probe, YH-1 Mars exploration and other deep space explorations, said Zhan Wenlong, deputy dean of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS).

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    File image of a large radio telescope (Goldstone)

    The facility is also capable of receiving data for Jupiter and Saturn exploration, said Hong Xiaoyu, head of Shanghai Astronomical Observation, which will run the project after it is expected to be fully completed in 2015.

    The 200-million-yuan (29.3 million U.S. dollars) project, funded by CAS, Shanghai Municipal Government and Chinese lunar probe project, will have a bowl-like surface composed by 1,008 panels as large as eight basketball courts in total area, said Hong.

    The antenna structure of the telescope is scheduled to be finished by September 2012 and the facility is set to be used for tracking and locating missions during China's lunar probe program from 2013 to 2014.

    China's Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), a type of astronomical interferometry used in radio astronomy would go up by 42 percent in terms of its sensitivity if the telescope replaces the current 25-meter one in Shanghai.

    VLBI, composed of four telescopes in Shanghai, Beijing, Kunming, Urumqi and the data center in Shanghai was used for tracking and locating purposes during the first phase of China's lunar probe program."
     
    Last edited: Jul 26, 2010
  3. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    Spectacular sunset over Chukchi Sea

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    Photo taken at 21:46 on July 21, 2010 (local time) shows the sunset view taken from China's icebreaker "Xue Long" or "Snow Dragon". The Snow Dragon sailed to Chukchi Sea on Wednesday during polar day period. Chukchi Sea is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean. (Xinhua/Zhang Jiansong)

    China begins 26th Antarctica season with a team of 251 scientists — MercoPress

    "Wednesday, October 14th 2009 - 06:15 UTC
    China begins 26th Antarctica season with a team of 251 scientists

    Chinese scientists have set off from Shanghai for their 26th research mission to the Antarctic. The “Snow Dragon”, China's main research ship in the polar region, has gone through a series of maintenance and technical readjustments, according to Global Times.

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    China’s impressive icebreaker Xue Long or “Snow Dragon”

    The new Antarctic season will last six months and cover a distance of more than 30,000 miles, the longest mission to date.

    One of the main objectives of this season is collecting remains of meteorites and astronomic observation. The “Xue Long” carries a record 252 scientists and technicians including for the first time several from Taiwan. Russian and Australian scientists have also been invited.

    A team of scientists will remain at the Zhongshan base in the bay of Prydz from where it will cover 400 kilometres to the Grove mountain range to collect as many meteorites as possible. China has the world’s third largest collection of meteorites.

    Another team will land a the Kunlun base which is situated 7.3 kilometres southwest from the Argus summit, the highest point in Antarctica with 4,093 metres above sea level. The purpose is to install astronomic surveying equipment.

    Two other teams will explore inland Antarctica.

    China’s first Antarctic base, Changcheng (Great Wall) was established in 1985 south of King George island, and the second Zhongshan in 1989 south of the Prydz bay, in the Mirror peninsula east of the Larsemann hills.

    “Kunlun” is the first Chinese base in continental Antarctica.

    In the last 25 years China has completed 4,000 trips to the Southern Pole, according to the Chinese Institute of Polar Research.

    “Xue Long” is expected back in Shanghai in late April 2010.

    MV Xue Long, built originally as a polar cargo ship by Kherson Shipyard, Ukraine, on March 25, 1993, became the only research ice-breaker in China after elementary modification in 1994, for the Arctic and Antarctic regions. It is the re-supply vessel and the scientific research platform of the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic research expeditions. The vessel is 167 meters long and 22.6 meters beam, with the full-loaded draft of 9 meters, the full-loaded displacement of 21,250 tons, and the cruising radius of 12,000 nautical miles.

    It is an A2-class ice-breaker with capability of breaking ice 1.2m (including 0.2m thick snow) at a sailing speed of 2 knots and can sail with the maximum speed of 17.9 knots, and also sail even during the weather of gale with more than 12 B scale.

    The vessel has a data processing centre and seven laboratories with total area of 200 square meters and basic operating equipment on board of this vessel, including a low temperature sample storehouse, a low temperature cultivation room, a clean laboratory, a marine biological laboratory, a marine chemical laboratory, a geological laboratory, and a CTD winch, a biological winch, a geological laboratory, and a hallow-section device of EK-500 model.

