Dismiss Notice
Welcome to IDF- Indian Defence Forum , register for free to join this friendly community of defence enthusiastic from around the world. Make your opinion heard and appreciated.

Chinese CPU , IC and Operational Systems

Discussion in 'China & Asia Pacific' started by RMLOVER, Aug 30, 2017.

  1. RMLOVER

    RMLOVER Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

    Joined:
    Mar 26, 2017
    Messages:
    436
    Likes Received:
    254
    Country Flag:
    South Africa
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loongson
    http://www.loongson.cn/product/cpu/3/496.html


    Loongson
    (simplified Chinese: 龙芯; traditional Chinese: 龍芯; pinyin: Lóngxīn; literally: "Dragon Core")[1] is a family of general-purpose MIPS64 CPUs developed at the Institute of Computing Technology (ICT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in China. The chief architect is Professor Hu Weiwu (zh). It was formerly called Godson.

    Loongson is the result of a public–private partnership. BLX IC Design Corporation was founded in 2002 by ICT and Jiangsu Zhongyi Group. Based in Beijing, BLX focuses on designing the 64-bit Loongson general-purpose and embedded processors, together with developing software tools and reference platforms.

    STMicroelectronics fabricates and markets Loongson chips for BLX, which is fabless.

    MIPS patent issues[edit]
    The current Loongson instruction set is a MIPS64, but the internal microarchitecture is independently developed by ICT. Early implementations of the family lacked four instructions patented by MIPS Technologies to avoid legal issues.[2][3]



    In 2007, a deal was reached by MIPS Technologies and ICT. STMicroelectronics bought a MIPS license for Loongson, and thus the processor can be promoted as MIPS-based or MIPS-compatible instead of MIPS-like.[4][5][6]

    In June 2009, ICT licensed the MIPS32 and MIPS64 architectures directly from MIPS Technologies.[7]

    In August 2011, Loongson Technology Corp. Ltd. licensed the MIPS32 and MIPS64 architectures from MIPS Technologies, Inc. for continued development of MIPS-based Loongson CPU cores.[8][9]

    Architecture revisions[edit]
    Loongson 1[edit]
    The first revision of the Loongson architecture, the Loongson1 (Godson-232 core) is a pure 32-bit CPU running at a clock speed of 266 MHz. It is fabricated with 0.18 micron CMOS process, has 8 KB of data cache, 8 KB of instruction cache and a 64-bit floating-point unit, capable of 200 double-precision MFLOPS.[10] It is intended for embedded applications, such as point of sale (POS) systems, where a high performance 64-bit architecture is not needed.

    Loongson 2[edit]
    The Loongson 2 adds 64-bit ability to the Loongson architecture. Initially running at 500 MHz, later revisions to Godson 2E were produced that run up to 1 GHz. The Godson 2F, released to market in early 2008, ran at 1.2 GHz.

    Loongson 2E[edit]
    [​IMG]
    Loongson 2E
    Loongson 2F[edit]
    Godson-2G[edit]
    • 1.0 GHz, 65 nm CMOS, 3 W
    • 100 M transistors, area 60 mm^2
    • Single GS464 core
      • 64-bit MIPS64 compatible
      • HW support X86 binary translation
      • Four-issue, OOO
      • 64 KB+64 KB L1 (four-way)
    • 1 MB L2 cache
    • On-chip DDR2/3 controller
    • 16-bit HT
    • PCI/PCIX, LPC, GPIO, etc.
    Godson-2H[edit]
    • 1 GHz, 65 nm
    • Single GS464V core (HD media decoding)
    • 512 KB L2 cache
    • 3D low-power GPU
    • DDR2/3 memory controller
    • PCIE 2.0 controller
    • SATA, USB, GMAC controller
    • LPC, SPI, UART, etc.
    Loongson 3[edit]
    The 65 nm Loongson 3 (Godson-3) is able to run at a clock speed near 1 GHz, with 4 CPU cores (~15 W) first and 8 cores later (40 W). In April 2010, Loongson 3A was released with DDR2/3 DRAM support.

    Loongson 3B[edit]
    There are two versions of the Loongson-3B (Godson-3B), the first[11] featuring a 32 nm 6-core processor, and the second version[12] having a 28 nm 8-core processor. Each version can be clocked from 1.2 GHz to 1.5 GHz. Loongson-3B has exceptional energy efficiency in terms of performance per watt - executing 192 GFLOPS using 40 watts. Each CPU core has 64 KB L1 cache and 128 KB L2 cache. All the cores share a common 8 MB L3 cache, which helps to reduce the cache miss rate.

    Recently, ICT has launched a Loongson-3B-based six-core desktop solution. Technical specifications:

    • Mini-ITX motherboard with Loongson-3B CPU
    • ATI RS780E (AMD 780E) southbridge with 128 MB integrated graphics
    • ATI SBx00 Azalia on-board audio
    • up to 16 GB DDR3 memory
    • Intel 82574L gigabit network interface
    • PCI, PCIe, 4 SATA ports, USB and other peripheral interfaces
    • Can optionally be equipped with AMD HD6770 discrete graphics, and HDD or SSD hard drive
    This desktop solution uses an optimized version of Fedora 13, with a lot of software ported and available, such as Kingsoft (WPS) office suite. The manufacturer states that the user experience of the desktop solution has been significantly improved over its Loongson-3A based predecessor. Results of a benchmark test, conducted in April 2014, are available[13]

