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Deriving an Energy Consumption Equation based on Controlling Pollution of Cities

Discussion in 'World Economy' started by santosh, Apr 11, 2014.

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  1. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Energy Consumption Equation to be based on Controlling Pollution of Cities

    Gas as The Prime Fuel for Vehicles in India

    Gas is the 'cleanest' "High Grade Energy", which may be used for vehicles too. its price is always cheaper than petrol/diesel, and would obviously be much cheaper than market rate for a long term contract for a high demanding market like India. and yes its the biggest market at the closest geo-graphical proximity to Iran. Iran, which has second largest gas reserve after russia too...... a gas pipeline with a big cross sectional area is needed, for a long term contract to cover the whole western region of india is needed at present, along with the current supplies of gas from eastern region we already have.....

    India needs to rely more and more on LNG for vehicles etc. first Gas engines are always bit cheaper than petrol and diesel and also its a very less polluting source of energy...... government would consider to reduce tax on those passenger vehicles which require gas to run its engine. once we imagined India to be having a type of tax system which would encourage the three categories of vehicles as below. :cheers:

    1st; Two wheel drives like bike etc to be run by Petrol.

    2nd; Passenger four wheel vehicles like cars/buses/ auto ricksha etc to be run by Gas only, a majority at least by reducing taxes on gas engines and higher tax on diesel/petrol engines. (auto ricksha on electricity is also a concern.)

    3rd; Vehicles to transfer goods like trucks etc to be run by diesel, a cheaper fuel than Petrol to reduce transportation bill, while being operated outside cities.


    (with a separate tax systems for luxury cars, as we already have.)

    (and a Gas pipeline with a big cross sectional area from Iran would be the big concern in this regard, to fulfill demand of gas, which has the second largest gas reserve of world, and India is the largest market in its closest Geo-proximity. and this idea would get more strength with the recent news that pipeline under sea route is now cheaper than that of the pipeline on the surface too, hence avoiding any type of transit problems through neighbors too this way :tup:)
    New automation concept promises to enhance deepwater pipeline integrity | Indian Defence Forum

    => for example, "Having metro rails in all the cities/ more modern express ways etc too", but these things are the basic things. its clear that you have to have more and more metro lines in cities, similar to other infrastructure projects. and we do see progress in this direction too, but we demand more expenditure on Infrastructure projects....... and yes, transferring a big portion of the city population to electric metro trains is the most Ideal way to reduce pollution of cities :india:
    .
     
  2. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    New automation concept promises to enhance Deepwater pipeline integrity
    08/01/2012

    DNV engineers have developed the X-Stream concept to improve the viability of gas transport pipelines in deep and ultra-deep water a long distance from shore. Currently, the cost of pipes strong enough to withstand the pressure differential between internal gas pressure and external hydrostatic pressure in deepwater, and the logistics associated with their installation, can make such pipelines uneconomical. Using X-Stream to control internal pressure, thinner pipe can be used, alleviating these challenges without compromising safety or the integrity of the pipeline. :cheers:

    In 2009, Petrobras posed the question to Dr. Henrik O. Madsen, DNV's CEO: three hundred kilometers (186 mi) from shore, in water 3,000 m (9,842 ft) deep, how can associated gas be economically piped to shore so it can be sold rather than just re-injected? This was not just a theoretical question. A solution could enable commercialization of the gas associated with Brazil's presalt oil fields.

    "The challenge is to avoid pipeline collapse over hundreds or even thousands of kilometers as a result of loss of internal pressure through a leak or rupture of the pipe during operation," said DNV Project Manager Flavio Diniz. :coffee:

    [​IMG]
    The dividing line between safe and collapse critical depth indicates the boundary below which the external pressure can compromise the pipeline. (green = safe area, red = collapse critical area)

    Madsen was enthusiastic about the challenge. "As the deepwater gas transportation market will experience massive investments and considerable growth in the years to come, new safe and cost efficient solutions are needed," he said.

    DNV has a history of involvement in deepwater projects, including the proposed Oman-to-India pipeline; as well as Bluestream, Perdido, and Ormen Lange.

    "We have been instrumental in developing and upgrading the safety and integrity regime and standards for offshore pipelines for decades, and today more than 65% of the world's offshore pipelines are designed and installed to DNV's offshore pipeline standard," said Madsen. :tup:

    In Rio de Janeiro, DNV has a strong technical team that focuses on riser/pipe engineering and risk management. So, Madsen established a team of mostly young engineers, backed by the global expertise of DNV, and set them to work on the question. The solution was to only involve proven technology. Petrobras engineers were enthusiastic partners throughout the project.

    [​IMG]
    X-Stream's inverted high integrity pressure protection system (i-HIPPS) is designed to isolate the deepwater section of a pipeline if internal pressure drops to a critical level. :thumb:

    The breakthrough came with the realization that the concept behind existing high integrity pressure protection systems (HIPPS) could be used to protect against not just high pressures but low pressures as well. HIPPS is a type of safety instrumented system (SIS) designed to prevent over-pressurization of a plant, such as a chemical plant, oil refinery, or pipelines. It will shut off the source of the high pressure before the design pressure of the system is exceeded, thus preventing loss of containment through rupture (explosion) of a line or vessel. Therefore, a HIPPS is considered as a barrier between a high-pressure and a low-pressure section of an installation.