    Besides, 3 operating boats and a helicopter are equipped for the transportation and research purposes in the Arctic and Antarctic regions.
    "

    China's icebreaker sails among floe ice in the Chukchi Sea - Technology News - SINA English

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    China's icebreaker "Xue Long" or "Snow Dragon" sails among floe ice in the Chukchi Sea, July 22, 2010. The Snow Dragon encountered floe ice in the Chukchi Sea on Thursday. (Xinhua/Zhang Jiansong)

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    Chinese expedition team members get preparation for a helicopter on the deck of China's icebreaker "Xue Long" or "Snow Dragon", July 22, 2010. The Snow Dragon sailed to sea-ice field in the Chukchi Sea and a helicopter is sent to check floe ice condition. (Xinhua/Zhang Jiansong)
     
    Last edited: Jul 26, 2010
  4. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    Beautiful pictures of China's LAMOST telescope. It's better than Sloan.

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    LAMOST Progress : All the MB (spherical primary) segments are in place on June 19, 2008

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    China's LAMOST telescope in Xinglong, China

    Heidi Newberg, Astronomy, Supernova, Dark energy, Careers Q&A, Naturejobs

    "Published in Nature 466, 279 (7 July 2010) | 10.1038/nj7303-279a

    Virginia Gewin

    Heidi Newberg, a physicist and astronomer at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York, has won a National Science Foundation grant to create the first partnership between a US team and a Chinese-led astronomy project.

    Were you always planning to become an astronomer?

    No. I went to graduate school in the physics department at the University of California, Berkeley, but I didn't know what I wanted to study. After my first year, I got a job with the Berkeley Automated Supernova Search, analysing images. I had no background in astronomy and didn't even know what supernovae were, but it sounded interesting because it was unexplored and would make use of my analytical thinking skills. Later, I began working on the distant-supernovae search, which ultimately became Berkeley's Supernova Cosmology Project. The distant-supernovae search did not achieve success until after I had left and started my postdoc at Fermilab in Batavia, Illinois, but later versions of the search benefited from the wrong turns we made starting out. Eventually the data were used in the discovery that the Universe is accelerating. Those findings led to the idea of 'dark energy'. My career has been shaped by a theme — although projects can seem bleak at the start, continuing to work on them can lead to an important result.

    How were supernovae found?

    First we had to work out what was going wrong. We couldn't have done it without constant funding for the supernova group from the US Department of Energy at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory — there has to be a way to keep going long enough to get things to work. You need to learn from your mistakes. One thing we learned is that to find a supernova, you can't record images of the sky once, and come back the next year and expect things to be the same. Too many things in the sky change to be able to tell which objects are supernovae and which aren't. We learned to capture an image of the sky before and after a full Moon to get the best spectra for finding supernovae.

    Describe how an early achievement helped to chart your career course.

    As a graduate student, I had the task of redesigning a filter wheel that was part of an instrument for the Anglo-Australian Telescope, one of the first Southern Hemisphere telescopes to offer high-resolution and computer-controlled spectrographs. I hadn't worked on hardware. I didn't know anything about optics or filter wheels, but I talked to the engineers and got answers. It came together, but the challenges showed me that with projects that push the envelope of what is known and possible, you are going to have to learn new things.

    How did you forge the partnership with China?

    It came together from both sides. I had been analysing data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in Sunspot, New Mexico, but data collection ended in 2008.
    So I was looking for a new project. I was interested in working on the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) in Xinglong, China, because I wanted to continue with a galactic evolution project that I was exploring using Sloan data. But I needed data at a bigger scale, taking measurements on millions of stars. Using LAMOST I will have that, because it can take 4,000 spectra at once. I was also approached by the Chinese delegates as they talked to people involved in building Sloan, to learn how to make LAMOST successful. They contacted me because they wanted people to help them build the software.

    What are the challenges in being a member of the first US team to join a Chinese-led astronomy project?