    Hardware-assisted x86 emulation[edit]
    The Loongson 3 adds over 200 new instructions over Loongson 2. Their addition has the specific benefit of speeding up Intel x86 CPU emulation at a cost of 5% of the total die area. The new instructions help with emulation performance, for example QEMU (the only known example). The new instructions reduce the impact of executing x86/CISC-style instructions in the MIPS pipeline. With added improvements in QEMU from ICT, Loongson-3 achieves an average of 70% the performance of executing native binaries when running x86 binaries from nine benchmarks.[14]

    Supported software[edit]
    Unlike processors from Intel, Advanced Micro Devices or VIA Technologies, Loongson does not directly support the x86 instruction set. The processor's main operating system is Linux, while in theory any OS with MIPS support should also work. For example, Windows CE was ported to a Loongson-based system with minimal effort.[15]In 2010, Lemote ported an Android distribution to the Loongson platform.[16]

    Many operating systems work on Loongson:[17]

    Linux[edit]
    See also: Comparison of Linux distributions § Instruction set architecture support
    BSD[edit]
    Compiler support[edit]
    The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) is the main compiler for software development on the Loongson platform.[40][41]

    ICT also ported Open64 to the Loongson II platform.[42]

    User applications[edit]
    Open source applications on Linux Platform can be ported with little effort. Most common open source applications (including OpenOffice.org, Mozilla Firefox, Pidgin, and MPlayer) and applications written for the Java platform are supported.[43] For .NET applications, an unofficial port of the Mono Common Language Runtime is available online.[44]

    Loongson-based systems[edit]
    [​IMG]
    Lemote FuLoong and YeeLoong with a Loongson 2F microprocessor
    [​IMG]
    Lemote's Fulong MiniPC on top of a CD-ROM drive as reference
    In March 2006, a 100 Loongson II computer design called Longmeng (Dragon Dream) was announced by Lemote.

    In June 2006 at Computex'2006, YellowSheepRiver announced the Municator YSR-639,[48] a small form factor computer based on the 400 MHz Loongson 2.

    Currently, Loongson boxes that come with a 667 MHz Godson 2E processor or an 800 MHz Godson 2F processor are sold in China at CNY 1599 (US$200) or CNY 1800 respectively without monitor, mouse, or keyboard.

    As of July 2008, two manufacturers have announced Loongson 2F products for sale outside China.

    • Van der Led, a Dutch company, announced an 8.9 in subnotebook, named Jisus, in April 2008.[49] As of September 2008, however, no orders have been fulfilled, the manufacturer does not respond to inquiries, and the product is no longer on their catalogue.
    • EMTEC, a French company, announced in June 2008[50] a 10″ subnotebook under the brand name Gdium[2], to be sold for "less than 399€" running Mandriva Linux. EMTEC announced the subnotebook would be available for sale in September in Europe, the United States, and China. EMTEC has already shown the devices in public events,[51] and is reaching out to the developer community through the "one laptop per hacker" program.[52]
    As of November 2008 the new 8.9" netbook from the Chinese manufacturer Lemote that replaced mengloong, Yeeloong (Portable Dragon),[53] running Debian, is available[54] in Europe from the Dutch company Tekmote Electronics.

    Loongson 3A laptop[edit]
    Loongson insiders[55] revealed a new model based on the Loongson 3A quad-core laptop has been developed and is expected to launch in August 2011. With a similar design to the MacBook Pro[56] from Apple Inc., it will carry a Linux operating system by default.

    In September 2011, Lemote announced the Yeeloong-8133 13.3" laptop featuring 900 MHz, quad-core Loongson-3A/2GQ CPU.[57]

    Supercomputers[edit]
    On 26 December 2007, China revealed its first Loongson based supercomputer with performance 1 teraFLOPS of peak performance, and about 350 GFLOPS measured by LINPACK in Hefei, designated as KD-50-I.[58] This supercomputer was designed by a joint team led by Chen Guoliang at the computer science technology department of the University of Science and Technology of China and ICT (the secondary contractor). KD-50-I is the first Chinese built supercomputer to utilize domestic Chinese CPUs, with a total of more than 336 Loongson-2F CPUs, and nodes are interconnected by Ethernet. The size of the computer was roughly equivalent to a household refrigerator and the cost was less than RMB 800,000 (approximately USD 120,000, EUR 80,000).[59]

    On 20 April 2010, USTC announced successful development of Loongson 3A based KD-60-1. The new supercomputer is a cluster of standard blade servers with a total of over 80 quad-core Loongson processors, providing theoretical peak performance of 1 TFLOPS and reduces power consumption by 56% compared to the KD-50-I system that has similar performance.[60]

    On 26 December 2012, USTC announced successful development of Loongson 3B based KD-90-1. The new supercomputer is a cluster of standard blade servers with a total of over 10 octo-core Loongson processors, providing theoretical peak performance of 1 TFLOPS, and reduces power consumption by 62% compared to the KD-60 system that has similar performance.[61]

    Dawning 6000[edit]
    Main article: Dawning Information Industry § Dawning 6000
    The high-performance Dawning 6000, which has a projected speed of over one quadrillion operations per second, will incorporate the Loongson processor as its core. Dawning 6000 is currently jointly developed by the Institute of Computing Technology under the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Dawning Information Industry Company. Li Guojie, chairman of Dawning Information Industry Company and director and academician of the Institute of Computing Technology, said research and development of the Dawning 6000 is expected to be completed in two years. By then, Chinese-made high-performance computers will be expected to achieve two major breakthroughs: first, the adoption of domestic-made central processing units (CPUs); second, the existing cluster-based system structure of high-performance computers will be changed once the computing speed reaches one quadrillion operations per second.
     
