China's Advanced Sciences

Discussion in 'China' started by Martian, Apr 16, 2010.

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    Sexual preference chemical found in mice

    BBC News - Sexual preference chemical found in mice

    "Sexual preference chemical found in mice
    23 March 2011
    Last updated at 14:03 ET

    A chemical in the brain controls sexual preference in mice, according to scientists in China.

    [​IMG]
    Serotonin controls a male mouse's choice of partner

    Male mice bred without serotonin lose their preference for females, a report in Nature says.

    The researchers say it is the first time that a neurotransmitter has been shown to play a role in sexual preference in mammals.


    Experts have warned about the dangers of drawing conclusions about human sexuality.

    The research team first bred male mice whose brains were not receptive to serotonin.

    A series of experiments demonstrated that these mice had lost the preference for females shown by unmodified males.

    When presented with a choice of partners, they showed no overall preference for either males or females.

    When just a male was introduced into the cage, the modified males were far more likely to mount the male and emit a "mating call" normally given off when encountering females than unmodified males were.

    Similar results were achieved when a different set of mice were bred. These lacked the tryptonphan hydroxylase 2 gene, which is needed to produce serotonin.

    However, a preference for females could be "restored" by injecting serotonin into the brain.

    The report concludes: "Serotonergic signalling is crucial for male sexual preference in mice. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that a neurotransmitter in the brain has been demonstrated to be important in mammalian sexual preference."

    Humans

    Sexual behaviour in mice is thought to be driven by their sense of smell.

    Professor Keith Kendrick, a neuroscientist at the Babraham Institute in Cambridge, said: "In terms of having potential relevance to understanding human sexual preference/orientation, we are of course far less influenced by odour cues in this context than mice are.

    "There is some very limited evidence for altered responses to selective serotonin uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the brains of homosexuals, but we have been using psychoactive drugs which either increase or decrease serotonin function for quite some time now, and while effects on sexual arousal, impulsivity and aggression have often been reported, no effects on sexual preference/orientation have.

    'At this time therefore any potential links between serotonin and human sexual preferences must be considered somewhat tenuous.'"
     
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    A Radical Kind of Reactor

    http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/25/business...5chinanuke.html

    "A Radical Kind of Reactor
    By KEITH BRADSHER
    Published: March 24, 2011

    [​IMG]
    Dr. Xu Yuanhui of Chinergy with one of the "pebbles" or fuel elements that power the reactor.
    (Photo credit: Shiho Fukada for The New York Times)

    SHIDAO, China — While engineers at Japan’s stricken nuclear power plant struggle to keep its uranium fuel rods from melting down, engineers in China are building a radically different type of reactor that some experts say offers a safer nuclear alternative.

    The technology will be used in two reactors here on a peninsula jutting into the Yellow Sea, where the Chinese government is expected to let construction proceed even as the world debates the wisdom of nuclear power.


    Rather than using conventional fuel rod assemblies of the sort leaking radiation in Japan, each packed with nearly 400 pounds of uranium, the Chinese reactors will use hundreds of thousands of billiard-ball-size fuel elements, each cloaked in its own protective layer of graphite.

    The coating moderates the pace of nuclear reactions and is meant to ensure that if the plant had to be shut down in an emergency, the reaction would slowly stop on its own and not lead to a meltdown.

    The reactors will also be cooled by nonexplosive helium gas instead of depending on a steady source of water — a critical problem with the damaged reactors at Japan’s Fukushima Daiichi power plant. And unlike those reactors, the Chinese reactors are designed to gradually dissipate heat on their own, even if coolant is lost.

    If the new plants here prove viable, China plans to build dozens more of them in coming years.

    The technology under construction here, known as a pebble-bed reactor, is not new. Germany, South Africa and the United States have all experimented with it, before abandoning it over technical problems or a lack of financing.

    But as in many other areas of alternative energy, including solar panels and wind turbines, China is now taking the lead in actually building the next-generation technology. The government has paid for all of the research and development costs for the two pebble-bed reactors being built here, and will cover 30 percent of the construction costs.

    Despite Japan’s crisis, China still plans to build as many as 50 nuclear reactors over the next five years — more than the rest of the world combined. Most of this next wave will be of more conventional designs.

    But if the pebble-bed approach works as advertised, and proves cost effective, China hopes it can eventually adopt the technology on a broad scale to make nuclear power safer and more feasible as it deals with the world’s fastest growing economy and the material expectations of its 1.3 billion people.

    [​IMG]

    Western environmentalists are divided on the safety of pebble-bed nuclear technology.

    Thomas B. Cochran, the senior scientist on nuclear power for the Natural Resources Defense Council, an American group, said that such reactors would probably be less dangerous than current nuclear plants, and might be better for the environment than coal-fired plants.

    “Over all, in terms of design,â€￾ he said, “it would appear to be safer, with the following caveat: the safety of any nuclear plant is not just a function of the design but also of the safety culture of the plant.â€￾

    The executives overseeing construction of the new Chinese reactors say that engineers are already being trained to oversee the extensively computerized controls for the plant, using a simulator at a test reactor that has been operating for a decade near Beijing, apparently without mishap.