    Currently there are about 20 subsea HIPPS around the world. They are used when the flowlines are designed with a lower pressure than the full well shut-in pressure, to avoid overpressure of the flowline. The idea is that if it is acceptable to use a HIPPS to avoid overpressure of a pipeline, it should be equally safe and acceptable to use a HIPPS system to avoid a low-pressure scenario. The inversion of this technology laid the foundation for DNV's X-Stream deepwater piping solution.

    It is the need to prevent the pipe from imploding that currently dictates pipe wall thickness. In ultra-deepwater, the wall pipe needs to be extremely thick, and thus can only be manufactured by a limited number of pipe mills. The thick pipes are also heavy to transport and handle; slow to weld and difficult to install; and require extremely thick and costly buckle arrestors. Currently, the number of suitable installation vessels is also limited.

    Floating gas facilities are being developed as an alternative. However, floating gas facilities are in many cases not yet field-proven, and are unlikely to be viable for the relatively low gas volumes associated with some oil fields.

    X-Stream introduces a new method to deal with the high external hydrostatic pressures of deepwater without relying purely on material thickness to ensure the integrity of the pipeline.

    "Fundamental to the solution is the need to protect thinner pipe from collapse during installation, in case of accidental damage and in emergency shutdown scenarios," explained Asle Venås, DNV Pipeline Segment Director. "The idea of an inverted HIPPS system, i-HIPPS, which isolates the deepwater section of a pipeline when internal pressure drops to a critical level, will fulfill this role, enabling pipe walls to be significantly reduced compared with traditional pipelines."

    However, risk analysis showed one unlikely but potentially serious danger remaining – that of an internal leak in the i-HIPPS system itself. If this happened, it would mean the pressure drop could not be arrested.

    To cover the situation of an i-HIPPS leak, another inversion of existing technology was brought to the system. This time, rather than double block and bleed (DBB) valves being used to relieve high pressure situations, they would be used to prevent pressures dropping to critical levels. An i-DBB provides backup for the containment of the pressure drop by introducing a gel into the enclosure between the i-HIPPS valves in shallow waters. X-Stream, then, consists of a series of automated valves, pressure transducers and autonomous logic controllers to provide an integrated pressure control system for the lifetime of the pipeline.

    In a pipeline running to shore from deepwater, the main i-HIPPS system would be located above the water line to ensure easy access for maintenance, inspection, and testing. The collapse critical point for a pipeline is the depth at which the external pressure can compromise the whole pipeline. Below this point, the impact of a pipeline rupture is limited by the ingress of water which holds back the gas in the pipeline. This situation is the same for traditional pipelines.

    [​IMG]
    In the inverted double block and bleed (i-DBB) concept, a viscous substance with a gel consistency is pumped into the closure between the valves to effectively hinder any leaks from the high pressure side, thus ensuring the integrity of the pipeline. :tup:

    If, however, leakage or rupture of the pipeline occurs above the collapse critical point, at the rig or near the shore, major damage can result since the water pressure is insufficient to contain the gas and therefore the pressure loss. In this case, a secondary set of i-HIPPS valves would close on a pre-determined low pressure signal to isolate the deepwater pipe and ensure that pressure is maintained. Should the i-HIPPS system leak and pressure continue to fall, the i-DBB system would be activated. Further pressure drop would then be prevented by the gel release.

    The secondary i-HIPPS system located below the collapse critical point would be activated to contain the de-pressurization. Should this secondary system develop an internal leak and the internal pressure reach a critically low level, a small bleed valve in the i-DBB system would open to the surrounding water so seawater could flood the void between the i-DBB valves and halt pressure loss.

    "With i-HIPPS and i-DBB combined, the system immediately and effectively isolates the deepwater pipe if the pressure starts to fall. In this way, the internal pipeline pressure is maintained above a critical, pre-determined level for any length of time," said Diniz.

    DNV's innovation, therefore, centers on inverting the well-established HIPPS and DBB systems to prevent too large a pressure differential in the pipeline, and X-Stream meets the strict requirements set for the safety and integrity of existing subsea piping including ISO and DNV-OS-F101. It becomes cost attractive when more than a kilometer of ultra-deepwater pipeline is required. This is because even small reductions in wall thickness make a huge difference in terms of steel volume, welding effort, and installation costs. The exact reduction in wall thickness depends on the water depth, pipe diameter, and actual pipeline profile. Typically for gas pipeline in water depths of 2,500 m (8,202 ft), the wall thickness reduction can be around 25 to 30% compared to traditional designs. :coffee:

    New automation concept promises to enhance deepwater pipeline integrity - Offshore
     
  3. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Diniz described a typical scenario for the presalt region where a pipeline runs to shore from water depths of 3,000 m (9,842 ft). Three hundred kilometers (186 mi) of pipe with outside diameter of 0.457 m (18-in.) lays in deepwater and a further 100 km (62 mi) lays in shallow water. If a minimum internal pressure of 200 bar is maintained by X-Stream, pipe wall thickness can be reduced from 25 mm to 17 mm (~1 in. to 0.7 in.) – a 32% reduction. With concrete coating, this could be further reduced to 15.6 mm (0.6 in.).