    The Chinese structure for science is not similar to US or European structures. In China, individuals rather than teams are in charge. In US and European collaborations, committees are formed with representatives who have voting rights. It is like a democracy. With such different structures, it has been a challenge to define everyone's objectives, responsibilities and rights. The US National Science Foundation expects us to spell out the details in a proposal which might be funded up to a year later, whereas the Chinese organizations want to start working together and see how the relationship evolves, so there is a mismatch.

    So have your goals changed?

    No. No matter what the top layers look like, the scientists' expectations are similar. The challenge is getting the big organizations to recognize each other's systems rather than getting individuals to work together. I'll travel to China two to four times a year to make this programme a success.

    What is your motto?

    For the longest time, I told myself, “I can do anythingâ€￾. When I turned 40, I realized that there are some things I simply can't do. Yet my motto got me pretty far before I figured that out."
     
    Last edited: Jul 27, 2010
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  5. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    Scientists Study Diamond Nitrogen Vacancy Materials for Quantum Computing Application

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    "Scientists Study Diamond Nitrogen Vacancy Materials for Quantum Computing Applications
    2010-07-01

    Since Richard Feynman's first envisioned the quantum computer in 1982, there have been many studies of potential candidates -- computers that use quantum bits, or qubits, capable of holding an more than one value at a time and computing at speeds far beyond existing silicon-based machines for certain problems. Most of these candidate systems, such as atoms and semiconducting quantum dots, work for quantum computing, but only at very low temperatures.

    Now a team of researchers from the Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale at the University of Science and Technology of China has made a step toward a warmer solution.

    As reported in the journal Applied Physics Letters, the team is exploring the capabilities of diamond nitrogen vacancy (NV) materials. In this material, a "molecule" at the heart of an artificially created diamond film consists of a nitrogen atom (present as in impurity amid all those carbon atoms) and a nearby vacancy, a place in the crystal containing no atom at all. These diamond structures offer the possibility of carrying out data storage and quantum computing at room temperature.

    One of the challenges of this technology is the difficulty of coupling two of the NV centers in separate nanocrystals of diamond. To make a quantum computer, many diamond-NV centers need to be coupled (made quantum coherent with each other), encoding the information in each, and operations based on their interactions (or couplings) must be undertaken. Mang Feng of the Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and his collaborators present an idea that could lead to a quantum mechanical coupling of these NV centers, called entanglement. This proof of principle is now ready to be extended to multiple operations, which is by no means a simple accumulation of the operations.

    "Our research is another step in realizing the potential of the long-envisioned quantum computers with techniques available currently or in the near-future," states Dr. Feng, "Continued advances could stimulate further exploration in condensed matter physics, quantum information science and diamond making technology."


    More information: The article, "One-step implementation of multi-qubit conditional phase gating with nitrogen-vacancy centers coupled to a high-Q silica microsphere cavity" by Wan-li Yang et al will appear in the journal Applied Physics Letters. See: //apl.aip.org/(Provided by American Institute of Physics)"

    [Note: Thank you to "lkjhgfdsa" for finding this story.]
     
    Last edited: Jul 27, 2010
  6. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    ARJ-21 jets to be delivered starting from 2011

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    China's Advanced Regional Jet for the 21st Century

    ARJ21 jets to be delivered starting from 2011 - People's Daily Online

    "ARJ21 jets to be delivered starting from 2011
    13:38, July 22, 2010

    China's first ARJ21 regional jet is expected to be delivered in 2011, the Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China (COMAC), which develops domestically-made jumbo jets and sells the ARJ21 aircraft, reported during the Farnborough International Air Show on July 21.

    ARJ21 is a new type of short-to-medium-range, turbofan-powered regional jet independently developed by China. It has 70 to 100 seats and a maximum range of 2,000 nautical miles. Designed in accordance with international airworthiness standards, the aircraft can meet requirements such as takeoff and landing in plateau or high-temperature airports.

    According to COMAC, the ARJ21 regional jet had its first test flight on Nov. 28, 2008 and has entered the airworthiness certification and certificate application stage. Four ARJ21 regional jets have participated in test flights with a cumulative flight time of more than 600 hours. Confirmed overseas and domestic orders and orders of intent have amounted to 240 and the first aircraft is scheduled to be delivered in 2011.