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    Engineers have been trained to oversee the controls on a test pebble-bed reactor that has been operating for a decade near Beijing.
    (Photo credit: Shiho Fukada for The New York Times)

    [​IMG]
    Students look at an experimental reactor project built at Tsinghua University, north of Beijing.
    (Photo credit: Shiho Fukada for The New York Times)

    But Greenpeace, the international environmentalist group, opposes pebble-bed nuclear reactors, questioning whether any nuclear technology can be truly safe. Wrapping the uranium fuel in graphite greatly increases the volume of radioactive waste eventually requiring disposal, said Heinz Smital, a Greenpeace nuclear technology specialist in Germany.

    But he said the waste is far less radioactive per ton than spent uranium fuel rods — one of the big sources of trouble at the Fukushima Daiichi plant.

    China is building a repository for high-level nuclear waste, like conventional fuel rods, in the country’s arid west. But the far less radioactive spheres, or pebbles, like those from the Shidao reactors will not require such specialized storage; China plans to store the used pebbles initially at the power plants, and later at lower-level radioactive waste disposal sites near the reactors.

    Whatever fears the rest of the world may have about China’s nuclear ambitions, the environmental cost-benefit analysis contains at least one potential positive: More nukes would let China reduce the heavy reliance on coal and other fossil fuels that now make it the world’s biggest emitter of global-warming gases.

    “China epitomizes the stark choices that we face globally in moving away from current forms of coal-based electricity,â€￾ said Jonathan Sinton, the top China specialist at the International Energy Agency in Paris. “Nuclear is an essential alternativeâ€￾ to coal, he said. “It’s the only one that can provide the same quality of electricity at a similar scale in the medium and long term.â€￾

    Chinese leaders have been largely unwilling to engage in the global debate on climate change. But they have made a priority of reducing urban air pollution — which kills thousands of people every year and is largely caused by burning coal — and of improving mine safety. Coal mining accidents killed more than 2,400 people in China last year alone.

    China’s biggest electric company, the state-owned Huaneng Group, now aims to prove that the technology can work on a commercial scale by building the two pebble-bed reactors — each capable of meeting the residential power needs of an American city of 75,000 to 100,000 people. The reactors are expected to go into operation in about four years.

    The plants’ foundations have already been laid
    , their steel reinforcing bars pointing skyward, on a desolate landscape dominated by thatch-roofed huts and last season’s cornfields. Chinese safety regulations require that all nuclear plants be located at least 30 miles from the nearest city, in this case Rongcheng, which has a population of one million.

    It was only three days after a tsunami swamped Japan’s Fukushima Daiichi plant that China’s legislature approved its five-year plan calling for dozens of new nuclear reactors. As the severity of that crisis became evident, Beijing said it would “temporarily suspend“ the approval of new nuclear reactors, but would allow construction to proceed at more than two dozen other nuclear projects already under way.

    By coincidence, China’s cabinet and its national energy bureau had both given final approval for the pebble-bed reactors here in Shidao in the two weeks before the earthquake, said Xu Yuanhui, the father of China’s pebble-bed nuclear program.

    China’s nuclear safety agency has met since the Japanese earthquake and reviewed the Shidao’s project plans and site preparation, and has indicated it will be the next project to receive safety clearance.

    “The conclusion is clear that it is all ready to start to pour concrete,â€￾ said Dr. Xu, a former Tsinghua University professor who is now the vice general manager of Chinergy, the contractor building the reactors here.

    Germany led the initial research into pebble-bed nuclear reactors and built its own research version in the 1960s. That reactor closed after an accident, caused by a jammed fuel pebble that released traces of radiation — coincidentally nine days after the Chernobyl accident in 1986, at a time of greatly increased worry about nuclear safety. Dr. Xu said that China, learning from the German mishap, had designed its reactors to keep the pebbles from jamming.

    South Africa tried hard until last summer to build a pebble-bed reactor but ran into serious cost overruns.

    In the United States, the federal government and companies have spent heavily on pebble-bed research. But there has been little appetite for actually building new nuclear reactors — of any sort — since the Three Mile Island accident in 1979.

    “The Chinese had a determination to build, to show the technology to work, and a commitment to get it done,â€￾ said Andrew Kadak, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology nuclear engineer specializing in pebble-bed reactors. 'In the U.S. we didn’t have, and still don’t have, the commitment.'â€￾
     
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    China's installed daily desalination capacity reaches 524,000 tonnes

    [​IMG]
    Desalination and power plant in Tianjin, China.
    (Photograph: Jonathan Watts for the Guardian)

    [​IMG]
    Tianjin Dagang NewSpring Seawater Desalination Plant

    China's installed daily desalination capacity reaches 524,000 tonnes - People's Daily Online

    "China's installed daily desalination capacity reaches 524,000 tonnes
    March 22, 2011

    China has built sea water desalination facilities with a combined daily capacity of producing 524,000 tonnes of fresh water, said a senior technology official in north China's Tianjin Municipality on Monday.

    Li Baochun, deputy director of the Tianjin Municipal Commission of Science and Technology, said Tianjin's current desalination capacity accounts for 41 percent of the country's total, and the city plans to nearly double its capacity to 480,000 tonnes by 2015.

    Li made the remark when announcing that 300 representatives from 14 countries and regions, including the United States, Japan, the Republic of Korea, have registered to take part in the 2011 International Desalination and Water Reuse Forum to be held in Tianjin from April 6 to 7. Li said the city has also proposed to host the International Desalination Association World Congress in 2013.