  2. RMLOVER

    RMLOVER Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

    Joined:
    Mar 26, 2017
    Messages:
    436
    Likes Received:
    254
    Country Flag:
    South Africa
    Sunway TaihuLight

    http://www.nsccwx.cn/wxcyw/
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunway_TaihuLight

    The Sunway TaihuLight system was supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program ("863"Program) of China. The supercomputer was developed by the National Research Center of Parallel Computer Engineering & Technology and it boasts the following outstanding performance: its peak performance is125PFlops; its sustained Linpack performance is 93PFlops, and its performance per Watt is 6.05GFlops/W. All of these three key performance results are in the first rank in the world. To support both high performance computing and big data applications, the Sunway TaihuLight uses a high-scalable heterogeneous architecture, a high-density integration of the system, a high-efficient DC power supply, and other key technologies such as the customized water cooling system. The supercomputer is also equipped with high-efficient scheduling and management tools, a rich set of parallel programming languages and development environments, so as to support the research and development operations on the system. Sunway TaihuLight system is the world’s first supercomputer with peak performance over 100PFlops, and its CPU was designed by Shanghai High-Performance Integrated Circuit Design Center.



    The Sunway TaihuLight (Chinese: 神威·太湖之光, Shénwēi·tàihú zhī guāng) is a Chinese supercomputer which, as of November 2016, is ranked number one in the TOP500 list as the fastest supercomputer in the world,[1][2] with a LINPACK benchmark rating of 93 petaflops.[3] This is nearly three times as fast as the previous holder of the record, the Tianhe-2, which ran at 34 petaflops. As of June 2016, it is also ranked as the fourth most energy-efficient supercomputer in Green500,[4] with an efficiency of 6,051.30 MFLOPS/W. It was designed by the National Research Center of Parallel Computer Engineering & Technology (NRCPC) and is located at the National Supercomputing Center in Wuxi in the city of Wuxi, in Jiangsu province, China.







    Architecture
    The Sunway TaihuLight uses a total of 40,960 Chinese-designed SW26010 manycore 64-bit RISC processors based on the Sunway architecture.[5] Each processor chip contains 256 processing cores, and an additional four auxiliary cores for system management (also RISC cores, just more fully featured) for a total of 10,649,600 CPU cores across the entire system.[5]

    The processing cores feature 64 KB of scratchpad memory for data (and 16 KB[5] for instructions) and communicate via a network on a chip, instead of having a traditional cache hierarchy.[6]

    Software
    The system runs on its own operating system, Sunway RaiseOS 2.0.5, which is based on Linux.[5] The system has its own customized implementation of OpenACC 2.0 to aid the parallelization of code.[7]


    Sunway TaihuLight
    Active June 2016
    Operators National Supercomputing Center in Wuxi
    Location National Supercomputer Center, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China
    Architecture Sunway
    Power 15 MW (Linpack)
    Operating system Sunway RaiseOS 2.0.5 (based on Linux)
    Memory 1.31 PB (5591 TB/s total bandwidth)
    Storage 20 PB
    Speed 1.45 GHz (3.06 TFlops single CPU, 105 PFLOPS Linpack, 125 PFLOPS peak)
    Cost 1.8 billion Yuan (US$273 million)
    Purpose Oil prospecting, life sciences, weather forecast, industrial design, pharmaceutical research
    Web site http://www.nsccwx.cn/wxcyw/
     
  3. RMLOVER

    RMLOVER Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

    Joined:
    Mar 26, 2017
    Messages:
    436
    Likes Received:
    254
    Country Flag:
    South Africa
    http://www.loongson.cn/news/company/569.html

    Recently, in Guangdong Province and Yunfu City, based on the Godson 3 series processor terminal / server and application program has been deployed in Yunfu city government agencies, government service centers .

    The project is the partnership from Guangdong Province Information Center and the Guangdong Provincial Information Engineering Co., Ltd. in commitment to the important project of "based on domestic CPU / OS complex office environment demonstration application" . The first phase of the terminal deployment of 2,000 units, used Godson 3A2000 CPU + unicorn V7.0 operating system + Jinshan WPS office suite, and integrated the latest Firefox browser, FLASH plug-in and other high-performance API software.



    [​IMG]
    基于龙芯CPU的复杂办公环境示范应用部署情况
    [​IMG]
     
  4. An Indian

    An Indian 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

    Joined:
    Dec 11, 2015
    Messages:
    222
    Likes Received:
    188
    Country Flag:
    India
    @RMLOVER Yes, I think you guys have done a nice job here. I was curious about your Sunway TaihuLight deployment. Do you have any info on:
    • What is the ratio of your SW26010 Many core to your standard CPU cores (I assume these are your Loongson processors - is this right?) or are they all the same?
    • What kind of applications are currently being run / being planned for the Sunway TaihuLight?
    Thanks,
     
  5. RMLOVER

    RMLOVER Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

    Joined:
    Mar 26, 2017
    Messages:
    436
    Likes Received:
    254
    Country Flag:
    South Africa
    Interview |How the Chinese IT industry is no longer subject to foreign companies

    http://www.loongson.cn/news/media/519.html

    China's seventeenth Beidou satellite for the first time using the "Loongson" CPU

    People often say, China's computer industry is dominated by foreign companies as China has no domestic CPUs and operating systems, then why China's hand-held Terminal chip shipping hundreds of millions, and China's handheld terminal industry is still subject to foreign companies? The conclusion is: any technology or product is not the goal, the dominance in IT industry is the purpose.
    Intel's X86 CPU and Microsoft's Windows operating system control the desktop and server markets; ARM CPU and Android (Android) operating system control of the handheld terminal market.
    In the early hours of a summer in 2001, when Loongson No. 1 CPU developed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute came out from the cheers, the world's first general-purpose microprocessor developed by Intel was thirty years ago, and since then, the world IT industry dominance based on Intel and Microsoft's strong partnership was also established.
    Can Loongson as the representative of the "Chinese core" become the IT world "third pole" ? "National team" Loongson will join hands with others to create a new ecosystem and to compete with Wintel (Microsoft and Intel's business alliance) ?