    The result is a system that would be significantly cheaper than current pipeline technology. The production costs decrease as less steel is required in the construction of the pipe. The reduced wall thickness also means that manufacture using higher grade steel is possible. Installation costs are slashed by the reduced welding times, and the new system also results in increased lay rates without the need for buckle arrestors in some cases. Alternatively, the system could mean a larger diameter pipe can be achieved for the same wall thickness.

    In either case, X-Stream reduces the consequences of accidents during installation. The pipe is installed fully or partially flooded with water to prevent collapse. Cleaning and gauging of the pipeline is performed and then it is dewatered and dried for operation. A minimum pressure is maintained in the pipeline during pre-commissioning using produced gas, separated from the water in the pipe by a set of separation pigs and gel. This technology is not new and is already standard practice for several oil companies, but X-Stream provides an additional safety mechanism during deepwater installation operations. :tup:

    To date, the X-Stream innovation project has been limited to a concept study, and more detailed design will need to be carried out before it is realized on an actual project. DNV is not patenting the concept but intends to work with industry partners to refine the concept, and then act as certification body to approve the detailed design.

    "At DNV, we feel confident that huge financial savings can be made for long-distance deepwater gas pipelines without compromising pipeline safety and integrity," explained Madsen. :cheers:

    X-Stream is not a one-off concept limited to Brazil's presalt fields. It is timely to take it to the next stage of development now, he says. New offshore oil and gas fields are being developed in deeper and deeper waters, and export solutions for the gas are critical.

    "The technology could be taken around the world," said Madsen. "For instance, it is just as relevant to the pipeline planned between Algeria and Italy for the GALSI project; the South Stream project in the Black Sea; and the SAGE project linking India and the Middle East." :tup:

    Madsen introduced the X-Stream concept in London this past January, and it has been positively received by offshore companies such as Petrobras, British Gas, Odebrecht Oil and Gas, Saipem, Technip, Subsea 7, and Heerema, among others. For Celso Raposo, Steering Committee Member of the project and head of pipeline services for DNV in South America, the project, coming at a time when Brazil is investing $1 billion/yr in research and development, is an example of the country's growing capacity for successful industry partnerships and technical innovation. He says: "DNV has been a pioneer in pipeline technology and we already work closely with Petrobras providing certification and verification services. The success of this project demonstrates DNV's ability for lateral thinking when it comes to solving practical, real-life problems for the industry." :coffee:

    New automation concept promises to enhance deepwater pipeline integrity - Offshore
     
  4. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    New deep-water pipeline concept reduces cost
    January 23, 2012

    DNV has developed a new pipeline concept, called X-Stream, that can significantly reduce the cost of a deep- and ultra-deepwater gas pipeline while still complying with the strictest safety and integrity regime. X-Stream is based on established and field-proven technologies which have been innovatively arranged. :cheers:

    X-Stream can reduce both the pipeline wall thickness and time spent on welding and installation compared to deep-water gas pipelines currently in operation. The exact reduction in the wall thickness depends on the water depth, pipe diameter and actual pipeline profile. Typically, for a gas pipeline in water depths of 2,500 m, the wall thickness reduction can be 25 to 30 per cent compared to traditional designs.

    “It’s essential for DNV that the new concept meets the strict requirements of the existing safety and integrity regime, and I’m pleased to confirm that this concept does,” says Dr. Henrik O. Madsen, DNV’s CEO, who announced the news at a press briefing in London last week. :cheers:

    “DNV has been instrumental in developing and upgrading the safety and integrity regime and standards for offshore pipelines over the past decades. Today, more than 65 per cent of the world’s offshore pipelines are designed and installed to DNV’s offshore pipeline standard. As the deep-water gas transportation market will experience massive investments and considerable growth over the coming years, new safe and cost-efficient solutions are needed,” Dr Madsen addsed. :tup:

    Current deep-water gas pipelines have thick walls and, due to quality and safety requirements, the number of pipe mills capable of producing the pipe is limited. When installing pipelines, the heavy weights are difficult to handle and the thick walls are challenging to weld. And finally, the number of pipe-laying vessels for deep-water pipelines is limited too.

    New offshore oil and gas fields are being developed in deeper and deeper waters and export solutions for the gas are critical. New exploration activities are also heading for ultra-deepwaters. The distance to shore is increasing too. The X-Stream concept can for such fields represent an alternative to, for instance, floating LNG plants combined with LNG shuttle tankers.

    By controlling the pressure differential between the pipeline’s external and internal pressures at all times, the amount of steel and thickness of the pipe wall can be reduced by as much as 25-30 per cent - or even more compared to today’s practice and depending on the actual project and its parameters. This will of course make it easier and cheaper to manufacture and install the pipeline.

