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China's Advanced Sciences

Discussion in 'China & Asia Pacific' started by Martian, Apr 16, 2010.

  1. layman

    layman Aurignacian STAR MEMBER

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    Manned submersible on scientific research voyage at Pacific Ocean

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  2. BMD

    BMD Lt. Colonel ELITE MEMBER

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    The real "laser sword"

    A Chinese company successfully made a one meter long plasma ray with temperate of 1500 °C-1800 °C.

    Currently, most companies can only create plasma ray for several CM long.

    Of course, it's not used for fighting, but has broad application in 3-D painting.

    [​IMG]
     
  3. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    TSMC Showing 20nm HKMG and 16nm FinFET Wafers at ARM TechCon - Legit Reviews

    TSMC Showing 20nm HKMG and 16nm FinFET Wafers at ARM TechCon
    Posted by Nathan Kirsch | Wed, Oct 30, 2013 - 4:31 PM

    Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. (TSMC) is at ARM TechCon showing off 20nm Soc and 16nm FinFET-based development wafers. The 20 and 16nm nodes both posed significant hurdles for TSMC, so to see wafers being produced on those nodes is a good sign. The 20nm node is the first to use double patterning, requiring more masks and additional runs under an immersion lithography machine. The 16nm node represents TSMC’s first use of FinFETs (multi-gate or tri-gate architectures) for even lower power use and higher performance.

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    TSMC has taped out several 20nm HKMG processor designs and is ready for volume production in early 2014. TSMC expects to let customers start designing and taping out 16nm FinFET chips before the end of the year and production 16nm FinFET wafers to enter production a year later in Q1 2015.

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  4. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC), with its 20nm technology, is the world leader in ARM (RISC-based) chips for mobile computing. In comparison, Intel chips are CISC (ie. complex instruction set computing) based for desktop PCs.

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    TSMC Begins Volume Production of Chips Using 20nm Process Technology

    "TSMC Begins Volume Production of Chips Using 20nm Process Technology
    January 16th, 2014 at 11:36 pm - Author Anton Shilov

    Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. on Thursday said it had begun mass production of chips using 20nm process technology ahead of its own schedule. The new fabrication process will help fabless chip designers (e.g., AMD, Nvidia, Qualcomm, etc.) to create processors with higher transistor count, lower power consumption and improved performance.

    TSMC’s 20nm technology (which the company calls CLN20SOC) is mainly designed for highly-integrated system-on-chip devices that benefit from increased transistor density. The fabrication technology relies on high-k metal gate technology that should ensure fairly high clock-rates of chips without increase of leakage currents. TSMC will offer only one version of the 20nm-class manufacturing process, which will help the company to ramp up volume production using the tech in a short period of time.

    “We have two fabs, fab 12 and fab 14 that complete the core of the 20nm-SoC. As a matter of fact, we have started production. We are in the [high]-volume [20nm] production as we speak right now,” said C. C. Wei, co-chief executive officer and co-president of TSMC.

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    At present, certain modules of TSMC’s fabs 12 and fab 16 are producing chips using 20nm process technology. The fab 15 modules 3 and 4 will initiate production using 20nm process tech sometimes in May, 2014.

    While TSMC is tight-lipped regarding nature of chips it makes using 20nm fabrication process, last year it said that the first five 20nm products will be aimed at mobile computing, CPU and PLD [programmable logic device] segments.

    TSMC expects wafers processed using 20nm process technologies to account for around 10 per cent of this year’s wafer revenue. In the fourth quarter the 20nm fabrication process is projected to account for 20 per cent of TSMC revenue."
     
  5. Rock n Rolla

    Rock n Rolla Lt. Colonel STAR MEMBER

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    ^^^ Taiwan is not part of China :hmm: :YUNO:
     
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  6. Bismarck

    Bismarck BANNED BANNED

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    There are many intelligent people who work on different topics and subjects and all of them cannot be given a Nobel prize, further getting noble prize is an honour but it is not standard to express the quality of their achievements.