    Tianjin, with per-capita water availability of 160 cubic meters, is on the list of Chinese cities facing a severe water shortage.

    Li said that sea water desalination has become one of the key solutions to addressing the water shortage.

    Source: Xinhua"
     
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    China on course to overtake U.S. as world's leading scientific superpower

    China on course to overtake U.S. as world's leading scientific superpower | Mail Online

    [​IMG]
    China has rocketed into second place in the number of articles published in international science magazines

    "China on course to overtake U.S. as world's leading scientific superpower
    By Daily Mail Reporter
    Last updated at 1:12 PM on 29th March 2011

    China is fast becoming a scientific superpower and now ranks second only to the U.S. in its share of published research, it was revealed today.

    A decade ago the country was number six in the league table of authorship in recognised scientific journals.

    Today it has ousted Japan as the second most prolific scientific nation and could overtake the long-dominant U.S. as soon as 2013, according to a report by the Royal Society.

    Britain, meanwhile, has maintained its position in third place.

    [​IMG]
    Fast rising: China has ousted Japan as the second most prolific scientific nation and could overtake the long-dominant U.S. as soon as 2013

    Science is also flourishing in Brazil, India and several countries in Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, which until recently made little or no contribution to global research.

    One of the big surprises in the report, entitled Knowledge, Networks And Nations: Global Scientific Collaboration In The 21st Century, is what has happened in Iran.

    The Islamic nation has the fastest growth in scientific output in the world. Between 1996 and 2008, the number of research publications produced in Iran shot up from 736 to 13,238.

    Iran has said it is committed to a 'comprehensive plan for science' which will see research and development investment increased from less than 1 per cent to 4 per cent of its gross domestic product by 2030.

    Despite fears of Iran's nuclear intentions, Iranian scientists were increasingly working with their counterparts in the U.S., and had even teamed up with colleagues in Israel.

    The changes reflect an emerging new world order in science, emphasising collaboration between nations which have different areas of expertise.

    Professor Sir Chris Llewellyn Smith, who chaired the advisory group which compiled the report, said: 'The scientific world is changing and new players are fast appearing.

    'Beyond the emergence of China, we see the rise of south-east Asian, Middle Eastern, North African and other nations.

    'The increase in scientific research and collaboration, which can help us to find solutions to the global challenges we now face, is very welcome.

    'However, no historically dominant nation can afford to rest on its laurels if it wants to retain the competitive economic advantage that being a scientific leader brings.'

    [​IMG]
    Scientists work at the Beijing Aerospace Control Centre. China has a 10.2 per cent share of published science, shortly behind the U.S. with 21.2 per cent

    The report compares percentages of global publication authorship between 1993-2003 and 2004-2008, ranking the top ten countries in order.

    It shows that although the U.S. is still out in front its share of published science has fallen from 26.4 per cent to 21.2 per cent.

    China has a 10.2 per cent share followed by the UK with 6.5 per cent. The UK's contribution fell slightly by 0.6 per cent between the two periods.

    Japan, now ranked fourth, has 6.1 per cent of publications.

    Speaking at a news conference at the Royal Society's London headquarters, Sir Chris said: 'We have maintained our position as number two in terms of publications and citations.

    'The Government would like to say we're getting more bang for our buck. But I think we must absolutely not be complacent, because other countries are coming up very fast.'

    In an increasingly interconnected world, science is becoming more and more collaborative, the evidence shows. Collaborative research now accounts for around 35 per cent of articles published in international journals.

    Collaboration brought several benefits, such as the ability to share different skills and areas of specialist knowledge, said the report.

    'The more countries there are involved in science the more innovations we will have and the better off we shall be,' said Sir Chris.

    The need to keep science global meant it made no sense to bar highly skilled foreign scientists from the UK. Sir Chris said the Government had now got the balance right after listening to scientists opposed to draconian visa restrictions.

    He added: 'It's in all our interests to keep the doors open and continue to attract the best people.'
     
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    New Haier 3D television with backlit technology offers a movie-like experience

    New Haier 3D television with backlit technology offers a movie-like experience

    "New Haier 3D television with backlit technology offers a movie-like experience
    by Swati Mahaseth
    Tuesday, 15 March 2011

    Haier has come up with its latest variety of televisions for a rich multimedia experience. Haier guarantees a movie-like situation in its new 3D environment. The television was recently announced at an event that marked the company’s arrival into the 3D market.

    An integrated 3D backlit technology has been used that promises a rich 3D experience. High definition is also possible in the set with 1080p as its specification giving it a colorful new look. Haier is quite new to this technology and as a result the company plans to bring in more number of new sets this year.

    [​IMG]
    Haier LE55A310 3D TV

    Multimedia experience has also been given priority in this set. The 3D television has an SRS TruSurround XT technology inbuilt that provides surround sound with theatre like simulation. It is also provided with 3 HDMI connections allowing users to connect the set with various other gadgets and speakers thereby giving it a true surround feel.

    Another interesting feature given into new Haier 3D television is the USB 2.0. Using this port, hard drives, pen drives and flash drives can be connected. As a result, now one can listen and view his own songs and videos through the USB.