    February 8, 2017, the latest news shows: the Chinese top Linux R & D team, depth technology and the Loongson in the Beijing signed a strategic cooperation agreement, the depth technology will transplant its system to Loongson platform , the two sides will establish a complete ecological chain based on " Loongson & Depth" alliance.

    Recently, the founder of Loongson, the chief engineer of the Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hu Weiwu accepted the "Global" magazine reporter's interview, talking about the United States CPU embargos against China and the hidden opportunities of Chinese CPUs.


    "Global" magazine: As China's global competitiveness has become increasingly prominent, the West on China's chip "ban" policy is more stringent, especially when Trump becoming the president of USA. As for the containment to China's high-tech field being more obvious, what effect will have on the Chinese IC industry? Some people say, the these external ban and embargo will force the Chinese IC industry go to independent research and development, do you agree?

    Hu Weiwu: there are two considerations about the United States embargo on China's relevant research institute: National security and the interests of the United States. Of course, national security considerations can be seen as an excuse. But the embargo itself also reflects that our country is indeed subject to American companies in many ways.

    we certainly want to buy foreign chips, otherwise the cost is too big. US trade protection is a double-edged sword, some of China's IT companies will have a negative impact, but the US CPU chips producer like Intel will reduce sales in China. Even the US media are worried that this "embargo" will only stimulate China to use more domestic chips to build a new supercomputer. In fact, this concern is justified, China is walking in the independent research and development. Trade protectionism in the short term will make us suffer losses, but in the long run, will speed up our domestic R & D.

    All along, the United States implements a strict embargo on China in the high-performance computer, even for commercial and other reasons. Even "an exception" sold to China, but also specifically to monitor the use of the machine. As for satellite use of highly reliable processor chip , we often need to buy through the top diplomacy level, and its use is also subject to supervision. Such examples are numerous.

    China's information industry has tens of thousands of enterprises. However, without grasping the core technology,their business is just selling boxes. Opening the box, inside is the same, and now we are looking for changes. Especially the small and medium enterprises in the difficult survival among the large enterprises are willing to accept Loongson CPU and develop new things by seeking market opportunities.

    In addition, after years of development, domestic software has a certain market size, and is needed to the large-scale application of the opportunity.

    "Global" magazine: the debate on the development path and the "Chinese core" goes hand in hand, the debate for independent research and development or follow the international giants has been controversial, independent research and development has been shaken?

    Hu Weiwu: debate about independent research and development is our fear to the United States and other IT industry giants and lack of self confidence. But the direction of independent research and development is unshakable, because the internet core technology is our biggest "life door", the core technology subject to the foreigners is our biggest danger.

    Western developed countries to China's strategy in the high-tech products is:
    strictly embargo for the high-tech products which China has no ability to design and production in national security (especially national defense) ; once China has developed the capability for certain high-tech products and Core technology, to prevent China from using such technology to form the industry chains by all the political and commercial means.


    On the one hand, developed countries and multinational companies generally use very strict control measures for the core technology, either blockade or high prices. On the other hand, if there is no independent research and development, we will be difficult to absorb the technology we buy, the result will be to continue buying the upgrades. And we will never form the ability to innovate and create , and always subject to the foreigners.

    "Global" magazine: Although there is a big gap between China and the developed countries in IC technologies, but a popular view is that we can use the market to exchange technology, there is some risk of doing so, but also can achieve a win-win situation, how do you see it?

    Hu Weiwu: In fact, in some industrial areas, the actual results of market exchanging for technology is that we lost the market but have not grasped the technology. More serious problem is that we lost the ability of independent R&D in this process.


    "Global" magazine: How China to build independent IT ecosystem? how the "China core" to form the world's third pole in the IT industry?

    Hu Weifu: If the traditional Wintel and AA platforms are mainly used to facilitate people's lives and work, then the industrial Internet platform is mainly used to improve production efficiency. At present, the industrial control system is more and more complex, and different industrial systems are isolated from each other, a bit like a mobile phone era, the need for a platform for industrial IT technology platform. The next 5 to 10 years, it is entirely possible to appear a new CPU + operating system platform. On the platform to achieve "high-speed rail APP" is the high-speed rail control system, in the platform to achieve "power generation APP" is the generator control system, in the platform to achieve "tank APP" is the tank control system, and so on. If the intelligent terminal platform can be based on various types of APP applications to achieve "software is a service", then the intelligent industrial platform can be based on various types of APP applications to achieve "software is manufacturing."

    China is a manufacturing power, if without our own "China made 2025" industrial Internet platform, the foreign "industrial 4.0" and "smart industry" equipment will be sold to China in the future. We have the advantages and can create the "Made in China 2025" industrial Internet platform based on our independent hardware and software.

    Another idea is to integrate the desktop and handheld terminal functions of the intelligent terminal ecosystem. If the above industrial Internet ecology is "open up the territory", then the intelligent terminal ecosystem is "recovery lost ground." Although there are many views that, Wintel outdated, Android is also mature, we have little chance, but some lost ground must be recovered, otherwise the industrial development and national security has no foothold. At present, China should develop the hardware and software platform for intelligence terminals based on national security and national economic security for government, finance, energy and telecommunications. A thin-type operating system can be developed based on Linux, moderate integration of Windows and Android part of the function. The current general operating system, including Windows and Linux, has a high degree of redundancy, which is essentially a benefit of different interest groups for their own benefit. We can developed an efficient intensive intelligent terminal operating system based on Linux.
     