    There was Black Sholes model for derivatives which was so nice that they got Nobel prize, but their model made a lot of people rich and also did help to crash the American stock market, someone then found their their model has limitations.
    Thus in hindsight, was it worth the NOBEL PRIZE?
     
  7. Averageamerican

    Averageamerican Colonel ELITE MEMBER

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    Taiwan has won a noble prize for science, but not China.

    Yuan Tseh Lee (traditional Chinese: 李遠哲; simplified Chinese: 李远哲; pinyin: Lǐ Yuǎnzhé; Wade–Giles: Li³ Yüan³-che²; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Lí Oán-tiat; born November 19, 1936) is a Taiwanese chemist. He was the first Taiwanese Nobel Prize laureate, who, along with the Hungarian-Canadian John C. Polanyi and American Dudley R. Herschbach won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1986 "for their contributions to the dynamics of chemical elementary processes". Lee's particular Physical chemistry work was related to the use of advanced chemical kinetics techniques to investigate and manipulate the behavior of chemical reactions for relative large molecules using crossed molecular beams. From January 15, 1994 to October 19, 2006, Lee served as the President of the Academia Sinica of the Taiwan (ROC). In 2011, he was elected head of the International Council for Science.
     
  8. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    Taiwan is internationally recognized as part of China. If Taiwan was not part of China, it would have its own seat at the United Nations (which it doesn't).

    Look up "One China" policy. Every major and medium-sized country follows it.

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    [See my post #7 from April 17, 2010 in this thread: http://www.indiandefence.com/forums/china/150-taiwanese-chinese.html]

    The One China situation of Mainland China and Taiwan must be looked at in the proper historical and current world context. As former President Jiang Zemin said to President Bill Clinton, Mainland China views Taiwan as being analogous to the American Civil War. For fifty years after the civil war in 1949, Taiwan had always unanimously agreed that the Chinese Civil War was unfinished. For decades, the KMT plotted to retake Mainland China by military force.

    However, in the last ten years, the bad DPP party decided to push for Taiwanese independence. You cannot just walk away from a fifty-year civil war and unilaterally declare that it is over. Just like the American Civil War, secession is not recognized unless the whole country agrees to it. Secession is illegal. Similarly, Taiwan may not secede from China. The Chinese Civil War is unfinished.

    In 1971, Taiwan was ejected from the U.N., because the world only recognizes one legitimate seat at the U.N. for China. The U.N. and the world agree with Mainland China that it is the sole representative of China and Taiwan. Hence, the consistent pledges of adherence to the "One China" principle by every major country in the world.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nation...Resolution_2758

    "United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758 of 25 October 1971 recognized the representatives of the People's Republic of China (PRC) as "the only legitimate representative of China to the United Nations" and expelled the representatives of Chiang Kai-shek "from the place which they unlawfully occupy at the United Nations".[1]"

    http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/90883/6934046.html

    "U.S. reaffirms commitment to one-China policy
    08:11, March 30, 2010

    The United States on Monday reaffirmed its commitment to the one-China policy, saying that it' s a commitment that should be the bedrock of the foundation of its relationship with China.

    "The U.S. position on one-China policy is unchanged," Deputy Secretary of State James Steinberg said at a briefing at the Foreign Press Center in downtown Washington D.C.."

    http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/03/21/...in1426114.shtml

    "Mar 21, 2006 ... Russia, China Pledge Closer Ties ... "Russia will continue the policy supporting 'one China' declared by the Chinese government ... and ..."

    http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_...n/er/111567.pdf

    "Nov 30, 2009 ... The EU reaffirmed its commitment to one China policy and ... follow-up EU-China NZEC project, and the pledge by the European Commission ..."

    http://nigeria2.mofcom.gov.cn/aarticle/Chi...0204389659.html

    "Feb 16, 2007 ... China, Japan pledge to strengthen defense exchanges ... He noted that the Japanese government has always supported the one-China policy. ..."

    http://www.twocircles.net/2008jan14/india_...ooperation.html

    "Jan 14, 2008 ... India, China Pledge To Promote Nuclear Cooperation ... New Delhi declared its adherence to "one China" policy and Beijing supported India's ..."
     