    Consumer durables market worth Rs 20,000 crores in India is the prime target of Haier. And, with sources revealing that this coming July will see a new Chinese executive into India as the CEO of the company, Haier is probably thinking of making some adjustments with the management. The new 3D television and all new products require an effective technical knowhow and Haier seems to be in line with this thought. The company is worth $12.8 billion and if market assessments of experts are to be believed, then Haier will continue to produce such innovative technology-led products this year."
     
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    China Wins 2010 Clean Energy Race With $54.4 Billion in Funding

    China Wins 2010 Clean Energy Race With $54.4 Billion in Funding | Fast Company

    "China Wins 2010 Clean Energy Race With $54.4 Billion in Funding
    BY Ariel Schwartz
    Tue Mar 29, 2011

    [​IMG]
    Wind power plants in Xinjiang, China
    [Photo credit from Wikipedia: 林 慕尧 / Chris Lim from East Coast (东海岸), Singapore (新加坡)]

    Add renewable energy to the list of industries in which China is now coming out on top of the U.S. While China is still home to thousands of pollution-spewing factories, it's also now churning out wind turbines and solar panels at a world-record pace. According to The Pew Charitable Trusts' just-released Who's Winning the Clean Energy Race 2010 report--the country's private investment in clean energy soared in 2010, increasing by 39% from the previous year to $54.4 billion in funding. It's an impressive number, but clean energy investment isn't lagging elsewhere, either.

    According to the report, the worldwide clean energy sector grew 30% from 2009 to $243 billion worth of finance and investment in technologies like wind, solar, biofuel, and geothermal. "The sector is marked by pretty explosive growth," says Phyllis Cuttino, Program Director of the Pew Clean Energy Program.

    [​IMG]
    The United States has fallen to third place last year -- from second in 2009 -- for its investments in clean energy sources such as solar and wind, reports the Pew Charitable Trusts.

    Asia is clearly the region to watch. In 2010, clean energy investment increased 33% over 2009 to $82.8 billion. In 2009, the region surpassed the Americas for the first time, and in 2010, investment grew faster than in Europe. The European region is still the leader for clean energy finance this year, with $94.4 billion in investments (mostly helped along by investments in small scale distributed capacity projects like rooftop solar panels), but Asia is quickly catching up.

    From a national standpoint, the top three countries are China, Germany and the U.S., in that order. Again, Asia slipped past its competitors in recent years. The U.S. used to lead the sector until 2009, when China displaced it. This year, Germany beat the U.S., and China took the top spot. The reason? "National policies really matter. If you don't have one like in the U.S., it matters," says Cuttino.

    Germany, for example, relies on a national feed-in tariff program, which lures homeowners and businesses into using renewables by offering above-market rates for feeding their excess clean energy back to the grid. And China's national action plan is helping the country use more hydro, wind, and solar power. The country has goals of 150 gigawatts of wind capacity by 2020 (it looks like they're going to meet this goal five years early) and 20 gigawatts of solar by 2020. For comparision, the U.S. currently has .6 gigawatts of solar and 33 gigawatts of wind. "China has an aggressive renewable energy target that investors have flooded in to help them meet," explains Cuttino.

    The U.S. is lagging in this arena, lacking a comprehensive renewable energy policy and continuing to offer government cash to fossil fuel-based energy sources. But all isn't lost domestically. Clean energy investments did rise 51% between 2009 and 2010 to $34 billion. The fact that that was only enough to give the U.S. third place shows just how rapidly the clean energy sector is growing. And that's good news for everyone."
     
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    This Cotton Repels Water and Sun

    This Cotton Repels Water and Sun : Discovery News

    "This Cotton Repels Water and Sun
    Analysis by Nic Halverson
    Thu Apr 7, 2011 10:00 AM ET

    [​IMG]
    Water droplets on cotton (Photo: Lingling Wang)

    Washing loads of clothes and getting a sunburn have never been particularly enjoyable experiences. However, scientists have developed a coating for cotton fibers that could not only lighten your laundry load, but protect your skin from the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays.

    Using the water-repellent and UV-blocking functions of zinc oxide nanorods, researchers from Northeast Normal University in China created a coating for textiles that not only mimicks the water-repelling nature of the lotus leaf, but was found to have a UV protection factor (UPF) of 101.51, double the highest possible rating.

    Previous experiments have created self-cleaning, UV-repellent fabrics through a surface application of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide films. But when team leader Lingling Wang and the rest of the research team modified cotton textiles with zinc oxide nanorods and dumbell-shaped zinc oxide crystallites, they found the material could potentially block a wider range of UV rays.

    However, doing so meant carefully suppressing the photoactivity of zinc oxide, which reacts with sunlight in a way that compromises the water repellant nature of the nanorods. So they coated the nanorods with with a silica shell that not only effectively blocks the photoactivity of zinc oxide, but helps it retain hydrophobicity.

    The scientists believe this technology will be useful in the surface modification of cotton textiles, creating durable, multifunctional fabrics with enhanced superhydrophobic and UV-ray blocking properties."
     