    “By utilising an inverted High Pressure Protection System – i-HIPPS – and inverted Double Block and Bleed valves – i-DBB – the system immediately and effectively isolates the deep-water pipe if the pressure starts to fall. In this way, the internal pipeline pressure is maintained above a critical level for any length of time,” explained Asle VenÃ¥s, DNV’s Global Pipeline Director.

    The new concept is simple and reliable. During installation, it is necessary to fully or partially flood the pipeline to control its differential pressure. During operation, the i-HIPPS and i-DBB systems ensure that the pipeline’s internal pressure can never drop below the collapse pressure – plus a safety margin. In sum – a certain minimum pressure will be maintained in the pipeline at all times.

    “It will also be important to maintain the minimum pressure in the pipeline during pre-commissioning. This can be done using produced gas separated from the water in the pipe by a set of separation pigs and gel. This technology is not new to the industry. This method has already been initiated as standard practice by several oil companies,” said Mr VenÃ¥s.

    A team of mainly young engineers, headed by DNV in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is behind the X-Stream concept. As with the other DNV concepts launched in 2010 and 2011, the X-Stream team was asked to think outside the box.

    The DNV study is a concept study, and a basic and detailed design will need to be carried out before the X-Stream concept is realised on a real project. DNV intends to work further with the industry to refine and test the concept.

    “I’m pleased to announce the outcome of this innovation project. At DNV, we feel confident that, by further qualifying the X-Stream concept, huge financial savings can be made for long distance, deep-water gas pipelines without compromising pipeline safety and integrity,” concluded Dr Madsen. :cheers:

    New deep-water pipeline concept reduces cost
     
  5. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Iran, India eye deepwater gas pipeline

    Iran has generally agreed to deliver natural gas to Asia’s top energy consumer India through a deepwater pipeline crossing the Sea of Oman, an Iranian official says. :cheers:

    “Negotiations were held with three Indian companies for [their] purchase of gas from Iran, and general agreements have been reached,” Ali Amirani, director of marketing at National Iranian Gas Exports Company (NIGEC), said. :tup:

    He added that Iran and India are expected to start talks about gas sales and pricing after the finalization of the agreements in a months’ time.

    Amirani stated that India’s South Asia Gas Enterprise Pvt. Ltd. (SAGE) has conducted feasibility studies for the planned 1,400-kilometer pipeline, which is estimated to cost USD 4-5 billion and would carry 31 million cubic meters (mcm) per day of gas to India.

    The envisaged pipeline will pump gas from Iran’s gigantic South Pars gas field. :tup:

    South Pars covers an area of 9,700 square kilometers, 3,700 square kilometers of which are in Iran's territorial waters in the Persian Gulf. The remaining 6,000 square kilometers, i.e. North Dome, are in Qatar's territorial waters.


    India is among Asia’s major importers of energy and relies on Iran to meet a portion of its energy demands. Iran was the second-largest supplier of India’s crude oil before illegal US-led sanctions were imposed on Tehran about two years ago. :coffee:

    India’s oil shipments from Iran are estimated to rise to 4 million tons in the current fiscal year.

    PressTV - Iran, India eye deepwater gas pipeline
     
  6. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    South Asia Gas Enterprise Pvt. Ltd. (SAGE)

    In quest for India's Energy Security, South Asia Gas Enterprise Pvt. Ltd. (SAGE) has undertaken a path-breaking project, to build the Deepest Underwater Transnational Gas Pipeline. Also known as "Middle East to India Deepwater Pipeline (MEIDP)", it will connect the Gas Rich Gulf & Middle East regions to India, for the transportation of Natural Gas to secure India´s Energy Needs. :tup:

    SAGE is promoted by the New Delhi based Siddho Mal Group, in Joint Venture with a UK-based Deepwater Technology Company. :coffee:

    SAGE is working with a Global Consortium of some of the most reputed companies in the field of Deepwater Pipelines, to create a Multi Billion Dollar "Energy Corridor" that can transport gas from the Middle East to India, bypassing the land route through Pakistan.

    [​IMG]

    The Deep-Water route passing through the Arabian Sea is the Shortest Secure distance between the Gas Rich Gulf region and the coast of Gujarat/Maharashtra, the industrial hub of India where the gas will be received. :coffee:

    Linking the Middle East gas fields with India across the Arabian Sea for an offshore distance of 1300 kilometers and maximum water depth of 3400 meters, the SAGE gas transmission pipeline is designed to transport up to 1.1BSCFD gas into the Indian energy markets, or 8TCF over the next 20 years.

    Qatar, Iran, Iraq and Turkmenistan together have enormous Natural Gas reserves to the tune of 2,000 trillion cubic feet (TCF) and SAGE plans to transport some of this to India through its Deepwater Pipeline Infrastructure. Dialogue and discussions with the above-mentioned countries are on at the Highest Levels. The option of Gas Swaps between these nations is also being explored.

    In addition, SAGE also plans to supply Natural Gas to Oman/ UAE on its Pipeline Route to India, and seeks to further build Cooperative Relations with the friendly Gulf and Middle East countries.