    Last edited: Feb 12, 2014
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  9. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    China's SMIC is world's fifth-largest semiconductor chip foundry | IC Insights

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    Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation (SMIC) is China's largest semiconductor manufacturer. (Photo credit: Wafer manufacturing - Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation)

    According to the latest data from IC Insights (see chart below), China's Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation (SMIC) is the world's fifth-largest semiconductor chip foundry.

    As China's largest semiconductor manufacturer, SMIC had a great year in 2013. SMIC revenue boomed year-over-year by 28% to total $1.97 billion.

    There is more good news. SMIC has started initial production of 28nm chips.

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    TSMC and GlobalFoundries Led Foundry Market in 2013 – IC Insights.

    TSMC and GlobalFoundries Led Foundry Market in 2013 – IC Insights.

    Top 13 Foundries Account for 91% of Total Foundry Sales in 2013
    [01/29/2014 11:55 PM]
    by Anton Shilov

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    [Note: IDM is an acronym for "integrated device manufacturer." An IDM manufactures semiconductor chips like a foundry and also sells the chips inside its own consumer electronics products.]

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    SMIC Starts Supplying 28nm CMOS | Electronics360

    "SMIC Starts Supplying 28nm CMOS
    Peter Clarke
    27 January 2014

    China's leading indigenous chip manufacturer Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corp. (Shanghai, China) has announced that it has completed the development of two manufacturing processes at the 28nm node and put its first 28nm multiproject wafer (MPW) run through a fab at the end of 2013.

    SMIC is now able to supply 28nm polysilicon gate and 28nm high-k dielectric metal gate (HKMG) processes and said it has a library of over 100 cores available developed by third-party IP partners and internally at SMIC.

    SMIC said the first MPW run was used by SMIC and customers for verification of process and circuits and that it would run more MPWs during 2014 but did not indicate how quickly it would move to volume production of 28nm wafers. Previously it had been reported that SMIC would gain first revenues from 28nm polysilicon-gate in 3Q14 and from 28 HKMG in 2H15.

    SMIC is offering two 28nm processes in a manner similar to Taiwan foundries TSMC and United Microelectronics Corp. and no doubt in the hope it can take some of their business on price. TSMC has dominated the ramp up of 28nm foundry manufacturing and in the fourth quarter of 2013 28nm process technology was responsible for about one third of its sales of NT$145.81 billion (about $4.8 billion). According to IHS' forecasts, the pure-play foundry revenue potential for 28nm will continue to rise with a CAGR of 19.4 percent from 2012 to 2017.

    The 28nm manufacturing processes have been mainly used for mobile and consumer equipment such as smartphones and tablet computers, set-top boxes and networking ICs. TSMC ramped the volume supply of 28nm wafers to customers in 2011 which puts SMIC about three years behind TSMC but only a couple of years behind Globalfoundries and UMC. (article continues)"

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    SMIC Unveils 28nm Readiness and MPW Milestone | Design & Reuse


    "SMIC Unveils 28nm Readiness and MPW Milestone

    SHANGHAI, Jan. 26, 2014 -- Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation ("SMIC",NYSE: SMI; SEHK: 981) , China's largest and most advanced semiconductor foundry, announced today that its 28nm technology has been process frozen and the company has successfully entered Multi Project Wafer (MPW) stage to support customer's requirements on both 28nm PolySiON (PS) and 28nm high-k dielectrics metal gate (HKMG) processes. Over 100 IPs from multiple third party IP partners as well as SMIC's internal IP team are prepared to serve various projects from worldwide design houses that have been showing interest in SMIC 28nm processes.

    28nm process technologies primarily target mobile computing and consumer electronics related applications, such as Smartphone, Tablets, TV, Set-top Boxes and networking. It provides customers high performance application processors, cellular baseband, wireless connectivity etc. According to IHS' forecasts, the pure-play foundry revenue potential for 28nm will continue to rise with a CAGR of 19.4% from 2012 to 2017.