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    China launches eighth satellite for indigenous global navigation, positioning network

    China launches eighth satellite for indigenous global navigation, positioning network

    "China launches eighth satellite for indigenous global navigation, positioning network
    English.news.cn 2011-04-10 06:28:50

    [​IMG]
    A Long March-3A carrier rocket lifts off at the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in southwest China's Sichuan Province, Apr. 10, 2010. China successfully launched into space an eighth orbiter for its independent satellite navigation and positioning network known as Beidou, or Compass System here Saturday. (Xinhua/Luo Xiaoguang)

    [​IMG]
    A Long March-3A carrier rocket lifts off at the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in southwest China's Sichuan Province, Apr. 10, 2010. (Xinhua/Luo Xiaoguang)

    XICHANG, Sichuan, April 10 (Xinhua) -- China early Sunday morning successfully launched its eighth orbiter which will form part of its indigenous satellite-navigation and -positioning network.

    A Long March-3A carrier rocket carrying the "Beidou," or Compass, navigation satellite took off at 4:47 a.m. Sunday from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in southwest China's Sichuan Province.

    It will join seven other satellites already in orbit to form a network which will eventually consist of more than 30 satellites.

    The launching of the satellite marks the establishment of a basic system for the navigation and positioning network, said an unidentified spokesperson for the Xichang Satellite Launch Center.

    China will launch more satellites within the coming two years to finish a regional network to provide navigation services with high precision and credibility for industries and sectors such as mapping, fishery, transportation, meteorology and telecommunication, in the Asia-Pacific regions, the spokesperson said.

    The network is scheduled to be able to provide global services by 2020.

    Editor: yan"
     
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    World's largest rocket production base takes shape in northern China

    [​IMG]
    A Chinese rocket awaiting launch.

    World's largest rocket production base takes shape in northern China

    "World's largest rocket production base takes shape in northern China
    2011-03-03 17:23:22

    BEIJING, March 3 (Xinhua) -- The world's largest design, production and testing base for rockets is being built in northern China's Tianjin Municipality, Liang Xiaohong, deputy head of the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, told Xinhua Thursday.

    The first phase of the rocket industrial base in Tianjin's Binhai New Area will be completed within the year. Rocket parts will be designed, manufactured, assembled and tested at the base, Liang said.

    Twenty of the 22 plants have been completed, and some of them are ready for operation. The base is designed to meet China's growing demand in space technology research and development for the next 30 to 50 years, he added.

    By integrating the industrial chain, the base will be able to produce a whole spectrum of rockets of different sizes and types for China's moon probe project, space station and other projects, he said.

    China's new rockets, including Long March IV, will be designed and manufactured in the 200-hectare base, he said."
     
    Last edited: Apr 12, 2011
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    Video of China's 120-Ton Liquid Oxygen/Kerosene Rocket Engine Test

    Video of China's 120-Ton Liquid Oxygen/Kerosene Rocket Engine Test

    The video may load slowly. Please be patient. The action starts 35 seconds (after the water release) into the video. It is one of the most impressive videos that I have seen.

    [video]http://video.sina.com.cn/v/b/47542992-1738778381.html[/video]

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    China Developing New Rocket Engines « Aerospace Blog

    "China Developing New Rocket Engines
    January 10, 2011, 10:22 pm

    [​IMG]
    Photo Credit: CASC (China Aerospace Science & Technology Corp.)

    China is advancing its space capabilities by developing staged combustion, an engine technology that is likely to offer greater performance for the Long March 6 and 7, two of a family of launchers that the country will field around the middle of the decade.

    The smaller of the two, the Long March 6, may be the first to go into service, beating the flagship third member of the family, the Long March 5 heavy launcher.

    A new 18-metric-ton-thrust engine “is a high-altitude liquid oxygen and kerosene engine with a staged combustion cycle and has been indigenously designed by China,” says national space contractor CASC.

    If successfully executed, this technology would offer a high specific impulse, a key measure of rocket performance that compares the duration and level of thrust with the mass of fuel consumed in generating it. The practical result should be a greater payload to orbit for a launcher of a given size. The improved performance will probably be essential for China’s next generation of launchers to be competitive as the technology becomes increasingly common in the future.

    As a liquid-fuel engine, the powerplant has limited meaning for China’s military capabilities. Modern missiles generally have solid propellants. But the development underscores the country’s ability to catch up with advanced foreign aerospace technology.

    It can be assumed that development of the staged-combustion engine is going well, because CASC would not discuss a problem-ridden program that had hitherto received minimal attention, and because two rocket-building subsidiaries, SAST and CALT, are speaking optimistically of getting the related launchers into service within three or four years.

    Shanghai-based SAST says its development of the Long March 6 is progressing smoothly and that the light launcher may become operational before the Long March 5.

    The Long March 6 will be able to loft 1,000-kg. (2,200-lb.) payloads to an orbit of 600 km. (370 mi.) altitude, says SAST Vice President Meng Guang. The first launch of the Long March 5 heavy rocket is due in 2014 after a development program that began in 2007. Development of Long March 6 began in 2009, exploiting engines and stage modules already designed for the Long March 5.

    The core of Long March 6 will use the standard 3.35-meter (11-ft.) diameter of the current Long March series, Meng and other SAST officials say. That means it will be based on the K3 stage module, the larger of two kerosene-fueled modules that SAST and CALT are developing for the launcher family.

    A scheme for the family discussed in 2007 suggested that the smaller of its three launchers—now identified as Long March 6—would be based on the smallest, 2.25-meter-dia. module, K2, but the plan has obviously changed. The modules can serve as boosters or core stages.