    The pre-sale price of the new ARJ21 regional jet is 27 million to 29 million U.S. dollars, giving the ARJ21 regional jet a price advantage over its peers in the international market.

    COMAC also noted that China's jumbo jet project will enter the engineering development phase next year. The suppliers for the project have generally been selected after key suppliers of the airframe structure, power units and system devices, materials and standard components were fixed.

    Equipment for the C919 jumbo jets will be supplied by 13 international aviation manufacturing enterprises. Meanwhile, over 30 domestic enterprises have passed the preliminary material supply reviews and more than 50 domestic enterprises have been selected as potential standard component suppliers.

    COMAC added that the overall technical plan, manufacturing plan and customer service plan for the C919 jumbo jets will be compiled in 2010. The C919 jumbo jets are scheduled to conduct the first test flights in 2014 and be delivered in 2016.

    By People's Daily Online"

    [​IMG]
    ARJ-21 cockpit

    [​IMG]
    ARJ-21 pilot controls

    [​IMG]
    ARJ-21 throttle control

    [​IMG]
    ARJ-21 interior cabin space
     
    Last edited: Aug 7, 2010
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  7. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    China-made submersible has 1,000 meter diving capability

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    China's 7,000 meter best-in-the-world diving submersible

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    Ocean floor

    China-made submersible has 1,000 m diving capability - People's Daily Online

    "China-made submersible has 1,000 m diving capability
    15:23, March 11, 2010

    Sun Zhihui, CPPCC member and director of State Oceanic Administration, said March 10 in an interview that the home-developed manned submersible, the first of its kind worldwide has been successfully tested in the South China Sea 20 times at depths of 1,109 meters in 2009. The vehicle's maximum operational capability at that depth is 7,000 meters.

    As a result, China becomes the world's fifth country after the U.S., Russia, Japan and France to possess the technology of developing a manned submersible with over a 1,000 meter diving capability.

    The manned submersible, capable of reaching depths for a distance of 7,000 meters, is the best of its kind in the world. It is capable of exploring 99 percent of the world's ocean floor.

    By People's Daily Online"

    China builds new manned submersible : Deep Sea News

    "China builds new manned submersible
    Posted on: February 29, 2008 5:07 AM, by Peter Etnoyer

    [​IMG]

    China has a knack for naming their exploration vehicles. They gave the world the Shenzhou (or "divine vessels") to reach outer space and the Taikonauts to fly them. Now China is planning an ocean exploration program 'equally important' to their space endeavours, including plans to build a sub-sea base station and a manned submersible capable of diving to 7000m by year 2010. So, how do you say "sea dragon" in Mandarin?

    You can never have too many deep diving manned submersibles. Less than a dozen vessels I know of are capable of working beyond 1000m depth. Between the Chinese submersible, the Alvin, it's replacement, the Russian MIRs, the French Nautile, and the Japanese Shinkai we'll have maybe 6 manned submersibles capable of diving deep enough to explore ~90% of Earth's seafloor as we enter the next decade. We need more.

    The photo above shows the new submersible on display at the ninth China Hi-Tech Fair in October, 2007. Image from People's Daily Online."
     
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  8. tariqkhan18

    tariqkhan18 Major Staff Member ADMINISTRATOR

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    Anyone has any idea what are the comparable jet prices around the world?
     
  9. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    China's ARJ21 has 70 (e.g. business class) to 100 (e.g. economy class) seats. Cost is $27 to $29 million dollars.

    Brazil's Embraer 100-seat regional jet costs $40 million dollars.

    Canada's Bombardier regional business jet costs $46 million dollars.

    Embraer Trumps Bombardier With $1.9 Billion of Jet Orders at U.K. Airshow - Bloomberg

     
    Last edited: Jul 28, 2010
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  10. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    China Advanced Research Reactor completed

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    "A new Chinese-designed and built research reactor has reached first criticality at the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE)'s Fangshan, Beijing site. (Chinese research reactor starts up. 18 May 2010. Image: CIAE)"

    China Advanced Research Reactor completed - People's Daily Online

    "China Advanced Research Reactor completed
    14:24, May 18, 2010

    The China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR), independently developed by the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), recently achieved criticality for the first time, indicating the successful completion of the CARR project.

