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China's Advanced Sciences

Discussion in 'China & Asia Pacific' started by Martian, Apr 16, 2010.

  1. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    Dongshan He and the Wuhan Physics team solved four important problems

    When a mathematical proof can simultaneously answer many important and perplexing physics questions, there is a high probability that it is correct.

    1. Where did the universe come from? Dongshan He and the Wuhan Physics team mathematically proved that our universe can spontaneously arise from quantum foam. They are the first in the world to write a mathematical proof.

    2. Where did "inflation" come from? In 1980, Alan Guth posited the universe briefly expanded faster-than-light (or inflation theory) to prevent the universe from re-collapsing gravitationally upon itself. Also, inflation explains the relatively uniform cosmic microwave background radiation.

    However, there were many skeptics during the 1980s who didn't believe in inflation. They asked: "What triggered inflation and why did it stop?" Alan Guth and others could not answer these questions. Since scientists don't believe in magic, if you can't explain the mechanism then you don't really have the answer.

    Dongshan He and the Wuhan Physics team solved the problem by "[proving] that, once a small true vacuum bubble is created, it has the chance to expand exponentially."

    3. What is Dark Energy? Dongshan He and the Wuhan Physics team's mathematical proof provides an important clue. "This new equation allows for some extremely interesting insights into the universe. The hypothesis explains dark energy, the energy that is causing the expansion of spacetime, as a quantity called quantum potential."

    4. Can you prove that Dark Energy (or quantum potential) is based on pilot-wave theory? Potentially "yes." Dongshan He and the Wuhan Physics team's mathematical proof allows for differentiation between pilot-wave theory and current quantum mechanics.

    "All of the predictions made by pilot-wave are either identical to the more widely accepted interpretation of quantum theory, or the predictions are not testable. That is, until this new derivation from WIPM was released."
     
  2. sangos

    sangos Lt. Colonel ELITE MEMBER

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    Think china education may be inferior. So there are no chinese top rankers in google, microsoft etc.
     
  3. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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  4. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    China announces 3-axis gyroscope SoC (System on Chip)

    "Hua Hong Semiconductor, a pure-play 200mm foundry, and Shanghai Quality Sensor Technology (QST) have jointly announced what they claim is the first 3-axis gyroscope SoC developed and manufactured by China-based firms."
    ----------
    Hua Hong Semiconductor, QST announce 3-axis gyroscope SoC | DigiTimes

    [​IMG]
     
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  5. sangos

    sangos Lt. Colonel ELITE MEMBER

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  6. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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  7. Martian

    Martian Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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  8. RMLOVER

    RMLOVER Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    http://www.aptc-lm.com/news/4/20151...jian-jintianxiangshengchanjishisouduhang.html

    Ship gas turbine is an advanced and complex set of ship power machinery and equipment, is a typical high-tech-intensive products. As a carrier of high technology, gas turbines represent the integrated level of multiple theories and multi-engineering developments, and are the leading technology of the 21st century. Development of new technologies, new materials in the gas turbine industry indicate the national high-tech level and scientific and technological strength of a country.

    Since the 1980s, the world's most advanced large-scale surface ships are basically used gas turbine combined power plant. Due to various reasons, China's ship gas turbine has been a big gap compared to with the international advanced level, and it has become a constraint to the development of large navy ships.

    In the early 1980s, the Chinese Navy decided to use gas turbines on second-generation missile destroyers. As the domestic self-developed number of gas turbine or reliability can not meet the requirements, therefore, China decided to introduce models from American GE LM2500. And in the mid-80s, the United States promised to gradually transfer LM2500 technology to China, so that China has the ability to imitate the LM2500.

    1989, 052 type destroyer , first ship "Harbin" was started, but the West started the ban to the Chinese weapons technology and equipment so that LM2500 import was blocked. At that time, China only had four finished LM2500 engines. Judging from the situation at that time, China has been very difficult to obtain a new ship-type LM2500 gas turbine and the technology licensing and transfer is also impossible.

