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Chinese Infrastructure : Pictures & Updates

Discussion in 'China & Asia Pacific' started by RMLOVER, Jul 9, 2017.

  1. RMLOVER

    RMLOVER Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    China | road infrastructure • 中国高速
    http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=232957&page=165

    List of countries by expressway network size


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_o...d_network_size

    Rank Country Expressway length (km) Date of information


    1 China 131,000 2017

    2 United States 77,017 2017

    3 Canada 17,000 2013

    4 Spain 16,583 2013

    5 Mexico 15,283 2014

    6 Germany 12,917 2013

    7 France 11,882 2013

    8 Brazil 11,000 2013

    9 Japan 8,050 2012

    10 Italy 6,758 2013

    Chinese Expressway map

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  2. RMLOVER

    RMLOVER Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Chinese high-speed rail expansion on the fast track
    http://m.railjournal.com/index.php/h...ast-track.html

    China is continuing to expand its high-speed rail network as fast as it can to meet people’s growing transport needs and support the country’s industrial development and economic restructuring, as Han Qiao and Fan Xi with China Features explain.

    THE 401km high-speed line linking Baoji and Lanzhou in northwest China was scheduled to open in July. It bridges the gap between two existing lines to create a high-speed railway linking Xuzhou in eastern China and Urumqi in the northwest, stretching more than 3000km.

    The line is a key part of China’s high-speed railway network, which is based on a grid of four east-west lines and four north-south lines. This grid has now basically been completed, following rapid construction in the past decade, particularly in the last five years. At the end of 2016, China’s high-speed rail network stood at 22,000km, which is more than all the other high-speed lines currently operating outside of China combined and accounts for about 60% of the world’s total high-speed railway length.

    The expansion of the network has boosted traffic considerably. Chinese high-speed trains carried 1.18 billion passengers in 2016 compared with 961 million in 2015 which itself was a 237% increase on the figure recorded in 2011. On the busiest day last year, a total of 14.4 million people travelled by high-speed train, setting a new Chinese record.

    China’s first high-speed railway opened in 2002 and by 2013, when the Tianjin - Qinhuangdao line was put into service, the network already exceeded 10,000km. It took just 11 years to go from zero to 10,000km.

    The rate of construction accelerated during the next three years so that by the time the Zhengzhou - Xuzhou line opened in September 2016, the length of the high-speed network had doubled to exceed 20,000km.

    High-speed services are popular in China thanks to the short journey times (Table 1), convenience and punctuality, with 98.8% of trains departing on time in 2015 and 95.4% arriving on time. Sales of tickets through the internet are growing rapidly. In 2015, 60.5% of high-speed train tickets were sold online, and by 2016, the proportion had risen to 68.2%.

    Expansion

    According to a comprehensive transport plan approved earlier this year by the State Council, China’s cabinet, the high-speed rail network will reach 30,000km by 2020. This will effectively double the grid network already created so that there will be eight east-west and eight north-south lines.

    Some of these arteries will be created by plugging gaps in the existing network, for example, between Ganzhou and Chongqing to create a new east-west line from Xiamen to Chengdu, or by extending existing lines, such as from Harbin to Suifenhe and from Qiqihar to Manzhouli to create a new east-west line in northeastern China, or by extending the Guangzhou - Nanning - Baise line to Kunming.

    Nevertheless, there will also be some entirely new lines:

    Beijing - Hengshui - Fuyang - Hefei/Huanggang - Jiugiang - Ganzhou - Shenzhen - Hong Kong (north-south)

    Hohhot - Datong - Zhengzhou - Jingmen - Guilin - Nanning (north-south), and

    Baotou and Yinchuan - Xi’an - Chongqing - Guiyang - Nanning - Haikou (north-south).


    When this target has been reached, more than 80% of cities with a population of more than one million will be served by high-speed train.

    China’s investment in railway fixed assets stood at Yuan 801.5 billion ($US 118bn) in 2016, according to the Ministry of Transport. Fixed asset investment includes capital spent on infrastructure, machinery and other physical assets.