    'I am pleased to announce the successful 28nm process milestone, which enables SMIC to better position itself in engaging and serving mobile computing related customers," said Dr. Tzu-Yin Chiu, Chief Executive Officer & Executive Director of SMIC. "As the first foundry in mainland China to offer 28nm process technologies, this significant milestone demonstrates SMIC's continuous growing capabilities in offering leading foundry technologies to worldwide IC designers.'

    "The first SMIC 28nm MPW shuttle included both 28PS and 28HKMG related customer products for verification, which was already launched at the end of 2013 as planned," said Dr. Shiuh-Wuu Lee, Executive Vice President of Technology Development of SMIC. 'By taking more MPW shuttles in 2014, we will continue to take more positive steps to strengthen and diversify our technology offerings and meet customers' growing demands on both advanced and differentiated technologies.'"
     
  10. Rock n Rolla

    Rock n Rolla Lt. Colonel STAR MEMBER

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    Is Taiwan a Country?

    On Which of the Eight Criteria Does it Fail?

    There are eight accepted criteria used to determine whether a place is an independent country (also known as a State with a capital "s") or not.

    Let us examine these eight criteria in regard to Taiwan, an island (approximately the size of the U.S. states of Maryland and Delaware combined) located across the Taiwan Strait from mainland China (the People's Republic of China).

    Taiwan developed into its modern situation following the Communist victory on the mainland in 1949 when two million Chinese Nationalists fled to Taiwan and established a government for all of China on the island. From that point and until 1971, Taiwan was recognized as "China" in the United Nations.

    Mainland China's position on Taiwan is that there is only one China and that Taiwan is part of China; the People's Republic of China is awaiting reunification of the island and mainland. However, Taiwan claims independence as a distinct State. We will now determine which is the case.

    1. Has space or territory that has internationally recognized boundaries (boundary disputes are OK).

    Somewhat. Due to political pressure from mainland China, the United States and most other significant nations recognize one China and thus include the boundaries of Taiwan as being part of the boundaries of China.

    2. Has people who live there on an ongoing basis.

    Absolutely! Taiwan is home to almost 23 million people, making it the 48th largest "country" in the world, with a population slightly smaller than North Korea but larger than Romania.

    3. Has economic activity and an organized economy. A country regulates foreign and domestic trade and issues money.

    Absolutely! Taiwan is an economic powerhouse - it's one of the four economic tigers of Southeast Asia. Its GDP per capita is among the top 30 of the world. Taiwan has its own currency, the new Taiwan dollar.

    4. Has the power of social engineering, such as education.

    Absolutely! Education is compulsory and Taiwan has more than 150 institutions of higher learning. Taiwan is home to the Palace Museum, which houses over 650,000 pieces of Chinese bronze, jade, calligraphy, painting, and porcelain.

    5. Has a transportation system for moving goods and people.

    Absolutely! Taiwan has an extensive internal and external transportation network that consists of roads, highways, pipelines, railroads, airports, and sea ports. Taiwan can ship goods, there's no question about that!

    6. Has a government that provides public services and police power.

    Absolutely! Taiwan has multiple branches of military - Army, Navy (including Marine Corps), Air Force, Coast Guard Administration, Armed Forces Reserve Command, Combined Service Forces Command, and Armed Forces Police Command. There are almost 400,000 active duty members of the military and the country spends about 15-16% of its budget on defense.

    Taiwan's main threat is from mainland China, which has approved an anti-secession law that allows a military attack on Taiwan to prevent the island from seeking independence. Additionally, the United States sells Taiwan military equipment and may defend Taiwan under the Taiwan Relations Act.

    7. Has sovereignty. No other State should have power over the country's territory.

    Mostly. While Taiwan has maintained its own control over the island from Taipei since 1949, China still claims to have control over Taiwan.