    In 1993, China began to introduce the UGT-25000 gas turbine developed by the Ukrainian. Ukrainian sold 10 UGT-25000 / DA80 gas turbines to China as well as the transfer of related technology to China. At the same time in order to prevent the recurrence of technology blocking , China still carry on the development of domestic models. Especially during the time when China's economy getting strong, and the aircraft turbo fan engine core technology breakthrough had laid a solid foundation for the development of domestic gas turbine.

    in the localization process of UGT-25000, Chinese not only imported the technology, but also obtained the digestion and absorption of the UGT-25000 technology. Through the efforts from China Shipbuilding Heavy Industry 703, Xi'an Aero Engine Group and Harbin Power Groups. In 2004, the first domestic UGT-25000 started trial production . Domestic engine performance was similar to the Ukraine original production unit and domestic made parts rate reached more than 60%. Since then, the second phase of the localization production work carried on and the domestic made parts rate had reached 95% .

    At present, the complete home made QC280 gas turbine has been in mass production and provided power for the Chinese 052D/055 type destroyers.



    In the late 1990s, China's "Taihang" turbofan engine technology breakthrough brought with a greater possibility for the development of China's gas turbine. The first type of "Taihang" modified gas turbine is QD70, marine type QC70, is China's first 7000 kilowatts gas turbine, started in 1996, and put into use in 2006. For large and medium-sized surface ships , the launch of the power of 25,000 horsepower QC185 gas turbine is also based on "Taihang" turbofan engine. QC185 as a mid-range power gas turbine, can be used as the driving force of the destroyer.


    With learning from the Ukrainian technology, China developed the R0110 heavy-duty gas turbine, the output power of 150000 horsepower, thermal efficiency of 36%. R0110 is China's first heavy-duty gas turbine, its successful development indicates that China will become the world's fifth country with heavy-duty gas turbine technology. Although the current R0110 is used in the field of power generation, but on the basis of performance, it can be developed into 60MW, 160MW and more than 200MW series of gas turbine, and it can be used for the medium-sized conventional aircraft carrier, amphibious attack ship and other large surface ship.
     
    Last edited: Jun 13, 2017
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  9. RMLOVER

    RMLOVER Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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  10. RMLOVER

    RMLOVER Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    China achieves major breakthrough in ‘artificial sun’ reactor
    By Hu Yuyan Source:Global Times Published: 2017/7/5 23:13:39
    0


    Chinese scientists have successfully contained super-hot plasma for a record length of time, which brings the humankind one step closer to clean and virtually unlimited energy offered by nuclear fusion, media reported.

    The "artificial sun," officially known as the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), is an experimental thermonuclear fusion reactor that replicates the energy-generating process of the sun.

    On Monday, the Chinese Academy of Sciences team working on the project announced that EAST became the first tokamak to successfully sustain H-mode plasma for 101.2 seconds at 50 million Kelvins (49.999 million C), China Central Television said.

    China is a member country of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, which aims to produce 500 megawatts of fusion power with only 50 megawatts of input power in an experimental tokamak in southern France.

    Scientists say this major breakthrough will be of great value to the human quest for clean energy via nuclear fusion.

    Yang Hongwei, director of the energy efficiency center at the National Development and Reform Commission, told the Global Times that "artificial sun" represents the direction of clean energy development.

    "This breakthrough is an important step amid the transition from fossil fuels to clean and renewable energy," said Yang.

    From a long-term perspective, development of energy technologies will provide the ultimate solution to the problems of pollution and greenhouse gas emissions arising from the use of traditional energy, he elaborated.

    However, Lin Boqiang, dean of the China Institute for Studies in Energy Policy at Xiamen University, struck a note of caution when talking about the commercialization and application of this technology in daily life, saying that the potential cost must be taken into account for wider application in households. He believes that there's still a long way to go before achieving this goal.
     
  11. RMLOVER

    RMLOVER Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Landmark success of China's quantum experiment is far-reaching
    Source:Xinhua Published: 2017/6/16 21:39:12
    0


    [​IMG]
    Photo taken on Nov. 26, 2016 shows a quantum communication ground station in Xinglong, north China's Hebei Province. Chinese scientists on Thursday reported a major breakthrough in quantum communication: A pair of entangled photons over a distance of 1,200 km have been successfully transmitted from space to Earth. The previous record was about 100 km. (Xinhua/Jin Liwang)



    The precision that Chinese scientists have achieved in their latest quantum experiment is just like catching with a piggy bank a chain of coins dropped out of a plane 10,000 meters above. The result is an outstanding landmark in the human history of communication and physical science, and reaches far and more.