    CARR, developed to meet the needs of technological development in the 21st century, is a high-performance, multi-purpose, safe and reliable nuclear reactor with ancillary experimental terminals. The reactor, situated inside CIAE in Fangshan district, Beijing, covers an area of about 2.3 hectares and has a power of 60 megawatts.

    CARR owns the most advanced technology among all neutron beam research reactors of the same type in Asia and is one of the most advanced nuclear reactors in the world. The completion of CARR marks that China has again achieved a major breakthrough in nuclear science and technology.

    CARR will provide an important platform for China’s nuclear research and technology application. The reactor can be used for research in many fields such as nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, neutron scattering experiments, testing of reactor materials and atomic fuels, neutron activation analysis and the production of radioactive species and neutron-doped silicon.

    By People's Daily Online"

    European Neutron-Muon Portal

    "China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR), Beijing.
    A new high flux research reactor, the China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR), now is being built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) to meet increasing demand of neutron scattering research in China.

    CARR will be a 60 MW multiple purposes research reactor with unperturbed thermal neutron flux of 8x10exp14 n/sec.cm**2. A liquid hydrogen cold source at 20 K will be installed and two guide tubes will be put into the cold beam vault for transportation cold neutrons to the experimental hall. 5 of the spectrometers installed at current Heavy Water Research Reactor at CIAE will be upgraded and moved to CARR. 3 new spectrometers, a high resolution powder diffractomer, a residual stress neutron diffractometer and a horizontal scattering geometry polarized neutron reflectometer will be constructed and accommodated in the reactor hall and guide hall.

    The object of CARR project is to establish a complete set of spectrometers used as the tool for neutron scattering in the fields of life science, material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineering, mineral, environment science, industrial and engineering application with the aim to build the laboratory as a national neutron scattering key laboratory with an internationally advanced level, serving as a national neutron scattering research and training center as well as an international research center in Asia.


    Neutron scattering leading group:
    Group leader: President of CIAE - Prof. Zhao Zhixiang
    Deputy group leader: Director of Department of Nuclear Physics Prof. Dr. Liu Weiping
    Deputy group leader: Group leader of Neutron Scattering project Prof. Gou Cheng

    Neutron scattering engineer group:
    Group leader: Prof. Gou Cheng
    Head of neutron scattering Project / deputy group leader: Prof. Dr. Chen Dongfeng
    Deputy Head of neutron scattering Project / technical group leader: Dr. Liu Yuntao"

    [Note: China's Advanced Research Reactor (i.e. CARR) is not to be confused with China Experimental Fast Reactor (i.e. CEFR). CARR is a neutron scattering tool. CEFR is a fast-breeder reactor to produce electricity by consuming and self-generating more nuclear fuel to enable nearly 70% efficiency in extracting energy from the uranium fuel. They serve two completely different purposes.

    My father explained the difficulty level is nuclear engineer --> nuclear physicist --> theoretical physicist. He has a Ph.D. in nuclear engineering and he was describing the super-smart nuclear and theoretical physicists to me.]
     
    Last edited: Jul 29, 2010
  11. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility Opens to Science Researchers

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    Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility is a third-generation synchrotron radiation light source. Until now, SSRF is the largest scientific platform for science research and technology development in China. (Photo: SSRF)

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    The photo taken on March 16, 2009 shows the interior of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). The 1.2 billion yuan (or $175 million U.S. dollars) synchrotron radiation project in Shanghai will be fully operational in late April. SSRF is a great tool for the Chinese science research community and industry. (Xinhua/Pei Xin)

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    Researchers perform experiments at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) in China on March 16, 2009. (Xinhua/Pei Xin)

    Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility Opens to Scientific Researchers---Chinese Academy Of Sciences

    "Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility Opens to Scientific Researchers
    2010-01-29

    Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF), a third-generation of synchrotron radiation light source passes national inspection on January 19 and will be open to home and abroad scientific research, according to Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SINAP).