    8. Has external recognition. A country has been "voted into the club" by other countries.

    Somewhat. Since China claims Taiwan as its provoince, the international community does not want to contradict China on this matter. Thus, Taiwan is not a member of the United Nations. Plus, only 25 countries (as of early 2007) recognize Taiwan as an independent country and they recognize it as the "only" China. Due to this political pressure from China, Taiwan does not maintain an embassy in the United States and the United States (among most other countries) has not recognized Taiwan since January 1, 1979.

    However, many countries have set up unofficial organizations to carry out commercial and other relations with Taiwan. Taiwan is represented in 122 countries unofficially. Taiwan maintains contact with the United States through two through an unofficial instrumentalities - American Institute in Taiwan and the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office.

    In addition, Taiwain issues globally recognized passports that allow its citizens to travel internationally. Taiwan also is a member of the International Olympic Committee and this sends its own team to the Olympic Games.


    Recently, Taiwan has lobbied strongly for admission into international organizations such as the United Nations, which mainland China opposes.

    Therefore, Taiwan only meets five of the eight criteria fully. Another three criteria are met in some respects due to mainland China's stance on the issue.

    In conclusion, despite the controversy surrounding the island of Taiwan, its status should be considered as a de facto independent country of the world.

    :tsk: :rolleyes2:
     
  11. brahmos_ii

    brahmos_ii Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    China set to showcase world's largest and fastest 3D printer

    China is on course to build its own 3D printing industry.

    The government appears to be investing heavily in 3D printing. Last summer, a team of Chinese researchers led by Professor Yao Shan unveiled the world's largest 3D printer with a maximum processing size of 1.8 m. Unlike most other 3D printers, Professor Yao's brainchild uses a "contour scanning" technology that shortens processing time by 35 percent and reduces manufacturing costs by 40 percent.

    The processing time of traditional 3D printing is proportional to the volume of a part, while in Professor Yao's printer, processing time is proportional to the unit of surface area of a part, speeding print efficiency to 5-15 times that of traditional 3D printers. The material for this printer is common coated sand less than 1,000 yuan ($163) per ton.

    But that's nothing compared to what China is going to present soon. That may be by far the largest 3D printer yet, capable of printing metal objects up to 6 m in diameter. If it works as it is supposed to, China will be able to print out the frame of virtually any automobile.

    At present, China has several industrial 3D printers, which it has been using successfully to manufacture titanium alloy landing gear for jets, bearing frames of aircrafts as well as parts used in satellites, rockets and power plants.

    What could the 3D-printing revolution mean for China, an emerging consumption superpower?

    There may be a two-fold benefit for the country, economists say. First, it could give domestic companies a nice competitive edge. Second, it could help Chinese companies design products that are better tailored for local preferences.

    So far, China lags behind the United States in 3D printing. But having made industrial 3D printing its priority and putting so much money and effort into it, it could soon get a nice advantage thanks to its new breed of giant 3D printers.

    Read more
     
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  12. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    TSMC, SMIC, IBM, Samsung, GlobalFoundries, and UMC. Four uncertainties. Also Intel's SoFIA.

    28nm (TSMC 2011, SMIC sometime in 2014) volume production
    20nm (TSMC in January 2014) volume production
    14/16nm (TSMC 16nm FinFET in fourth quarter 2014) risk production in Dec. 2013 with volume production in fourth quarter 2014
    10nm (TSMC says they are ready to go in fourth quarter 2015) risk/trial production before ramp up

    The citation from Electronics360: "TSMC ramped the volume supply of 28nm wafers to customers in 2011 which puts SMIC about three years behind TSMC but only a couple of years behind Globalfoundries and UMC."

    Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) is the world leader in RISC-based ARM semiconductor chips for mobile phones and tablets. TSMC started volume production of 20nm in January 2014. TSMC will begin volume production of 16nm FinFET (ie. 3D chip architecture) in the fourth quarter of this year.

    I can only compare TSMC and SMIC based on the current snapshot. If SMIC is able to proceed as fast as TSMC then SMIC is three years behind TSMC, which introduced volume production of 28nm in 2011. GlobalFoundries and UMC did not start small-volume production of 28nm until early last year. They are both in the process of increasing their yield. This puts SMIC about two years behind GlobalFoundries and UMC.