    3 Natural Gas pipelines are envisaged over the next 10 years each having similar capacity. SAGE pipelines are envisaged as "Common Carriers" which Gas sellers in the Gulf can use as infrastructure to transport gas to the Indian region, by payment of a Pipeline Tariff.

    India already imports around 1.1BSCFD in the form of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) to meet its current shortfall. Based on U.S. Energy Information Administration reference case this shortfall is expected to rise dramatically by 2020, and continue rising through to 2030 when it will peak at 3.56BSCFD.

    SAGE Deepwater Pipeline is completely independent of the Indian Government’s Onshore Pipeline Initiatives and builds extensively on studies performed for the Oman- India Pipeline during the mid 1990’s. :coffee:

    The Deep-Sea Pipeline Route is now technically possible and commercially viable. Contrary to popular belief, Deepwater Pipelines are at times, more economicalthan Onshore pipelines that pass through land,since no Transit Fee has to be paid to countries on the way. In addition, it can be laid faster than onshore pipelines passing through several countries. :tup:

    SAGE India - South Asia Gas Enterprise, SAGE Pipeline Construction Projects
     
  7. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Pollution Index 2014

    World map of Pollution Index for 2014


    Country - Pollution Index


    Ghana - 111.18
    Bangladesh - 95.87
    Mongolia - 94.98
    Egypt - 91.23
    Peru - 88.65
    Myanmar - 86.93
    Lebanon - 86.72
    El Salvador - 86.28
    Iran - 86.07
    Trinidad And Tobago - 85.71
    Nepal - 85.43
    Macedonia - 85.35
    China - 84.72 :coffee:
    Azerbaijan - 82.02
    Jordan - 81.84
    Qatar - 81.03
    Jamaica - 80.86
    Pakistan - 80.25
    Laos - 78.91
    Albania - 77.30
    Turkey - 77.11
    Russia - 76.45
    Guatemala - 75.92
    Philippines - 74.88
    Cambodia - 74.71
    Tunisia - 74.55
    Kazakhstan - 74.36
    India - 74.34 :coffee:
    Sri Lanka - 74.26
    South Korea - 74.24
    Venezuela - 73.96
    Bolivia - 73.79
    Indonesia - 73.78
    Ukraine - 73.32
    Vietnam - 72.62
    Armenia - 71.57
    Saudi Arabia - 71.54
    Mexico - 71.17
    Thailand - 71.13
    Chile - 70.98
    Taiwan - 70.81
    Moldova - 70.34
    Morocco - 70.10
    Malta - 68.92
    Dominican Republic - 68.76
    Guyana - 67.67
    Bulgaria - 66.72
    Colombia - 65.67
    Georgia - 65.28
    Ethiopia - 64.89
    Tanzania - 64.47
    Hong Kong - 63.79
    Israel - 63.75
    Libya - 63.54
    Algeria - 62.59
    Romania - 62.55
    Malaysia - 61.12
    Kyrgyzstan - 61.03
    Sudan - 61.01
    Kenya - 60.71
    Italy - 60.42
    Kuwait - 59.99
    Costa Rica - 59.57
    Zimbabwe - 58.36
    Bosnia And Herzegovina - 58.22
    South Africa - 57.93
    Brazil - 57.58

    Paraguay - 57.47
    Argentina - 57.45
    Belgium - 56.16
    Mauritius - 53.86
    United Arab Emirates - 53.84
    Ecuador - 53.66
    Fiji - 52.06
    Poland - 50.54
    Panama - 49.85
    Spain - 49.76
    Serbia - 49.56
    Hungary - 48.33
    Belize - 47.59
    Puerto Rico - 47.41
    France - 46.92
    Cyprus - 46.14
    Greece - 45.28
    Luxembourg - 45.17
    Montenegro - 44.58
    Latvia - 43.61
    Belarus - 42.72
    Singapore - 41.93
    Slovakia - 40.81
    Japan - 40.78
    Brunei - 38.45
    Czech Republic - 38.34
    Syria - 35.92
    United States - 35.13
    Denmark - 34.76
    United Kingdom - 33.81
    Slovenia - 32.97
    Netherlands - 32.40
    Austria - 31.68
    Portugal - 30.90
    Germany - 30.20
    Ireland - 29.32
    Croatia - 28.69
    Canada - 27.70
    Switzerland - 26.80
    Norway - 22.57
    Uruguay - 21.33
    Lithuania - 21.13
    New Zealand - 21.02
    Australia - 19.38
    Iceland - 18.04
    Sweden - 17.51
    Finland - 16.68
    Estonia - 13.43

    Pollution Index by Country 2014
     
    Last edited: Apr 11, 2014
  8. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    World’s Most Polluted Countries
    World’s Most Polluted Countries

    Emerging nations around the world are often heralded for their fast growth, but we don’t often hear about the downsides of that rapid development.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently released a report on air quality in countries around the globe, on which we based a list of the ten most polluted countries. Almost all the worst offenders are either major oil and gas producers, or emerging economies that are growing rapidly. :coffee:

    The WHO study looked at air quality in 91 countries, measured by the amount of PM10 particles per cubic meter. PM10 particles are particles of 10 micrometers or less that can cause diseases and infections. According to the WHO, PM10 levels above 20 micrograms per cubic meter can cause health risks. The top ten most polluted countries have PM10 levels from six times to 14 times that level.