    This year fixed asset investment will be at the same level as in 2016, with the government setting a target of Yuan 800bn, according to China Railway Corporation (CRC). China plans to invest Yuan 3.5 trillion in railway construction during the 13th Five-Year Plan covering the period 2016-2020.

    Greater effort will be made to extend the high-speed network in the less-developed western regions of China, according to the country’s medium and long-term railway network development plan, which was revised last year.

    Although China’s railway has witnessed rapid development in recent years, which has helped to relieve pressure on transport capacity, the network is still insufficient in central and western China, and the government wants to narrow the gap. “Accelerating railway development, particularly investment in the central and western regions, is key for China’s strategy to stabilise growth, adjust economic structure, increase efficient investment and expand consumption,” the plan says.

    Besides these major lines, China is planning some short-distance lines to add to the high-speed network by 2020. According to the revised plan, the total length of high-speed lines will be further extended to reach 38,000km by 2025, and 45,000km by 2030.

    New train

    China’s next-generation Fuxing or Rejuvenation high-speed train made its debut on the country’s busiest high-speed route, the Beijing - Shanghai line, in June. The new train, which has been developed from the widely-used Hexiehao (Harmony) train, has a maximum design speed of 400km/h and can operate at 350km/h. Besides the higher speed, it is more spacious, has a longer design lifecycle, and should be more reliable than previous generations of Chinese high-speed trains.

    “Fuxing will be China’s prime high-speed export train in the future,” says Mr He Huawu, CRC’s chief engineer. “The model can be adapted to various situations, including extreme climates.”

    China and Indonesia signed an EPC deal in April to build a high-speed rail link between the capital Jakarta and Indonesia’s fourth largest city Bandung. The line, with a maximum design speed of 350km/h, will be operational in three years’ time and will cut the journey time between the two cities from more than three hours to just 40 minutes.

    The deal was the first full-package overseas high-speed project using Chinese technology, design, engineering, equipment, management and personnel training.

    Mr Huang Qiang, chief researcher of the China Academy of Railway Sciences, says Chinese high-speed railways boast higher cost performance, stable operation, a shorter construction period and good-quality financing arrangements.

    China is pushing forward with high-speed railway projects in Russia. CRC, Russian Railways (RZD), Chinese train builder CRRC and a Russian railway company have signed a letter of intent to build a 762km railway between Moscow and Kazan, with a designed maximum speed of 400km/h and an operating speed of 360km/h.

    China is also actively seeking high-speed railway deals in Malaysia, Britain and the United States as it looks to export its expertise around the world.
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  3. RMLOVER

    RMLOVER Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Slower maglev trains pick up steam in China
    http://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Tren...steam-in-China

    BEIJING -- Lower-speed maglev train networks are springing up across China as the homegrown technology offers an economical urban transit alternative to subways.

    Infrastructure developer China Railway Construction and global train-car leader CRRC are among the companies behind the rush. Projects are underway in several cities, from Beijing to Qingyuan in the south to Urumqi in the far west. Investments in the projects are expected to total around 60 billion yuan ($8.7 billion).

    Quiet and cost-efficient

    "I was surprised when the train moved silently," an office worker from Shanghai said with a smile after riding a magnetic levitation train in Changsha, Hunan Province. Since no wheels touch the rail, acceleration does not increase vibration.

    The Changsha service, which started pilot operations in May 2016, connects an airport to a high-speed train station. The project includes China Railway Construction and the CRRC group as investors. The network spans around 19km, with investment amounting to 4.3 billion yuan. The maximum speed by design is around 100kph, but the trains actually run around 70kph. The service is slated to officially launch by the end of this year.

    Noise level in the passenger cabin is so low that people need not speak loudly to have a conversation, said a representative of the developer. "It's quieter than a monorail and so it's easier to get support from local residents."