  6. RMLOVER

    RMLOVER Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

    Joined:
    Mar 26, 2017
    Messages:
    436
    Likes Received:
    254
    Country Flag:
    South Africa

    The Sunway TaihuLight uses a total of 40,960 Chinese-designed SW26010 manycore 64-bit RISC processors based on the Sunway architecture. Not Loongson CPU based on MIPS architecture.
     
  7. RMLOVER

    RMLOVER Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

    Joined:
    Mar 26, 2017
    Messages:
    436
    Likes Received:
    254
    Country Flag:
    South Africa
    China’s Tsinghua Unigroup to Build $30 Billion Memory-Chip Factory in Nanjing

    China is looking to diminish its dependence on U.S. chip manufacturers

    https://www.wsj.com/articles/chinas...ion-memory-chip-factory-in-nanjing-1484828235


    http://www.reuters.com/article/us-uber-ceo-idUSKCN1BA0JL
    BEIJING (Reuters) - Tsinghua Unigroup Ltd, China’s top state chip manufacturer, revealed plans on Thursday to build a $30 billion memory chip factory as the government seeks to boost local production capacity.

    The firm is targeting a monthly capacity of 100,000 wafers in phase one of the development which will cost $10 billion and is located in Nanjing.

    In a statement on its website, Tsinghua Unigroup said the project is part of China’s efforts to build a world-leading chip industry, and it hopes it will create a siphoning effect to attract more development.


    Tsinghua Unigroup announced plans for a separate $24 billion chip factory based in the Chinese city of Wuhan in March last year.

    The development comes as Chinese memory chip firms face increasing regulatory resistance to acquiring overseas technology.

    In December U.S. President Barack Obama issued an executive order barring the acquisition of the U.S. business of German semiconductor equipment maker Aixtron by a Chinese-backed chip fund over security concerns.

    Last year, Chinese chip makers withdrew a record volume of overseas deals.

    In 2015 Tsinghua Unigroup tried unsuccessfully to acquire US chip group Micron Technology Inc.

    Tsinghua’s new plant will produce DRAM and 3D-NAND flash chips which are used in a range of devices including smartphones and personal computers.

    The firm also announced it would invest roughly another 30 billion yuan ($4.37 billion) in building an “international city” facility including apartments and international schools for foreign employees.

    Reporting by Cate Cadell; Editing by Adrian Croft

     
  8. RMLOVER

    RMLOVER Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

    Joined:
    Mar 26, 2017
    Messages:
    436
    Likes Received:
    254
    Country Flag:
    South Africa
    Why China Poses a Threat to the U.S. Semiconductor Market
    Reuters
    Jan 06, 2017
    Get Data Sheet, Fortune’s technology newsletter.
    http://fortune.com/2017/01/06/white-house-semiconductor-market/


    Tools that could be used include the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS), an inter-agency panel led by the Treasury Department that assesses Chinese investment to ensure it does not harm U.S. national security, the panel said.

    Concern about China is one of the few areas where the administration of President Barack Obama and President-elect Donald Trump's incoming team appear to agree.

    In November, U.S. Secretary of Commerce Penny Pritzker said the United Stated would not accept China's "$150 billion industrial policy designed to appropriate this industry."

    Under Obama, CFIUS stopped a series of Chinese acquisitions of high-end chip makers. Last month, he upheld a recommendation by CFIUS to block Aixtron's 670 million euro ($717 million) sale to Fujian Grand Chip Investment Fund over national security concerns.

    Last January, CFIUS prevented the sale by Philips of its U.S. lighting business to GO Scale Capital, made up of GSR Ventures, Oak Investment Partners, Asia Pacific Resource Development, and Nanchang Industrial Group.
     
  9. RMLOVER

    RMLOVER Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

    Joined:
    Mar 26, 2017
    Messages:
    436
    Likes Received:
    254
    Country Flag:
    South Africa
    FeiTeng CPU(processor)
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FeiTeng_(processor)

    FeiTeng
    Max. CPU clock rate 0.8 GHz to 1.0 GHz
    Instruction set SPARCv9
    FeiTeng (飞腾, fēiténg) is the name of several computer central processing units designed and produced in China for supercomputing applications.[1]

    FeiTeng-1000 is the third generation CPU from the YinHeFeiTeng (银河飞騰, YHFT) family. This CPU family has been developed by a team directed by NUDT's Professor Xing Zuocheng.[2] The first generation was binary compatible with the Intel Itanium 2. The second generation, the FT64, was a system on a chip with CPU and 64-bit stream processor; FT64 chips were used in YinHe (银河) supercomputers as accelerators.[3]







    FeiTeng-1000[edit]
    FeiTeng-1000 is manufactured with 65 nm technology and contains 350 million gates. Its clock frequency is 0.8–1 GHz. It is compatible with the SPARCv9 instruction set architecture.[4]

    Each chip contains 8 cores and is capable of executing 64 threads. There are 3 HyperTransport channels for coherent links, 4 DDR3 memory controllers and a 8x PCIe 2.0 link. [5]

    The Tianhe-1A supercomputer uses 2,048 FeiTeng 1000 processors.[6] Tianhe-1A has a theoretical peak performance of 4.701 petaflops, also employing 7,168 Nvidia Tesla M2050 GPUs and 14,336 Intel Xeon X5670 CPUs in addition to FT1000 processors.[5][7] The FeiTeng-1000 is an eight-core processor based on the SPARC system and is used to operate service nodes on the Tianhe-1.[1][5]