    So, which countries have the world’s worst air quality? Click ahead to find out.

    By: Rajeshni Naidu-Ghelani
    (Posted: Oct. 5, 2011)

    10. Kuwait
    Pollution level: 123 ug/m3

    Kuwait is one of four oil-rich Middle Eastern nations to make the list. It is also the fourth largest exporter of oil among OPEC countries, with the petroleum industry accounting for half of Kuwait’s GDP.


    9. Nigeria
    Pollution level: 124 ug/m3

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the eighth most populous in the world with over 155 million people.


    8. Iran
    Pollution level: 124 ug/m3

    Iran is home to the world’s most polluted city — Ahvaz, which has three-times the average amount of pollution in the country. Ahvaz, known for its oil fields, is a heavily industrialized desert city of 1.3 million people.


    7. United Arab Emirates
    Pollution level: 132 ug/m3

    The United Arab Emirates is the world’s fourth biggest oil exporter and one of the most developed economies in the Middle East.

    [​IMG]


    6. Egypt
    Pollution level: 138 ug/m3

    [​IMG]

    Home to one of the world’s oldest civilizations, Egypt is one of four African nations to make the list of the most polluted countries.


    5. Saudi Arabia
    Pollution level: 143 ug/m3

    [​IMG]

    Saudi Arabia is the world’s largest producer and exporter of petroleum. It also the second largest oil producer and holds one-fifth of the world’s oil reserves.


    4. Senegal
    Pollution level: 145 ug/m3

    Inadequate urban planning amid rapid economic development over the past few decades has landed Senegal in the top five most polluted countries in the world.


    3. Pakistan
    Pollution level: 198 ug/m3

    Pakistan’s air pollution is nearly ten times higher than levels considered dangerous by the WHO. :coffee:


    2. Botswana
    Pollution level: 216 ug/m3

    It might seem strange that a country with a population of only 2 million people, and the largest proportion of land under conservation in the world, is the second most polluted nation in the world. But, that is the case of Botswana, 80 percent of which is covered by the Kalahari Desert.


    1. Mongolia
    Pollution level: 279 ug/m3

    Mongolia is the world’s most polluted country and also home to one of the world’s most polluted cities — Ulaanbaatar.


    World’s Most Polluted Countries

    World’s Most Polluted Countries
     
  9. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Global air pollution: what is the most polluted country and city in the world?
    Global air pollution: what is the most polluted country and city in the world? | Environment | theguardian.com

    The World Health Organisation reveals pollution levels around the globe. We identify the countries with a problem.

    Air pollution figures are gathered all over the globe, but it takes some serious effort to bring them all together so that countries and cities can be compared. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has valiantly attempted just this today in their Database of outdoor air pollution in cities. :coffee:

    The database contains results of urban outdoor air pollution monitoring from almost 1100 cities in 91 countries.

    Chart thanks to Nick Evershed, Newcastle Herald

    The way air pollution is measured here is by the concentration of fine particulate matter, that is particles smaller than 10 or 2.5 microns - called PM10 and PM2.5. :coffee:

    For each country where data is available the annual mean concentration of PM10 is given.

    The figures for cities, when grouped, reveals a lot about the data samples used by the WHO:

    We can see America is the most sampled place and there is relatively little known about other large countries like Russia and the heavily populated countries like China.

    So the sampling shows that the data isn't perfect, and often the data is from different years, but publishing what is available is the first step to improving any imperfect data set.

    Given the global average for PM10 is 71ug/m3 we have calculated, for each country, how far above or below this average it is. You can see from this measure that Mongolia followed by Botswana have the worst record of air pollution.

    We have put together all the data the WHO have provided along with the caveats that they acknowledge, for you to explore.

    What do you think to this data? Can it tell us how well countries are meeting their own air pollution targets? Tell us what you think in the comment section.

    Data summary

    World pollution
    Source: WHO
    Country - Annual mean PM10 ug/m3 - Above or below world average of 71ug/m3 - Year - Urban population coverage (%) - Reported or calculated mean

    Bangladesh 120 49 2007 41% Calculated

    Brazil 40 -31 2009 33% Calculated

    China 98 27 2009 24% Calculated
    :coffee:

    Egypt 138 67 2008 21% Reported


    India 109 38 2008 91% by state (37% by metropolitan city) Calculated :coffee:
    Indonesia 55 -16 2008 19% Calculated


    Pakistan 198 127 2003 -2004 40% Calculated

    Singapore 32 -39 2009 100% Reported

    South Africa 52 -19 2009 21% Calculated
    United States of America18-532008NAReported

    World Pollution
     
    Last edited: Apr 11, 2014
  10. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Gas as The Prime Fuel for Vehicles in India

    Gas is the 'cleanest' "High Grade Energy", which may be used for vehicles too. its price is always cheaper than petrol/diesel, and would obviously be much cheaper than market rate for a long term contract for a high demanding market like India, the biggest market at the closest geo-graphical proximity to Iran. Iran, which has second largest gas reserve after russia too...... a gas pipeline with a big cross sectional area is needed, for a long term contract to cover the whole western region of india is needed at present, along with the current supplies of gas from eastern region we already have.....