    Despite the rise in diameter, the first stage of Long March 6 will presumably be propelled by the single YF100 engine generating 120 metric tons (265,000 lb.) of thrust previously associated with the light rocket. The upper stage will have a smaller engine, says Meng, without giving details. CALT Vice President Hao Zhaoping has said that the medium-heavy Long March 7 will use an 18-ton engine for its second stage.

    Since CASC says the staged-combustion engine will have a thrust of 18 tons and will be used on “new-generation launch vehicles,” it should be the powerplant for the second stages of Long March 6 and 7. One foreign rocket engineer calculates that the Long March 7 would need two of the 18-ton engines for its second stage.

    The Long March 5 has core stages fed by liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, another technology route to high specific impulse. Kerosene-fueled modules with YF100s serve as its boosters.

    Staged combustion avoids the usual waste of fuel or oxygen used to drive the pumps in an engine with the conventional gas-generator cycle. To avoid overheating, the mixture in that process in any liquid-fuel rocket is deliberately not optimal. It must have either too much oxygen or too much fuel, one of which is therefore partly wasted as the exhaust is dumped overboard.

    In staged combustion, that still-usable exhaust is instead fed into the main combustion chamber, driving up pressure and burning a second time to maximize impulse from the available tankage. The principle sounds simple, but in practice it presents great challenges in handling the hot, high-pressure exhaust. Staged combustion engines in service include the Russian RD-180, used on the Atlas V, and the Space Shuttle Main Engine.

    Chinese engineers probably chose to use the technology first in a smaller engine because high specific impulses in upper stages have the greatest effect on payload, and because a smaller engine would be easier to develop. The foreign engineer estimates that the engine will offer 15-20% higher specific impulse than an otherwise equivalent kerosene engine, and 10-15% greater payload to low Earth orbit, although another rocket propulsion specialist, from the U.S., thinks that with only a second stage using staged combustion, the payload advantage is likely to be 5-10%.

    It is not known whether the Chinese engineers have chosen an oxygen- or kerosene-rich mixture for the pre-combustion. The former has advantages but is considered harder to develop.

    The Chinese staged-combustion engine “adopts many advanced technologies, such as forced start and optimal stage transfer,” says CASC, giving neither the engine’s name nor the identity of the institute that developed it. The engine can operate for a long time, it adds. “It can regulate the thrust mixture ratio, supply a working medium for tank pressurization and provide a power supply for the servomechanism,” the hydraulics.

    Optimal stage transfer implies that the engine is just the right size to propel its stage. Forced starting may mean restarting, which an upper-stage engine will often have to do, while the regulated mixture ratio implies that the Chinese powerplant has an advanced capability to accept propellants at imperfect ratios—maximizing its use of tankage even if the oxygen supply is reduced by boiling off.

    A second U.S. rocket engineer interprets the reference to servomechanism power as meaning that the engine feeds high-pressure kerosene from the pump outlet, uses it as a working fluid in the actuators, and then sends it back for combustion. Several Russian engines have such a function, instead of a completely separate hydraulic system.

    The design of the engine in general shows signs of Russian practice. It is not known whether that is because Russia has helped China with the program or because Chinese engineers simply like Russian features.

    Manufacture of the Long March 7 has not yet been assigned to either SAST (Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology) or CALT (China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology), both subsidiaries of CASC (China Aerospace Science & Technology Corp.)."

    Note: Thank you to "Marchpole" for the post.
     
  11. Martian
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    China's 2009 Space Atomic Clock

    Link to source: Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Development of new type space atomic clock

    2009-09-14


    [​IMG]
    Experiment device of coherent population trap Rb atom clock​

    The space atomic clock is widely used in different application fields such as navigation satellite system, deep-space application, ocean surveillance, and satellite gravity measurement. In order to solve the main problems limiting the stability of the traditional space rubidium atomic clock, two new types of space atomic clock, CPT (coherent population trapping) maser and POP (pulsed optically pumped) maser, are under development in the National Time Service Center. The CPT maser RF spectrum and POP free-induced decay signal, the symbolic signals of CPT and POP, were the second such types after the Italian INRIM in China. Now the locking and optimization of these two clock systems are going on. The low-phase noise synthesis chain is one of the best in the world. New type extended cavity diode laser is applying for patent of invention.

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    China's new 2010 proposed design for space atomic clock: http://www.opticsinfobase.org/col/abstract.cfm?uri=col-8-8-735

    [​IMG]
     
    Last edited: Apr 13, 2011
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    Inner Mongolia becomes China's first region with 10GW grid-access wind power capacity

    Now that 10GW of wind turbines in Inner Mongolia have been "connected to the power grid," the wind-energy supply will become available to faraway users in the heavily-populated eastern seaboard and displace carbon-emitting coal-fired power generation. By the way, "the average full-size nuclear power plant delivers 1 GW of electric power." 10GW are equivalent to 10 nuclear power plants.

    This is an important milestone, because it means that China's power grid is "catching up" and being extended to the installed wind-power base. As more gigawatts of already-installed wind turbines are connected to the power grid, they will continue to displace more coal-based power generators.