    A 2012 report for the European High Performance Computing service stated that FeiTeng used the work of the OpenSPARC project.[8]

    Galaxy FT-1500[edit]
    Tianhe-2 supercomputer uses 4096 processors Galaxy FT-1500 with 16 cores, OpenSPARC architecture based and 65 W TDP. They are made with 40 nm technology, processor cores work at 1.8 GHz[9] Peak performance of FT-1500 is 115–144 GFLOPS; every core may execute up to 8 interleaving threads and supports 256-bit wide SIMD vector operations including Fused Mul-Add (FMA). Cache of this SoC works at 2 GHz frequency, there are 16 KB L1i, 16 KB L1d, 512 KB L2 per core, and shared 4 MB L3 cache. L3 cache has 4 segments (1 segment per block of 4 CPU cores), each of 1 MB with 32-way associative. Cache uses directory-based cache coherency protocol. FT-1500 also has:[10]

    • Links to connect several processors into NUMA machine
    • 4 integrated DDR3 memory controllers
    • 2 PCI-express controllers
    • 10 Gbit Ethernet ports
    FT-1500A[edit]
    FT-1500A is a ARM64 SoC designed by Phytium, which includes 16 cores of ARMv8 processor, a 32-lane PCIe host, 2 GMAC on-chip ethernet controller and a GICv3 interrupt controller with ITS support.[11]
     
  10. RMLOVER

    RMLOVER Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

    Joined:
    Mar 26, 2017
    Messages:
    436
    Likes Received:
    254
    Country Flag:
    South Africa
    Analysis on the Current Situation of Domestic CPU and Operating System : Loongson + Linux


    http://www.cnbeta.com/articles/tech/612069.htm



    The popularity in the civilian use level should be the mark point for the rise of the domestic CPU and operating system . From this point of view, the rise of the domestic CPU and operating system still has a long way to go. But it is gratifying that the two in civilian use has been faster and faster, and the most important thing is autonomous controlled. And the representative is Loongson + Linux.




    Domestic CPU design and manufacturing

    Currently domestic CPU can be divided into four categories: independent, open source programs, purchase programs and authorization.

    The first type of independent design, the representative is Loongson . Loongson's microarchitecture is developed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, may be due to its compatible MIPS instruction set and was interpreted as not completely independent design. In 2011, Loongson had already purchased the MIPS64-bit architecture license.

    But now MIPS gradually decline, so Loongson's market prospects are not impressive. Some friends may have the opportunity to get equipped with Loongson CPU notebook, its performance is relatively bad.

    Even so, the true meaning of Loongson is the largest. As a national strategic technology reserves, Loongson will live forever. Chinese Academy of Sciences Godson CPU chief scientist Hu Weiwu said in an interview,Loongson CPU can be the world's No.1, but the problem is that few people used, very few to buy. The lack of software ecology is a major reason for restricting the development of Loongson.




    The second type of open source solution, which represents the SPARC architecture CPU. This type of CPU is basically not used in the civilian areas, mostly used in the aviation field, such as everyone familiar with the Shenzhou spacecraft, some European countries also use such CPU.

    The third type of purchase program, which represents the alpha architecture CPU. Shenwei Taihu Lake light is used this, is not suitable for civilian use. Although in the field of super computing, Shenwei Taihu Lake is the strongest, but there are still some design flaws, such as memory design is very weak, strong floating point performance suitable for parallel computing, a bit like a video card. Single-core performance is relatively weak, may not as good as Loongson.



    The fourth category of authorization, which is currently the most extensive, such as the previously mentioned trillion core is the x86 license, we all know the Huawei's Kirin processor is ARM's authorization. In addition to these two, there are Feiteng (ARM), Spreadtrum (ARM) and so on. This kind of business is relatively easy to go, because no need to worry about compatibility issues, the cost is less.

    But this category is subject to the foreign companies. Although they design their own Soc , but there is some differences compared to Loongson's own design . In the long run, these licenses authorization are still subject to foreign companies in information security and industry development. They can be used In commercial field, but there is no way called domestic CPUs.


    In addition to CPU design, CPU manufacturing is also a big barrier. At present, the domestic chip technology is relatively backward, such as lithography (simple understanding of the chip to determine how many nano) can not reach the world level. High-end chips can not be made in China. Before, the Loongson are made by foreign companies. The acquisition is the best shortcut, but it involves political, economic and other issues, some countries blockade China's acquisition.
    Overall, the domestic CPU has made considerable progress, but in the core competitiveness is still relatively weak, especially in the civilian areas , almost entirely dependent on foreign technology licensing. The CPU manufacturing is also subject to the weak manufacturing technology, high-end chips can not be made in large scale.

    Domestic operating system

    To be honest, the development of domestic operating system is not as good as domestic CPU. At present, the basic operating system can be divided into three categories: completely independent, open source systems and modify the closed source system.

    The first kind of completely independent operating system has a lot, but from the application ecological aspects point of view, the number of fully independent operating system is 0. This is because the difficulty of writing an operating system is not very high. Many computer professional are able to write a simple operating system, but this kind of operating system is meaningless.

    The main reason is that it does not have a complete software ecosystem. Why we are accustomed to using Windows, because we often use the software and services already on Windows. The development of the system is a long process, not only the system itself but the ecosystem of the operating system.


    The second category of open source system is too much, PC has a familiar Linux, such as unicorn, red flag, Ubud and deepin desktop operating system; mobile phone most people are using Android, such as the three major mobile phone system MIUI, Flyme OS, Smartisan OS and so on.