    As automobiles increase rapidly and fuel road congestion in China, developing urban transit systems is an urgent task. Developers have installed subway systems in large cities, but construction costs 500 million to 800 million yuan per kilometer, due to the digging work involved. Aboveground maglev rails cost just 200 million to 300 million yuan per kilometer.

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    The lower-speed maglev, developed in China, keeps train cars floating 8mm above the rail, and does not require the liquid helium or powerful magnet used to keep trains 10cm above the rail as in the Japanese system. "It costs half to one third of a subway to build, and requires less space to install rails," says an official of the Hunan project developer.

    With these advantages, maglev train projects are increasing rapidly in China. China Railway Construction in October created a wholly owned subsidiary to step up maglev construction. The company has reached an agreement with the government of Qingyuan in Guangdong Province, and plans a 30km network costing 10 billion yuan. The target is to begin operations at the end of 2018.

    China Railway Group, a major developer with former ties to the Railway Ministry, is building a 20km maglev system to open this year in a Beijing suburb, at a cost of 12 billion yuan.

    Similar networks are envisioned for Urumqi, in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, and to link the Sichuan Province cities of Deyang and Chengdu.

    A CRRC group unit developing and building maglev train cars is preparing to increase output. A Hunan Province subsidiary will supply the Changsha project, and a Hebei Province subsidiary will supply the Beijing project. The plan is to increase output capacity as projects some online.
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    Beijing's 1st medium-low speed maglev Line S1 to be open in 2017
    http://www.ecns.cn/2017/06-11/261068.shtml

    Engineers began comprehensive testing and debugging of Beijing's first maglev line this week. It is expected to start a trial run before the end of 2017.

    The overhead maglev line, named S1, uses sophisticated systems to maintain an air gap between the train and the rail.

    It will be the first domestically developed automated subway on the Chinese mainland, said a spokesperson for the Beijing Municipal Commission of Housing and Urban-Rural Development.

    S1 will run in the west, from Shijingshan district's Pingguoyuan to Shimenying in the mountainous Mentougou district. It will stretch about 10 kilometers and have eight stations.

    The travel time between the two locations, currently connected only by bus, will be cut by two-thirds to just 20 minutes, according to the Beijing Major Projects Construction Office.

    Once finished, S1 will connect with the subway's Line 1 and the western extension of Line 6, which is under construction.
     
  4. RMLOVER

    RMLOVER Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    China's new-generation bullet trains put into operation on Beijing-Tianjin Intercity Railway
    http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/20..._136542583.htm

    Passengers board the Fuxing train at the Tianjin Railway Station in Tianjin, north China, Aug. 21, 2017. China's new-generation bullet trains, the Fuxing, was put into operation on the Beijing-Tianjin Intercity Railway Aug. 21. (Xinhua/Luo Xiaoguang)

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  5. RMFAN

    RMFAN Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    https://www.economist.com/blogs/grap...09/daily-chart

    CHINA’S high-speed rail system, just a decade old, is now one of the biggest infrastructure projects in history. The government in Beijing has spent an estimated 2.4trn yuan ($360bn) building 22,000km (13,670 miles) of high-speed rail lines, more than the rest of the world combined. This month, six years after a maximum speed limit was lowered following a deadly crash, China's trains are getting ready to accelerate.

    China’s path from railway laggard to leader has been bumpy. In 2011 the head of the country’s railways ministry was sacked for his role in a massive bribery scandal. Months later, two high-speed trains collided near the eastern city of Wenzhou, killing 40 people and injuring some 200 more. In the wake of the deadly crash, Beijing temporarily halted new rail projects and reduced the maximum speed of its high-speed trains from 350kph to 300kph. The crash outraged many members of the Chinese public, as did the government’s censorship of critical media coverage of the accident. Some internet users began referring to the high-speed railway line, called Hexie or “harmony”, as Hexue or “drinking blood”.

    Today, Chinese high-speed rail appears to be back on track. The government’s five-year plan calls for 3.5trn yuan in railway investment between 2016 and 2020. By then, if all goes to plan, the network will stretch 30,000km connecting more than 80% of the country’s major cities. With ever more passengers riding the speedy trains, many of the rail lines are now profitable. Their international reputation has also improved. In 2014 a group of World Bank researchers lauded the country’s trains as “world-class” and described the development of the railway network as “remarkable”.