    [​IMG]
    According to new data released today by Greenpeace and the Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association (CREIA), China installed 16 GW of new wind power capacity in 2010, bringing its total capacity to 41.8 GW – thus making it the largest wind-installation country in the world. However, Greenpeace points out that to translate these installations into massive utilization, serious challenges such as grid access difficulties must be immediately and effectively tackled. (Pictured: Chifeng Wind Farm, Inner Mongolia)

    Inner Mongolia becomes China's first region with 10GW grid-access wind power capacity

    "Inner Mongolia becomes China's first region with 10GW grid-access wind power capacity
    English.news.cn 2011-04-10 09:17:07

    BEIJING, April 10 (Xinhua) -- Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in north China has become the country's first province-level region to have over 10GW of wind turbines installed and connected to the power grid.

    This makes up about one third of China's total grid-access wind installed capacity, according to figures from the autonomous regional government.

    By the end of February 2011, Inner Mongolia had 10.9GW wind turbines integrated to the grid, including 4.8GW installed in 2010.

    The region has 150GW of exploitable wind power resources, about half of the country's onshore exploitable wind power resources.


    Inner Mongolia hosts two of the country's eight 10GW-level wind power bases.

    Over the past six years, Inner Mongolia realized more than 100 percent of annual growth rate in grid-access wind power installation. Five of its cities had their respective grid-access wind capacity exceeding 1GW.

    In 2010, wind farms in Inner Mongolia generated 19.92 billion kwh of wind power, up 73.2 percent year on year.

    The region plans to build another 3.5GW of wind farms this year.

    Editor: Chen Zhi"
     
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    China's CKX5680 Digitally Controlled 7-axis Contour Milling Machine

    China's CKX5680 Digitally Controlled 7-axis Contour Milling Machine

    The Wuhan Heavy Industry Corp. just made a breakthrough in an 863 Project. This is the CKX5680 Digitally Controlled 7-axis Contour Milling machine. This is significant as it is specialised in building ship propellers, like this one, for aircraft carriers and submarines. They are much more precise than those 5-axis machines.

    [Note: Thank you to "pugachev_diver" for the post.]
     
    Last edited: Apr 14, 2011
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    CET International

    China seals Brazil dam deal - GlobalTimes

    "China seals Brazil dam deal
    By Song Shengxia
    Source: Global Times
    [01:24 April 15 2011]

    China's leading ultra-high voltage (UHV) electricity transmission technologies will be used in a hydroelectric dam project in Brazil, the State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC) announced Wednesday.

    The SGCC's technologies will be used at the Belo Monte Dam in the Amazon River Basin to transmit electricity 2,000 kilometers away to Brazil's developed regions in the south and southeast, according to an agreement between SGCC and Brazil's state-owned energy company Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras (Eletrobras) signed in Beijing Wednesday.

    "The SGCC is a world leader in UHV electricity transmission and smart grid technologies, so we invited it to participate in the project," said Edison Lobao, Brazil's minister for mines and energy who accompanied Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff to attend the meeting in Hainan Province Thursday of emerging "BRICS" economies (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa).
    ...
    "Brazil's plan to develop its hydraulic energy and power plants requires leading UHV electricity transmission technologies, which China has, making it a foundation for the two countries to cooperate in the field," the statement said.

    China has mastered the core technologies of UHV electricity transmission and the capacity to manufacture them over the past five years. It has also built and operated three UHV alternating and direct current transmission lines, which can achieve large-scale, long-distance power transmission.

    The SGCC is also the world's largest utility company and operates the largest power grid in the world....
    "

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    About CET - CET International

    CET International, registered as China Electric Power Equipment and Technology Co., Ltd., provides all types of products & services, including financing that can make your T&D ambition come true.

    As a wholly-owned subsidiary of SGCC (State Grid Corporation of China) www.sgcc.com.cn), CET International is a result of consolidating different resources SGCC has on design, engineering, testing/certification, manufacturing and financing for transmission projects.

    CET International also has two publicly traded subsidiaries, XJ Group Corporation and Henan Pinggao Electric Co., Ltd.

    CET International, functions as a prime contractor, built the 1000kV AC transmission line and +/- 800kV HVDC and several +/- 500kV HVDC transmission projects.

    [​IMG]

    CET International has extensive experience in EHV AC and HVDC power transmission turn key projects, which includes:

    • System Design
    • Engineering Design
    • Equipment Manufacturing
    • Manufacture Supervising
    • Civil Construction
    • Project Management

    CET International demonstrated these abilities in building the world's first commercialized 1000kV AC transmission line and the world's first +/- 800 kV HVDC transmission line.

    CET manufactures typical T&D equipment which include:

    • EHV Power Transformers
    [​IMG]

    • EHV GIS and Switchgears
    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    • HVDC Valves & FACTS (SVC, STATCOM, Etc.)
    [​IMG]

    • HVDC Smoothing Reactors
    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    • Steel Towers
    [​IMG]

    • Wind Turbine & Converters - 2.0 MW
    [​IMG]

    After almost twenty years of development and technology licensing, CET has the capability to deliver a complete HVDC/FACTS solution from design to manufacturing and commissioning.