    SMIC, GlobalFoundries, UMC, and Samsung license the 28nm fabrication technology from IBM. IBM has shown test-wafers of 20nm and 14nm. However, it is not clear whether the IBM wafers were memory chips (which are simple repeated patterns) or the more advanced logic chips (which are more difficult to manufacture). With a few minor exceptions, TSMC generally does not manufacture memory chips due to the lower margin.

    IBM's problem has always been taking the technology to build one cutting-edge wafer in the lab and transforming it into a reliable mass-manufacturing process. Ten years ago, IBM went into the foundry business to compete against TSMC. IBM wooed away TSMC's largest customer NVIDIA.

    However, IBM failed miserably and was late to market by six months. Due to IBM's inability to reliably mass-manufacture the semiconductor chips on its wafers, ATI (which remained a TSMC customer) surpassed NVIDIA and became the world's largest graphics card seller for that year. NVIDIA learned its lesson and moved its orders back to TSMC.

    The reason I can't give a good answer (to the question of how far SMIC lags) is that there are too many uncertainties. IBM's 20nm and 14nm technology (both gate-last) are different from its 28nm technology (gate-first). IBM was stuck at 28nm for an extra two years in comparison to TSMC (which has been consistently gate-last). Can IBM make a smooth transition from gate-first 28nm to 20nm gate-last?

    Without additional problems, IBM is currently two years behind TSMC. Technically speaking, IBM provides "consultation" services. However, the Common Platform Alliance members (ie. IBM, Samsung and GlobalFoundries) are all relying on IBM's expertise. IBM has individual licensing side-deals with UMC and SMIC.

    The issue is further complicated by IBM's recent effort to sell its chip business.

    In conclusion, there are four large uncertainties. Firstly, IBM has a history of encountering delays in transitioning from a single lab wafer to mass manufacture. Secondly, IBM's partners are currently two years behind TSMC and their yield (70%?) is probably still lower than TSMC (95%?). This means TSMC still has better technology at 28nm, lower cost for itself and customers per wafer, and higher profit margins. This gives TSMC an advantage to invest more money into R&D for the next generation of semiconductors.

    Thirdly, can IBM make a smooth transition from 28nm gate-first to 20nm gate-last? Finally, will IBM's effort to sell its chip business result in delays for the Common Platform Alliance, UMC, and SMIC?

    There is a fifth major problem. Let's say SMIC catches up to TSMC in manufacturing technology. Does that mean it's a level playing field? No. TSMC has 30 years of libraries, IP (intellectual property), and tools. That is the reason Intel's SoFIA chips will be manufactured at TSMC in 2015.

    TSMC's advantages in addition to cutting-edge 20nm RISC-based process technology.

    "TSMC is the world’s largest dedicated semiconductor foundry, providing the industry’s leading process technology and the foundry’s largest portfolio of process-proven libraries, IP, design tools and reference flows."

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    "Intel's SoFIA Could Be A Real Bombshell - Seeking Alpha

    Dec 2, 2013 - SoFIA is Intel's integrated applications processor, cellular baseband, and ... The shocker, however, is that this chip will be built at TSMC."

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    "How Intel is buying, building a piece of the tablet market | PCWorld

    Jan 18, 2014 - Intel has an ambitious goal for 2014: get its Atom chips into 40 million tablets, ... Bay Trail until new Atom chips code-named Broxton and SoFIA come out in 2015. ... not in Intel's own fabs but by contract manufacturer TSMC."
     
    Last edited: Feb 13, 2014
  13. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    China develops first mathematical proof of Universe's origin

    Proof that the Universe Could have Come from Nothing? - From Quarks to Quasars

    "Proof that the Universe Could have Come from Nothing?

    The big bang is supported by a plethora of evidence. As such, the current scientific consensus is that that universe “exploded” into existence about 13.7 billion years ago. Gravitational waves, the cosmic microwave background, and the over abundance of primordial elements all add great weight to the validity of the big bang theory. However, despite all of this evidence, scientists are still left with a nagging question: What caused the big bang? Where did all of this stuff come from?