    In yet another sign of China’s confidence in its railways, on September 21st bullet trains traveling on the flagship Beijing-Shanghai line will once again whizz down the tracks at speeds of 350kph. The new trains, which can reach speeds of 400kph, will be branded with the word Fuxing or “rejuvenation”.


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  6. RMFAN

    RMFAN Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%B9...85%AC%E8%B7%AF

    Guangdong Expressway is an important transportation network system in southern China. Guangdong Province, the first highway is built in 1989, the opening of the Guangfo Expressway, the province's highway in 2009 opened 4100 km mileage, in 2010 reached 5,000 km in 2012 opening mileage reached 5500 km [1], 2013 Traffic mileage of 5700 km [2]. Guangdong since 2013 to carry out the construction of the General Assembly since the highway, the highway mileage in 2014 exceeded 6,000 km, ranking first in the country; 2015, the highway mileage reached 7018 km, continue to maintain the country first, as soon as possible to achieve county Through the highway target. In 2016, Guangdong Province, highway construction plans to complete the investment of 85 billion yuan, new projects 15 782 km, to promote the construction of 3583 km project, built nine projects opened 716 km. [3]. November 23, 2015, the Guangdong Provincial People 's Government on the issuance of Guangdong Province Expressway 2015 to 2017 construction plans and long - term planning notice. According to the plan, by 2020, Guangdong Province, the highway mileage to reach 11,000 km。


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  7. RMFAN

    RMFAN Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    S60 Hena (Hepu - Napo) Expressway near Jingxi, Guangxi.

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  8. RMFAN

    RMFAN Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Chinese Bridges

    http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=331300&page=58



    Main structure of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge finished

    http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/20..._136425839.htm

    The main structure of world's longest cross-sea bridge linking Hong Kong, Zhuhai, and Macao was finished on July 7, 2017. The main structure measures 29.6 kilometers, consisting of a 22.9-km bridge section and 6.7-km underground tunnel. The bridge's total length is 55 kilometers. It has taken seven years to build the bridge, which will be open to traffic at the end of the year.

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  9. RMFAN

    RMFAN Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Top Ten Yangtze River Bridges in China:
    https://www.youtube.com/playlist?lis...rttwAA2VW-DA1c

    Top Ten Cross-Sea Bridges in China:
    https://www.youtube.com/playlist?lis...9fQiIc51Pd9q1q

    Top Ten Longest High Bridges in the World(also in China):
    https://www.youtube.com/playlist?lis...JcTNivB7e34_3E

    Top Ten Arch Bridges in China
    https://www.youtube.com/playlist?lis...SlF5Bxf6aLTs5S

    Top Ten High Cable-Stayed Bridges in China
    https://www.youtube.com/playlist?lis...u4fxRwoDjSIXpm

    Channel's name"Chinese bridge" or
    https://www.youtube.com/chinesebridge
     
  10. RMFAN

    RMFAN Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    http://idg.timedg.com/article/130812

    Humen 2nd bridge include 2 main bridges and more than 20km approach bridge. Main span of two bridges are 1688m and 1200m. 1688m span bridge are steel box beam with 49.7m wide steel box! (longest box beam bridge in the world), 1200m span bridge are steel truss beam.

    Totally used 445.6 thousand tons of steel, planning completed in 2018.

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  11. RMFAN

    RMFAN Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Ma'anshan Yangtze river bridge

    2*1080 meter span

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  12. RMFAN

    RMFAN Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Wushan Yangtze bridge ,Chongqing

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  13. RMFAN

    RMFAN Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Ganhaizi bridge

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  14. RMFAN

    RMFAN Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Tianxingzhou Yangtze river bridge, Wuhan

    4 track railway and 6 lane highway

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  15. RMFAN

    RMFAN Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Donghai bridge,Shanghai

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