    India needs to rely more and more on LNG for vehicles etc. first Gas engines are always bit cheaper than petrol and diesel and also its a very less polluting source of energy...... government would consider to reduce tax on those passenger vehicles which require gas to run its engine. once we imagined India to be having a type of tax system which would encourage the three categories of vehicles as below.

    1st; 2 wheel drives like bike etc to be run by Petrol.

    2nd; passenger four wheel vehicles like cars/buses/ auto ricksha etc to be run by Gas only, a majority at least by reducing taxes on gas engines and higher tax on diesel/petrol engines. (auto ricksha on electricity is also a concern.)

    3rd; vehicles to transfer goods like trucks etc to be run by diesel.

    (with a separate tax systems for luxury cars, as already.)

    (and a Gas pipeline with a big cross sectional area from Iran would be the big concern in this regard, to fulfill demand of gas, which has the second largest gas reserve of world, and India is the largest market in its closest Geo-proximity. and this idea would get more strength with the recent news that pipeline under sea route is now cheaper than that of the pipeline on the surface too, hence avoiding any type of transit problems through pak too this way :tup:)


    =>

    hmmmm, i could add in my above post, "metro rails in all the cities/ more modern express ways etc too", but these things are the basic things. its clear that you have to have more and more metro lines in cities, similar to other infrastructure projects. and we do see progress in this direction too, but we demand more expenditure on Infrastructure projects....... and yes, transferring a big portion of the city population to electric metro trains is the most Ideal way to reduce pollution :cheers:
    .
     
  11. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    look, electricity production through Coal is the major concerns for USA and China, and its plants are located in the regional areas. while here we want to reduce pollution level of cities, with more and more use of gas through the four wheel drives carrying passengers, including cars and city buses both. 2 wheel drives, like scooters/bikes etc do need petrol but they consume less petrol too. and here its a fair idea that bringing more passengers on the metro trains will definitely reduce their reliance on cars/buses :tup:

    also, we find India to be poorly ranked with China and USA in electricity production through coal as the source of energy, as below. :coffee:

    (India at hardly 600TWH+ per year, as compare to China and USA at 2500+ TWH per year, as of 2012, likely.......)

    => Electricity generation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    .
     
  12. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    hmmmm we always expect the new technologies to be having lessons of the previous once. and safety is always taken as the major concerns, before cost reduction is considered. as, any accidents may itself cost enough ?????

    =>
    thats true. we need at least 3 gas pipelines, including TAPI too.........

    and as Iran is having the second largest gas reserve of world after Russia, and India is its largest customer in its closest geo-proximity, so its always more wise to have a gas pipeline deal with Iran, with a large cross sectional area, on a long term contract hence obviously offered for the lesser price than the market rate etc....

    and the most favorable thing in this regard is the recent nuclear deal between Iran and US, which would certainly help India to have closer trade relation with this energy rich nation, located at the closest distance than anyone else :tup:

    :tup:
     
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  13. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    India's Wind-Power Target Is up in the Air
    India Is Targeting a Fifth of Its Energy to Be Generated From Renewables By 2017, but It May Fall Short on a Lack of Incentives


    India's ambitious push to increase the share of renewable energy in its total power generation portfolio to nearly one-fifth by 2017 largely on the back of wind power could falter due to slow progress in implementing policies to attract investment to the sector, according to industry officials. :facepalm:

    Wind energy accounts for around 70% of India's renewable-energy generation, excluding large hydroelectric power projects. A government target of doubling renewable energy output to 55 gigawatts in the five years to March 2017 relies heavily on growth in the wind sector. :coffee:

    The government is targeting increased renewable capacity in part to avoid repeats of power outages that plunged large swaths of the nation into darkness last summer as a result of creaky grid infrastructure, exacerbated by coal shortages. At the same time, it is hoping to significantly cut its annual fuel import bill, which reached $142 billion in the year ended March 31.

    Inconsistent policies on incentivizing the renewable sector have hurt India's energy security goals, Gamesa GAM.MC +1.39% Wind Turbines Pvt. Chairman Ramesh Kymal told The Wall Street Journal. Gamesa Wind is the Indian unit of Spain's Gamesa Corporación Tecnológica SA.

    "Of course there will be more outages going forward if the government does not lend clear-cut support to the wind sector, he said. "Its own renewable energy and overall energy security goals are at stake."

    Last March, the government withdrew a renewable-power tariff-linked subsidy and cut a tax-incentive program. Although it announced in February that tariff-subsidy support for the wind sector would be reintroduced, it has yet to implement the decision. It is unclear whether the tax-incentive program will be revived.