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    Image Credit: Chaoss/Shutterstock

    Many scientists assume that the universe came from nothing, which is an idea that can only be true in light of quantum theory. Ultimately, quantum fluctuations could allow a universe to spontaneously form from nothing. However, without a mathematical proof, the idea that the universe spontaneously popped into existence has no real substance. And therein was the problem. We didn’t have the math to support the “universe from nothing” hypothesis.

    This is where Dongshan He and his team from the Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics (WIPM) comes in. They have managed to develop the first mathematical proof that the big bang could have been the result of quantum fluctuations. The Wheeler-Dewitt equation and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle are at the heart of this new proof.

    The Wheeler-Dewitt equation is the first generation of a theory of everything. In the 1960s, John Wheeler and Brice Dewitt came up with a mathematical framework that created an unholy marriage between quantum mechanics and general relativity. The equation lays a lot of the groundwork for the idea of quantum gravity (one of the main problems we have with understanding everything about everything is that we have no model to unite gravity and quantum mechanics). The equations biggest problem is that it doesn’t include time. So it’s not grand unification, but it’s the best we have right now.

    Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, on the other hand, is more widely known. Is its simplest terms, this principle states that an observer cannot know both the location and the momentum of a quantum particle (otherwise, you’d have to violate thermodynamics). From the uncertainty principle, we see that empty space isn’t really empty. Inside the vacuum, particles are allowed to pop in and out of existence due to probabilistic quantum fluctuations (this is where the idea of the “false vacuum” came from.)

    So, how does any of this help us? Dongshan explained, “We proved that, once a small true vacuum bubble is created, it has the chance to expand exponentially.”

    [​IMG]
    Image Credit: National Geographic

    The WIPM team describe these bubbles of true vacuum as a perfect sphere. They use this information to figure out how fast the radius of the sphere can expand. From here, they must analyze the bubble in the three possible geometries of spacetime – open, closed, or flat. Regardless, the WIPM team found that the bubble would expand to a size that would result in a big bang.

    This new equation allows for some extremely interesting insights into the universe. The hypothesis explains dark energy, the energy that is causing the expansion of spacetime, as a quantity called quantum potential. Quantum potential comes out of the pilot-wave theory, which is a lesser-known interpretation of quantum mechanics (basically, a replacement or completion for quantum theory as we understand it today). Pilot-wave theory is able to reproduce all of the predictions made by current quantum theory, explains things like the Schrodinger’s cat paradox, and adds the quantity of quantum potential.

    The biggest problem with the pilot wave theory is it doesn’t make predictions that are unique to the theory. All of the predictions made by pilot-wave are either identical to the more widely accepted interpretation of quantum theory, or the predictions are not testable. That is, until this new derivation from WIPM was released.

    Pilot-wave has never taken off because it hasn’t been able to do anything that conventional quantum theory doesn’t already do. Since quantum potential is a key part of this new equation, it’s possible that scientists will reinvestigate the pilot-wave idea, and perhaps push our understanding of the universe one step further.

    You can see the WIPM paper on arxiv.

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    http://arxiv.org/pdf/1404.1207v1.pdf

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  14. Manmohan Yadav

    Manmohan Yadav Brigadier STAR MEMBER

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    Try reading M-theory as well
     
  15. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    Taiwan NCKU develops pioneering spin FET transistor technology

    "An international team headed by Tainan City-based National Cheng Kung University has developed the world’s first functional spin field-effect transistor for information processing.
    ...
    'Compared with Intel’s current-generation 10 nanometer-class chips utilizing complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology,' Chen said, 'spin FET is capable of delivering 1,000 times the performance with only one-tenth of power.'

    The development, first published online by science journal Nature Nanotechnology Dec. 22
    , is expected to help NCKU better tap the highly lucrative US$250 billion global IC industry."
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    Taiwan Today - NCKU develops pioneering transistor technology

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    All-electric all-semiconductor spin field-effect transistors | Nature Nanotechnology

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