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    CET built this 1000kV transmission line in Sept. 2006 and it has been in operation since January 2009. Here is the summary:

    1000kV AC line: 640km

    Design Ratings: 2800 MW
    Two Substations and One Switching Station

    Construction Began: Sept. 2006

    In operation: Jan. 2009

    Typical Equipment List:

    * Single Phase 1000MVA 1000kV Transformers

    * 1000kV GIS/HGIS

    * 1000kV 320/240/200 MVar Oil Shunt Reactors

    * 110kV Air Core Shunt Reactors
    * 8x500 mm x mm Conductors with OPGW
    * Q420 Steel Lattice Tower

    All of the design, engineering, and equipment manufacturing were performed by CET and other domestic Chinese vendors.

    [​IMG]

    Download the 1000kV project summary report
     
    Last edited: Apr 18, 2011
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    Super-Small Transistor Created: Artificial Atom Powered by Single Electrons

    Super-small transistor created: Artificial atom powered by single electrons

    "Super-Small Transistor Created: Artificial Atom Powered by Single Electrons

    ScienceDaily (Apr. 19, 2011) — A University of Pittsburgh-led team has created a single-electron transistor that provides a building block for new, more powerful computer memories, advanced electronic materials, and the basic components of quantum computers.

    [​IMG]
    An atomic-scale depiction of the SketchSET shows three wires (green bars) converging on the central island (center green area), which can house up to two electrons. Electrons tunnel from one wire to another through the island. Conditions on the third wire can result in distinct conductive properties. (Credit: Image courtesy of University of Pittsburgh)

    The researchers report in Nature Nanotechnology that the transistor's central component -- an island only 1.5 nanometers in diameter -- operates with the addition of only one or two electrons. That capability would make the transistor important to a range of computational applications, from ultradense memories to quantum processors, powerful devices that promise to solve problems so complex that all of the world's computers working together for billions of years could not crack them.

    In addition, the tiny central island could be used as an artificial atom for developing new classes of artificial electronic materials, such as exotic superconductors with properties not found in natural materials, explained lead researcher Jeremy Levy, a professor of physics and astronomy in Pitt's School of Arts and Sciences. Levy worked with lead author and Pitt physics and astronomy graduate student Guanglei Cheng, as well as with Pitt physics and astronomy researchers Feng Bi, Daniela Bogorin, and Cheng Cen. The Pitt researchers worked with a team from the University of Wisconsin at Madison led by materials science and engineering professor Chang-Beom Eom, including research associates Chung Wun Bark, Jae-Wan Park, and Chad Folkman. Also part of the team were Gilberto Medeiros-Ribeiro, of HP Labs, and Pablo F. Siles, a doctoral student at the State University of Campinas in Brazil.

    Levy and his colleagues named their device SketchSET, or sketch-based single-electron transistor, after a technique developed in Levy's lab in 2008 that works like a microscopic Etch A SketchTM, the drawing toy that inspired the idea. Using the sharp conducting probe of an atomic force microscope, Levy can create such electronic devices as wires and transistors of nanometer dimensions at the interface of a crystal of strontium titanate and a 1.2 nanometer thick layer of lanthanum aluminate. The electronic devices can then be erased and the interface used anew.

    The SketchSET -- which is the first single-electron transistor made entirely of oxide-based materials -- consists of an island formation that can house up to two electrons. The number of electrons on the island -- which can be only zero, one, or two -- results in distinct conductive properties. Wires extending from the transistor carry additional electrons across the island.

    One virtue of a single-electron transistor is its extreme sensitivity to an electric charge, Levy explained. Another property of these oxide materials is ferroelectricity, which allows the transistor to act as a solid-state memory. The ferroelectric state can, in the absence of external power, control the number of electrons on the island, which in turn can be used to represent the 1 or 0 state of a memory element. A computer memory based on this property would be able to retain information even when the processor itself is powered down, Levy said. The ferroelectric state also is expected to be sensitive to small pressure changes at nanometer scales, making this device potentially useful as a nanoscale charge and force sensor.

    The research in Nature Nanotechnology also was supported in part by grants from the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the U.S. Army Research Office, the National Science Foundation, and the Fine Foundation.

    Story Source:

    The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by University of Pittsburgh.

    Journal Reference:

    1. Guanglei Cheng, Pablo F. Siles, Feng Bi, Cheng Cen, Daniela F. Bogorin, Chung Wung Bark, Chad M. Folkman, Jae-Wan Park, Chang-Beom Eom, Gilberto Medeiros-Ribeiro, Jeremy Levy. Sketched oxide single-electron transistor. Nature Nanotechnology, 2011; DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2011.56"

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    [Note: Mr. Guanglei Cheng, the lead author, made it onto this thread because he satisfies two out of three important factors. His non-Anglicized name indicates birth in China and likely Chinese nationality. Despite his physical location in the West, Mr. Guanglei Chen is sufficiently Chinese.

    However, Mr. "David Liu, a professor of chemistry and chemical biology at Harvard University and senior author of a paper describing the new technique in Nature," does not qualify for this thread. This week, Mr. David Liu was publicized by the MIT-published Technology Review for his important work on "High-Speed Evolution Aids Drug Development: A new technique can make tailor-made proteins evolve in days, not years." (See High-Speed Evolution Aids Drug Development - Technology Review)

    Mr. David Liu's Anglicized first-name has raised reasonable doubt as to whether he was born in the West. Therefore, Mr. David Liu is not sufficiently Chinese to qualify for this thread.]
     
    Last edited: Apr 21, 2011

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