    On Thursday, Chinese researchers accomplished a successful distribution of "entangled" photon pairs from space to the Earth. After the pairs being sent from the orbiting Micius quantum satellite at distances varying from 500 km to 2,000 km down to two ground locations 1,203 km apart in China, the photon entanglement is still there.

    Such a success in demonstrating what Albert Einstein calls "a spooky action at a distance" is not merely a world record, a milestone achievement in global quantum research, but also of technological significance to potential application and fundamental research as a cover story of the prestigious journal Science lauds.

    It "lays a reliable technological foundation for large-scale quantum networking and quantum communication experimental research, as well as experimental testing of basic principles of physics such as general theory of relativity and quantum gravity in outer space in the future," said Pan Jianwei, chief scientist for the Micius satellite project and the study's leading author.

    In an unprecedented try with high precision, the Chinese research team led by Pan, professor at the University of Science and Technology of China, made Micius a photon pairs' distributor with satellite-to-ground downlinks.

    "Quantum entanglement is very fragile. There is photon loss in optical fibers or terrestrial free space," Peng Chengzhi, chief designer for Micius scientific applications, explained.

    By the Micius-enabled approach, Chinese researchers for the first time in the world demonstrated quantum entanglement over more than 1,000 km.

    This figure shows a huge leap over two decades -- up from a span of 144 km in 2007, and several hundreds meters in 1998 in experiments outside a lab.

    The work impresses Seth Lloyd, director of the Center for Extreme Quantum Information Theory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, as "a true breakthrough in the technology of entanglement distribution."

    "The experiment shows that long-range quantum communication is indeed technologically feasible and holds out the promise of the construction of long-rang quantum communication networks in the near future," he further commented.

    Thomas Jennewein, an associate professor of quantum information at the University of Waterloo, said this prospect means "improved efficiency, more secure communications."

    The latter refers to entanglement-based quantum key distribution, which is so far the only way to establish secure keys between two distant locations on Earth without relying on trustful relay.

    Regarding quantum networking or internet, Jennewein described Thursday's quantum experiment result as "a very important milestone, because disseminating quantum entanglement is a first (and most important) building block."

    More things to be done including improving quantum entanglement sources to have a much larger emission rate, and photon detectors, he said.

    The scientist added that it is needed to conduct "more research on ground-based systems such as quantum memories, quantum processors."

    "Going forward, it is not very difficult to speculate that we will see the distribution of quantum entanglement on a global scale one day," said Jennewein.

    Alexander Sergienko, a quantum physicist at Boston University, said the latest Chinese quantum experiment result is a "very decisive step" in fundamental research.

    "This is another very decisive step in proving the validity of quantum mechanics...over such a global scale. It is hard to overestimate the impact of this result on the development of modern quantum physics," he said.

    On top of entangled quantum distribution, Micius-based experiments underway include satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution, and quantum teleportation, among others, and "more results of experiments are expected to be published within this year," said Peng, Micius scientific applications chief designer.

    Apart from direct use in secure communications, entangled quantum distribution can also serve the efforts to realize quantum teleportation, Peng stressed.

    He said that among what Chinese researchers plan to do next is to expand satellite coverage so as to accomplish round-the-clock quantum communications.
     
  12. RMLOVER

    RMLOVER Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    China ranks 3rd in scientific papers with int'l co-authorship: report
    Xinhua | Updated: 2017-07-05 09:18[​IMG][​IMG][​IMG][​IMG]
    BEIJING -- Chinese researchers issued 71,000 scientific papers that were the results of international collaboration in 2015, climbing to the third in the world, according to a report.

    The report, jointly issued by the National Center for Science and Technology Evaluation (NCSTE) and Clarivate Analytics, said that since 2006, China has strengthened international cooperation in science and technology.

    Expenditure on research and development (R&D) accounted for 1.42 percent of GDP in 2006 and the ratio increased to 2.1 percent in 2016, said the report.

    Wang Ruijun, director of the NCSTE, said that during ten years of international cooperation in scientific research, Chinese scientific research workers have played a bigger role in highly cited research papers.