    SSRF is the biggest scientific platform for science research in China up to now. The construction of the project started on Dec 25th, 2004 in Shanghai, and cost 1,200 million yuan (about 176 million U.S. dollars).

    The facility consists of three accelerators: a 150Mev electron LINAC, a 180-meter booster that can increase the electron energy from 150MeV to 3.5GeV in 0.5 second, and a 3.5GeV electron storage ring with a perimeter of 432 meters. The project also includes 7 initial beamlines and experimental stations.

    The mega experimental platform will then help carry out research on life sciences, medicine and pharmacy, new material, physics, chemistry, petrochemical industry and biotechnology.

    [Many] hundreds of scientists and engineers from universities, institutes and industries in domestic and even overseas will be able to use the facility to [perform] research and experiments.

    ZHANG Xiaoqiang, Vice Chairman of China’s National Development and Reform Commission, CAO Jianlin, Vice Minister of China’s Ministry of Science and Technology, JIANG Mianheng and ZHAN Wenlong, Vice Presidents of the CAS and experts from related areas attended the inspection and acceptance conference held in Shanghai."

    Point Grey Research - Insights January 2007

    "[It] will provide x-ray, infrared and ultraviolet beams of exceptional brightness. These will be used by scientists and engineers for research and development in many fields including biomedical science, medical research, environmental sciences and physical sciences.
    ...
    What is a Synchrotron Light Source?

    A synchrotron light source is a very large machine designed to produce intense beams of light. Millions of times brighter than an X-ray, synchrotron light is generated by using powerful magnets to accelerate electrons that are traveling near the speed of light. Infrared, ultraviolet and X-ray light is shone down beamlines to end stations (small laboratories) where scientists can select different parts of the spectrum to view the microscopic nature of matter, and investigate it at the scale of atoms and molecules. Synchrotron light is an indispensable tool in many research areas including physics, chemistry, materials science and crystallography, and is increasingly being used in medicine, geological and environmental studies, structural genomics and archaeology. Many everyday commodities, from chocolate to cosmetics, drugs, surgical tools, computers and mobile phones, have been developed or improved using synchrotron light."
     
    Last edited: Aug 9, 2010
  12. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    China reports lunar rover design complete

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    BREAKTHROUGH: A lunar rover model designed by Chinese scientists debuts on April 23, 2008 in a Shanghai laboratory within a simulated environment of the Moon's surface. (LIU YING)

    Lunar Pioneer: China reports lunar rover design complete

    "China reports lunar rover design complete
    Wednesday, April 14, 2010

    Zhang Jiawei
    China Daily

    China has completed creating a lunar rover, which will be sent to the moon by the Chang'e-3 lunar orbiter in 2013, the People's Daily Overseas Edition reported Tuesday.

    The lunar rover is expected to carry out an exploration program in 2013 and return in 2017, the newspaper said.

    Ye Peijian, chief designer of the nation's first lunar probe, Chang'e-1, said recently China has created more than 10 lunar rovers able to move, collect samples and analyze samples on the moon.

    "Please remember, this lunar rover is created by China," Ye said repeatedly during a lecture in Chongqing."
     
    Last edited: Jul 30, 2010
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  13. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    China's premier laser research institute: SIOM

    Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics

    Important National Laboratory in Field of High-Powered Laser Physics

    Main Research directions:

    ■ The physics and technology of ultra-intense ultra-short laser
    ■ The experimental and theoretical investigation on hi-field ultra-fast laser physics
    ■ The fundamental research in hi-tech fields and the interdisciplinary frontiers

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    23.0 TW/33.9 fs table-top ultra-intense ultra-short pulse laser system; that is the most powerful table-top laser facility in China. [A TeraWatt (TW) is 1x10E12 Watts. A femtosecond (fs) is 1x10E-15 second (or "one millionth of one billionth of a second").]

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    16.7 TW/120 fs ultra-intense ultra-short-pulse laser system based on the scheme of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification, which is at the forefront of world-class technology.

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    Experimental equipment for ultra-intense ultra-short laser interaction with solid-state target.