    The third category to amend the closed source system, this category is relatively rare, is to spend money to buy a complete license, and then modify the source code. Representative type is VxWorks, rarely seen in civilian-level products.

    From the above three types can be seen, Linux as an open source system is a better choice. Some people may worry about open source system is not safe, in fact, this worry is unnecessary . The system has been open source. Even if not safe, you can see the defects directly. It is also the reason that Linux systems never need anti-virus software, it can be said that Linux is not belong to a country, it is belong to the world.


    So from the current situation, the Loongson + Linux is a better choice in the civilian level. The importance of domestic CPU is greater than the domestic operating system.
     
  11. BMD

    BMD Colonel ELITE MEMBER

    Joined:
    Nov 20, 2012
    Messages:
    10,117
    Likes Received:
    2,918
    Country Flag:
    United Kingdom
    MIPS defines both the instruction set and the architecture. So basically, they knocked it off.
     
  12. An Indian

    An Indian 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

    Joined:
    Dec 11, 2015
    Messages:
    222
    Likes Received:
    188
    Country Flag:
    India
    Yes I know but then you don't want to invent an instruction set as then set optimization is a major issue.

    I am pretty aware of the underlying architecture and did wonder why they didn't use the RISC-V ISA as that is open source and why did they have to copy. And it is not that RISC-x is all that bad. It is the underlying architecture of IBM's Blue/Watson CPUs and is pretty cutting edge if you ask me...

    They have other key issues that I don't want to go into here but the Sunlight future variants are not going to hit exascale in their current form. Secondly, while they have done a processor, that does not mean that ARM/Intel is going to lose sleep. It is one thing to do a processor and completely another thing to capture global market (especially when you are a follower).

    Finally, my understanding from their deployments is that they don't really have applications that meaningfully utilize the Sunlight effectively. I don't know what they are doing with it but my understanding is that the systems are badly under-loaded.
     
    BMD likes this.
  13. RMFAN

    RMFAN BANNED BANNED

    Joined:
    Sep 2, 2017
    Messages:
    206
    Likes Received:
    49
    Country Flag:
    South Africa
    http://www.dw.com/en/tianhe-3-china...upercomputer-will-be-ready-by-2020/a-37635237

    Tianhe-3: China says its world-first exascale supercomputer will be ready by 2020

    China already holds the two fastest supercomputers. Now it hopes to knock the USA off the third spot with the first ever exascale machine. Tianhe-3 will handle one quintillion calculations per second.

    [​IMG]


    Fast isn't the word. If China's Tianhe-3 supercomputer manages to hit the exascale mark, it will handle one quintillion calculations per second.

    NB: 1 quintillion = 1,000 000 000 000 000 000 (yep, that's 18 zeros)

    Meng Xiangfei, a director at the National Supercomputer Center at Tianjin, told the China Daily newspaper that his institute aims to have a prototype of its Tianhe-3 ready by 2018. For that they will need breakthroughs in high-performance processors. But Meng is confident.

    If they succeed, Tianhe-3 will be 10 times faster than the current fastest supercomputer in the world, the Sunway TaihuLight.

    The Sunway runs at 93 petaFLOPS, with a reported peak speed of 125 quadrillion calculations per second.

    1 quadrillion = 1,000 000 000 000 000 (15 zeros)

    "Its computing power is on the next level," Meng told the newspaper. "It will help us tackle some of the world's toughest scientific challenges with greater speed, precision and scope."

    The Tianhe-3 will be measured in exaFLOPS.

    Its sibling, the Tianhe-2 runs at 34 petaFLOPS, while the USA's next best, Titan, creaks in at 18 peteFLOPS.

    If the Tianhe-3 breaks the peta-barrier, its processing speed will leave the rest for dead - which is probably a good thing as supercomputers don't have the longest life-expectancy.



    [​IMG]
    Super, but compared to what?

    How can we even begin to image the Tianhe-3's processing speeds?

    Well, one of the world's first computers (as we know them) was the Zuse Z3. It was a programmable, digital computer. Based on the same Boolean theory that gave us the zeros and ones of modern computing, the Z3 was the first solid implementation of so-called "flip-flops" and what became "floating point" arithmetic.

    A computer's processing speed is measured (in part) by the number of floating points it can handle per second - and that's why we refer to a FLOP or FLOPS.

    In 1941, the Z3's average single calculation speeds were 0.8 seconds for addition and 3 seconds for multiplication.

    Fast-forward 70 years or so and the average smartphone will perform addition and multiplication almost before we've finished entering the numbers…Imagine that, predictive math!

    Smartphones speeds tend to be measured in gigaflops (1 GFLOP = 1,000 000 000), but it's hard to get a good read on the latest models as the manufacturers are so competitive and as a result secretive. It is said, however, that Apple's A-series chips, which are made by Imagination Technologies, are years ahead of Qualcomm's Snapdragon chips, which Samsung and Google use in their phones.

    Gaming consoles are a lot faster than smartphones, but then again nothing compared to a supercomputer. It would take more than 18,000 Playstation 4s to match the Tianhe-2 - which, to remind us, is half as fast as China's Sunway supercomputer, and that is 10 times slower than the Tianhe-3 will be.

    Like I said, fast just isn't the word. But, then, the Tianhe-3 won't be a toy. Chinese scientists hope to use it to analyze smog distribution, gene sequence and protein structures to help develop new medicines. They also say it will simulate earthquakes and epidemic outbreaks in greater detail, "allowing swifter and more effective government responses."