    In 2015, the average number of citations of Chinese papers with international partners was 1.5, higher than the global average level.

    The NCSTE is a national professional sci-tech evaluation institute, affiliated to the Ministry of Science and Technology.
     
  13. RMLOVER

    RMLOVER Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    China's two supercomputers still world's fastest as US squeezed out of 3rd place
    Xinhua | Updated: 2017-06-19 15:32[​IMG][​IMG][​IMG][​IMG]
    WASHINGTON -- China's Sunway TaihuLight and Tianhe-2 are still the world's fastest and second fastest machines, but America's Titan was squeezed into fourth place by an upgraded Swiss system, according to the latest edition of the semiannual T0P500 list of supercomputers released Monday.

    CHINA'S HOMEGROWN SUPERCOMPUTERS

    Sunway TaihuLight, described by the T0P500 list as "far and away the most powerful number-cruncher on the planet," maintained the lead since last June, when it dethroned Tianhe-2, the former champion for the previous three consecutive years.

    It means that a Chinese supercomputer has topped the rankings maintained by researchers in the United States and Germany for nine times in a row.

    What's more, Sunway TaihuLight, with a performance of 93 petaflops, was built entirely using processors designed and made in China.

    "It highlights China's ability to conduct independent research in the supercomputing field," Haohuan Fu, deputy director of the National Supercomputing Center, where Sunway TaihuLight was installed, told Xinhua.

    "China is simultaneously developing hardware and software technologies of supercomputers," Fu said. "It is expected that rapid development in homegrown hardware technologies, supported by homegrown software, will lead to a stronger research and engineering test capacity in many fields, thus promoting an industrial upgrading and, eventually, a sustainable development of China's homegrown supercomputing industry."

    Tianhe-2, capable of performing 33.9 petaflops, was based on Intel chips, something banned by the US government from selling to four supercomputing institutions in China since 2015.

    SWISS SYSTEM "REALLY A SURPRISE"

    In the latest rankings, the new number three supercomputer is the upgraded Piz Daint, a system installed at the Swiss National Supercomputing Center.

    Its current performance of 19.6 petaflops pushed Titan, a machine installed at the US Oak Ridge National Laboratory, into fourth place. Titan's performance of 17.6 petaflops has remained constant since it was installed in 2012.

    "This is the second time in the 24-year history of the TOP500 list that the United States has failed to secure any of the top three positions," the TOP500 organizers said in a statement.

    The only other time this occurred was in November 1996, when three Japanese systems captured the top three spots.

    "Nevertheless, the US still claims five of the top 10 supercomputers, which is more than any other nation," they said.

    Fu called the upgraded Swiss system "really a surprise," saying that "it reflects the increased investment in large-scale supercomputers in Europe."

    AMERICA'S STRONG STRENGTH

    "Although the US dropped out of the top three, it still has strong strength in high performance computing," Fu told Xinhua. "If everything goes well, we could see two US systems with a performance of 200 to 300 petaflops in the next rankings at the end of the year."

    Just days before the TOP500 announcement, the US Department of Energy said it has awarded AMD, Cray, HP Enterprise, IBM, Intel and NVIDIA a total of 258 million US dollars in funding to accelerate the development of next-generation supercomputers.

    "Continued US leadership in high performance computing is essential to our security, prosperity, and economic competitiveness as a nation," US Secretary of Energy Rick Perry said in a recent statement.

    The immediate goal of the United States is to develop at least one exascale-capable system by 2021, which will be at least 10 times faster than China's Sunway TaihuLight.

    "Global competition for this technological dominance is fierce," the US Department of Energy asserted. "However, the US retains global leadership in the actual application of high performance computing to national security, industry, and science."

    In addition, the latest list showed that the United States leads the pack in the total number of TOP500 systems, with 169, while China is a close second with 160. Both countries lost share compared to six months ago, when they each claimed 171 systems.

    Besides the United States and China, the most well-represented countries on the list are Japan, with 33 supercomputers, Germany, with 28, France, with 18, and Britain, with 17.

    Overall, aggregate performance on the TOP500 rose to 749 petaflops, a 32 percent jump from a year ago.