    Research Highlights-Laser Science Research

    "Ultra-Intense Laser Science Research at Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics

    Founded in 1964, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (SIOM) has been widely recognized as the most important research center in the field of laser science and technology in China. SIOM is one of the about 100 institutes of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), originated for the laser research groups of CAS institutes in Changchun and Beijing, where the first Chinese ruby laser oscillator was demonstrated in 1961.

    SIOM has become a comprehensive research institute with the main research fields as high power laser technologies and systems, high-field laser physics using intense and ultra-intense ultrafast lasers, information optics, quantum optics, solid state laser technologies and their applications, laser and optoelectronics materials.

    In addition to the earlier achievements in the development of high power laser technologies and facilities, SIOM has developed in recent years the first Chinese multi-kilo-joule laser facility for the basic research of nuclear energy based on the laser driven fusion of the isotopes of hydrogen, together with the relatively compact but much more intense laser facility with the peak power approaching a petawatt (a million billion watt). SIOM is exploring the frontiers of intense and ultra-intense laser science using these facilities and other smaller-scale laser systems with laser pulse durations ranging from a few nanoseconds (billionths of a second) to a few femtoseconds (millionths of a nanosecond), including table-top laser fusion using cluster targets, laser acceleration of electrons and ions, nonlinear propagation of laser beams at relativistic intensity, atomic and molecular physics in intense laser field, high order harmonics and coherent XUV emission generation, attosecond (billionth of a nanosecond) pulse generation and etc. I will highlight some of the recent progress hereafter.

    Femtosecond Petawatt Laser Facility

    Based on chirped pulse amplification (CPA) scheme, we have developed the femtosecond petawatt Ti:sapphire laser system with a peak power of 0.89 petawatt and a pulse duration of 29.0 femtoseconds [1]. The system consists of a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire oscillator, a pulse stretcher, four amplifiers and a four-grating pulse compressor. The following three key technologies are essential to this system."

    NEWS RELEASE - Media Centre - Shanghai Optics and Fine Mechanics achieves breakthrough in Synthetic aperture laser imaging radar technology - The 4th Asia(dongguan) International Laser Processin Equipment Technology forum&fair (14-16,May 2010)

    "Shanghai Optics and Fine Mechanics achieves breakthrough in Synthetic aperture laser imaging radar technology

    8th, July News, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics Space Optical Communications and Technology Key Laboratory testing is supported by major projects. Beginning the research of synthetic aperture laser imaging radar technology since 2008, it has made a breakthrough recently and has achieved the imaging of range and azimuth of a two-dimensional target in the laboratory-scale narrow synthetic aperture laser imaging radar equipment; achieve the complete linking process of synthetic aperture laser radar, optical, opto-electronics and computer processing. This is the world's third report of successful experiments.

    Synthetic aperture imaging laser radar (also known as optical SAR) is the only optical means to reach the cm-optical imaging resolution for distant objects. It has a significant prospect in the space field. Features include: 1. Laser active imaging, suitable for all-day use, with high-resolution imaging close to optical visibility, and quick imaging; 2. Radars with a wide range of applications: suitable for space-to-ground observation of super-resolution, space remote-moving target, and ultra-resolution imaging applications.

    The United States made the key technological breakthrough of synthetic aperture imaging laser radar in 2002, realized two-dimensional imaging in the laboratory-scale narrow synthetic aperture laser equipment, and (building on this base in 2006) airborne synthetic aperture laser imaging radar prototype that were respectively researched by Raytheon and Northrop Grumman Corporation; thereafter carrying out a variety of field tests and recently expanding the number of applications.

    Using a different fiber optics set-up than the experiments in the United States, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics experimental system used space-optical structures. This resulted in increased experimental difficulties, but would yield more practical results. Due to the differences between the implementation of optical synthetic aperture imaging radar and microwave synthetic aperture radar, the concepts and principles of microwave radar cannot be directly utilized. This makes the study challenging for optical synthetic aperture radar imaging. In the research by Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics Space Optical Communications and Technology Key Laboratory, the institute creatively solved a series of optical science and space-domain obstacles, time-domain optical-scientific issues and statistical optics-scientific issues. Also, the systematic-and-corresponding development of the overall design, optical antennas, and key technologies such as receiver/transmitters optoelectronic systems and image processing has laid a solid foundation for the realization of laboratory-scale synthetic aperture laser imaging radar and a future prototype device.