    DW RECOMMENDS
     
  14. RMFAN

    RMFAN BANNED BANNED

    Joined:
    Sep 2, 2017
    Messages:
    206
    Likes Received:
    49
    Country Flag:
    South Africa
    China Puts Forth Plan to Become World Leader in Artificial Intelligence
    Michael Feldman | July 31, 2017 19:23 CEST

    https://www.top500.org/news/china-puts-forth-plan-to-become-world-leader-in-ai/

    The Chinese government has released a three-phase plan to become the world leader in artificial intelligence. According to a document published by the country’s State Council, the development and deployment of AI is seen as a strategic opportunity to the country, and will be worth 10 trillion yuan (1.49 trillion USD) to the nation’s economy by 2030.

    [​IMG]The Chinese government sees AI technology as a new engine of economic development that will be critical to national security, industrial production, and social services. As a result, the country appears to be setting the same general course for AI it set for supercomputing years ago: to accelerate development of the core technology, attract top talent in the field, and leverage expertise in existing domestic companies.

    In the first phase of the plan, which concludes in 2020, the goal is establish AI technology standards, service channels, and a commercial ecosystem. In this initial phase, the first round of AI technologies will begin deployment in key areas like autonomous systems, data analytics, and the media. To accomplish this, the government plans to “cultivate a number of the world's leading artificial intelligence backbone enterprises.” By the conclusion of the first phase, the government estimates the AI core industry to be worth 150 billion yuan (22.3 billion USD), with a value of 1 trillion yuan (150 million USD) to the overall economy.

    In the second phase, which ends in 2025, the goal is to achieve “a major breakthrough” and establish a new generation of AI algorithms and systems. The idea here is to develop algorithms that can learn independently, rather than be directed by human input. How such a breakthrough will be accomplished on this particular schedule remains to be seen, but China appears to be counting on it to deploy AI more broadly in areas like manufacturing, healthcare, city services, agriculture, and national defense. By the end of this phase, the government projects that AI revenue will reach 400 billion yuan (59.5 billion USD), with a value of more than 5 trillion yuan (740 million USD) in related industries.

    By the conclusion of the third phase in 2030, the goal is to establish China as the world leader in AI. During this part of the effort, the government plans to oversee a series of breakthroughs that produces something akin to human-level intelligence, sometimes known as strong AI. As a consequence, the technology will spread to all areas of the private and public sectors. At this point, the AI core market is projected to reach more 1 trillion yuan (150 million USD), with a total value of 10 trillion yuan (1.5 trillion USD) to the economy.

    Although the plan touts the virtues of China’s socialist system to accomplish these goals, much of the effort is based on adhering to open markets and engaging in international collaborations. That is pretty much standard operating procedure for the Chinese government, at least in the way it has embarked on other high-tech efforts and industry initiatives.

    China does have some natural advantages in AI development, namely, a large populace generating loads of data suitable for developing AI models, and a rapidly increasing pool of scientists and engineers. With regard to the former, China has something like 730 million internet users, who are constantly feeding their personal information to domestic web service providers from their mobile phones and computers. This is just the kind of data needed to build neural networks that can be used by companies for all sorts of lucrative sales and marketing opportunities.

    As far as expertise goes, China has been surging in AI research in recent years. A 2016 White House report noted that China had eclipsed the US in the number of published studies in deep learning, while the number of patent submissions in this area has grown by almost 200 percent in the past few years. In addition, the Economist reports that according to some estimates, “China has more than two-fifth of the world’s AI scientists.” And while China is still a distant second to the US in the number of AI-based business, it is adding these companies at a rapid pace.



    [​IMG]



    A recent report by PwC (PricewaterhouseCoopers) forecast that AI will boost China’s GDP 26 percent by 2030, further predicting that the country will “begin to pull ahead of the US’s AI productivity gains in ten years, after it catches up on a slower build up to the technology and expertise needed.” Given that the PwC report came out nearly a month before the Chinese plan was publicized, it’s an interesting coincidence that the two align rather closely.

    Although not mentioned by name, TenCent, Baidu, and Alibaba will almost certainly be involved in any Chinese effort to advance artificial intelligence. These business already boast some of the most advanced technology in areas such as voice recognition, language translation, image recognition, and autonomous driving, and are continuing to invest heavily in AI. Plus, they all have their hooks into Silicon Valley in one way or another. Alibaba and Tencent, for example, have built datacenters in the region, while Baidu operates an AI research hub there.

    However, questions remain about China’s ability to take advantage of international cooperation in the artificial intelligence realm. China has a long history of internet censorship, and as a consequence, the government’s relationship with some global AI leaders, like Google and Facebook, has been contentious, to say the least. Despite some progress, access to much of the internet, and thus the underlying technology, remains limited in the country. In the more free-wheeling collaborative model of Silicon Valley, the Chinese way of doing business is out of place.

    This doesn’t matter nearly as much in an area like supercomputing, where it has excelled in recent years, since this tends to be a siloed enterprise. But AI is going to ride atop the global internet in most cases, and will be dependent upon its openness, scale, and the international community that drives it. If China truly wants to become a world leader in artificial intelligence, it may have to shed some of its inward-facing proclivities.
     
  15. InfoWarrior

    InfoWarrior BANNED BANNED

    Joined:
    Apr 8, 2017
    Messages:
    563
    Likes Received:
    587
    Country Flag:
    India
    Do you think Chinese supercomputers are a way to help lose making fabs in China ? Still they are pushing ahead with investments.
    China's $30 billion memory chip plant: Boom and bust?
    http://www.zdnet.com/article/china-plans-30b-memory-chip-plant/

    Do you expect any disruptive new technology in semiconductor field, in the near future ?
     

Share This Page