    Such an increase, though, is well below the list's historical growth rate of about 185 percent per year, said the organizers.

    "The slower growth in list performance is a trend that began in 2013, and has shown no signs of reversal," they said.

    When it comes to companies making these systems, the US-based Hewlett-Packard Enterprise claims the number one spot with 143 supercomputers. China's Lenovo is the second most popular vendor, with 88 systems, and Cray is in third place, with 57.

    There are three other Chinese companies in the vendor list: Sugon (No 4 with 44 systems), Inspur (No 6 with 20 systems) and Huawei (No 7 with 19 systems).

    The Top500 list is considered one of the most authoritative rankings of the world's supercomputers. It is compiled on the basis of the machines' performance on the Linpack benchmark by experts from the United States and Germany.
     
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  14. RMLOVER

    RMLOVER Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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  15. RMLOVER

    RMLOVER Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    China's quantum satellite establishes photon entanglement over 1,200 km
    Xinhua | Updated: 2017-06-16 12:47[​IMG][​IMG][​IMG][​IMG]
    HEFEI - A team of Chinese scientists have realized the satellite-based distribution of entangled photon pairs over 1,200 kilometers. The photon pairs were demonstrated to be still entangled after travelling long distances.

    This satellite-based technology opens up bright prospects for both practical quantum communications and fundamental quantum optics experiments at distances previously inaccessible on the ground, said Pan Jianwei, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

    The achievement was made based on the world's first quantum satellite, Quantum Experiments at Space Scale (QUESS), also dubbed Micius, launched by China on August 16, 2016, and was published as a cover article in the latest issue of academic journal Science.

    This experiment was made through two satellite-to-ground downlinks with a total length varying from 1,600 to 2,400 kilometers. The obtained link efficiency is many times higher than that of the direct bidirectional transmission of the two photons through telecommunication fibers, said Pan, who is also the lead scientist of QUESS.

    Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon in quantum physics, which is so confounding that Albert Einstein described it as "spooky action at a distance" in 1948.

    Scientists found that when two entangled particles are separated, one particle can somehow affect the action of the far-off twin instantly.

    Quantum physicists have a fundamental interest in distributing entangled particles over increasingly long distances and studying the behavior of entanglement under extreme conditions.

    Previously, entanglement distribution had only been achieved at a distance up to 100 kilometers due to photon loss in optical fibers or terrestrial free space.

    One way to improve the distribution lies in the protocol of quantum repeaters, whose practical usefulness, however, is hindered by the challenges of quantum storage and readout efficiency, Pan said.

    Another approach is making use of satellite-based and space-based technologies, as a satellite can conveniently cover two distant locations on Earth. The main advantage of this approach is that most of the photons'transmission path is almost in a vacuum, with almost zero absorption and de-coherence, Pan said.

    After feasibility studies, Chinese scientists developed and launched QUESS for the mission of entanglement distribution. Cooperating with QUESS are three ground stations: Delingha Observatory in Qinghai, Nanshan Observatory in Xinjiang and Gaomeigu Observatory in Yunan.

    For instance, one photon of an entangled pair was beamed to Delingha and the other to Gaomeigu. The distance between the two ground stations is 1,203 kilometers. The distance between the orbiting satellite and the ground stations varies from 500 to 2,000 kilometers, said Pan.

    Due to the fact that the entangled photons cannot be amplified as classical signals, new methods must be developed to reduce the link attenuation in the satellite-to-ground entanglement distribution. To optimize the link efficiency, Chinese scientists combined a narrow beam divergence with a high-bandwidth and a high-precision acquiring, pointing, and tracking (APT) technique.

    By developing an ultra-bright space-borne two-photon entanglement source and the high-precision APT technology, the team established entanglement between two single photons separated by 1,203 kilometers.

    Compared with the previous methods of entanglement distribution by direct transmission of the same two-photon source -- using the best performance and most common commercial telecommunication fibers respectively -- the effective link efficiency of the satellite-based approach is 12 and 17 orders of magnitude higher, Pan said.

    He said the distributed entangled photons are readily useful for entanglement-based quantum key distribution, which, so far, is the only way to establish secure keys between two distant locations on Earth without relying on trustful relay.
     

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