    The outcome of this project serves a leading role in the country. The results of the project's basic research, especially on the issue of space-domain optical-study, have a high degree of innovation; fill gaps in the knowledge of international research; and has quickly received recognition from international colleagues.

    时间:2009-9-26 12:00:43 阅览:369 返回"

    [Note: I edited the last article a little bit to facilitate ease of reading.]
     
    Last edited: Aug 2, 2010
  14. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    China unveils domestic AC313 large civilian helicopter

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    The AC313, China's first domestically-made large civil helicopter, flies in its test flight in Jingdezhen City, east China's Jiangxi Province, March 18, 2010. The AC313 helicopter completed its maiden flight on Thursday. (Xinhua Photo)

    BBC News - China unveils homemade AC313 large civilian helicopter

    "China unveils homemade AC313 large civilian helicopter
    Page last updated at 05:10 GMT, Friday, 19 March 2010

    [​IMG]
    The AC313 is China's first domestically developed civilian helicopter

    China's first domestically developed civilian helicopter has completed a successful maiden flight in Jingdezhen, in the eastern province of Jiangxi.

    The heavy-lift AC313 helicopter, built by the state-owned Aviation Industry Corporation of China (Avic), can carry 27 passengers or up to 13.8 tonnes.

    It is designed to be used for rescue missions in earthquakes, typhoons and other natural disasters.

    It is the latest advance for the country's ambitious aerospace industry.

    At last month's Singapore Air Show, Beijing unveiled the Comac C919 aircraft - China's answer to the Boeing 737 and Airbus A320, which should be available commercially by 2016.

    The AC313 has a maximum range of 900km (560 miles), the state-run China Daily reported on its website.

    Its test flight - broadcast live on China Central Television on Thursday - was hailed as a "breakthrough in domestic aviation technology", it added."
     
  15. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    BYD to sell F3DM-model electric cars in Shanghai

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    "The "DM" or "Dual Mode" F6DM and F3DM both have a 1.0L gasoline engine combined with a 50kW motor and a 20kW power generator. Their 19.8kWh batteries alone are capable of running 100km, the company says. The FD6M initial cost? 50,000 yuan ($7,150) more expensive than the base model, so in total around 150,000 yuan (about US$21,500). Half the price of the Prius in China now."

    [​IMG]
    "Motor in BYD F3 DM
    Left the 1 litre 50 kW gasoline engine, right the 50 kW electric engine. Above the engine controller."

    [​IMG]
    "The Household Charge Port and Quick Charge Port are seen on a F3DM electric vehicle. BYD F3DM, China’s first mass-produced electric vehicle by BYD Auto, is a gasoline-electric hybrid plug-in vehicle, using a small gasoline combustion engine to charge the car’s battery. When fully charged, it can run as far as 100 to 110 kilometers by electricity. (Photo by China Photos/Getty Images)"

    [​IMG]
    Car model/presenter at China automotive exhibition

    China Business News: BYD to sell F3DM-model electric cars in Shanghai

    "BYD to sell F3DM-model electric cars in Shanghai

    Jul. 30, 2010 (China Knowledge) - China's largest rechargeable battery maker and a well-known automobile producer, is set to sell the F3DM hybrid vehicle to customers in Shanghai by the end of the month, the Shanghai Daily reported.

    The F3DM, the world's first mass produced plug-in hybrid car model, is able to have a 60-kilometers drive on a single charge. The battery can be fully charged in seven hours at a household outlet, and semi-charged in 10 minutes at a professional one.

    BYD may also raise the output target of F3DM this year in anticipation that the government's stimulus plan will boost sales, said an official within the company.

    The Chinese government plans to invest RMB10 billion, to speed up the commercialization of new energy vehicles. It aims to have 500,000 green cars on the roads by 2012. Subsidies up to RMB60,000 will be granted for purchasing a new energy vehicle.

    MidAmerican Energy Holdings Co, a subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway Inc that is controlled by Warren Buffett, holds a 10% stake in BYD."
     
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