    Several companies have invested billions of dollars in the wind sector over the past few years and have drawn up plans to invest up to an additional $16 billion between 2012 and 2017, contingent on favorable government policies. :tup:

    India has about 19 gigawatts of installed wind-power capacity compared with just 1.5 gigawatts of solar capacity. It is targeting an additional 15 gigawatts in the five years ending March 2017, which would take the total to more than 32 gigawatts and account for more than a 10th of India's energy mix, according to calculations based on official data and projections.

    Industry executives and analysts say the capacity addition goal will be missed by at least 5 gigawatts.

    According to Mr. Kymal, who also heads the local wind turbine manufacturer's association, the wind sector added about 1.7 gigawatts of wind-power capacity in 2012-13, and it is on track to add around the same capacity in 2013-14, missing the official target by around a third in both years.

    Minister for New and Renewable Energy Farooq Abdullah said the wind-power sector can expect government backing.

    "We have set for ourselves an ambitious target, and the government is committed to support the sector through a variety of incentives as well as a favorable policy and regulatory framework," he said in an emailed response to a query from The Wall Street Journal. He didn't say whether India has downgraded its target for wind-power capacity.

    Still, a senior government official, who didn't want to be identified, said the renewable ministry is worried that a lack of incentives will hamper wind-energy plans. The ministry plans to seek federal cabinet approval to revive the incentive program, but there is no timeline for when this may happen, he added.

    India has to fix broader problems plaguing the power sector if it wants to provide a long-term boost to renewables, said Amit Sinha, a partner at Bain & Co. India, a consulting firm.

    "It's not only about the subsidies," Mr. Sinha told The Wall Street Journal. "Subsidies are important. But problems such as fuel shortages [and the] financial health of electricity distribution companies have to be fixed first."

    The challenges facing wind power are numerous, Mr. Sinha noted, citing the volatility of wind generation—causing problems for grids, which need to maintain minimum base loads to remain stable—and the fact that reliable wind power is feasible in only some parts of the country.

    Nearly 85% of India's wind power is generated in just five of India's 28 states: Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka and Rajasthan. Companies are eying newer sites in these states and exploring options in Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Madhya Pradesh, Gamesa Wind's Mr. Kymal said.

    The lack of incentives for wind-farm operators to establish projects is hurting order books at turbine manufacturers, Mr. Kymal said.

    Gamesa Wind has the capacity to manufacture a total of 1,500 megawatts of wind turbines a year, but it could only manage around 400 megawatts a year over the past two years and is aiming for 670 megawatts this year.

    ReGen Powertech Pvt. Ltd. has been using only around half of its 693-megawatt capacity, and it has put expansion plans on hold, Managing Director Madhusudan Khemka told The Wall Street Journal.

    Suzlon Energy Ltd. 532667.BY +0.97% , the world's fifth-largest wind-turbine maker, hasn't posted an annual profit in past three years, underscoring the sector's problems. :tsk:

    "What is lost is lost," Mr. Kymal said. "But faster decision making now on a pro-wind-sector policy will help all."

    http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424127887324659404578500233581667690


    => As of 31 December 2013 the installed capacity of wind power in India was 20149 MW,:india:

    [​IMG]

    Wind power in India - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
     
  14. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Germany Now Produces 28.5% of Energy from Renewables :cheers:
    July 30, 2014

    [​IMG]
    Wind turbines stand on June 17, 2014 near Wernitz, Germany.

    The country’s Energiewende energy transition has crossed another milestone

    Germany set a new record on green energy in the first half of 2014, by producing 28.5% of its energy entirely from renewable sources, according to a report released Tuesday by the energy trade association BDEW. :tup:

    The industrial powerhouse of Europe, Germany is undergoing a massive shift in the way it produces energy as it attempts to become a country powered almost entirely by solar, wind, hydro and biomass energy sources. In the first half of 2014, wind generation in Germany increased 21.4% while solar grew by 27.3%. :tup:

    The state-subsidized transition to renewables, known asEnergiewende, has not been without high costs. Energy prices are among the highest in Europe and greenhouse gas emissions have actually increased in the near term as Germany’s post-Fukushima drawdown of nuclear power has led to an increase in the use of coal to make up for lost production.

    Germany Sets New Record for Renewable Generation - TIME
     
  15. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Delhi's alarming pollution level can reduce life expectancy by three years: study
    February 21, 2014

    [​IMG]
    There has been a 10 to 15 per cent jump in complaints of respiratory ailments this winter.

    New Delhi: Delhi is coughing hard and the air is to blame. Satellite pictures of Delhi's pollution should set off alarm bells - the city has PM2.5 or particulate matter (What is particulate matter?) 2.5 many times higher than the levels that World Health Organisation says is safe. :coffee:

    This has meant a 10 to 15 per cent jump in complaints of respiratory ailments this winter, say doctors. (Comment here: How Delhi's pollution affects you)

    Prof Randeep Guleria, Head, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, AIIMS told NDTV, "Those who come to Delhi on work or as students have complained of breathing problems they never had. And those with respiratory problems say their discomfort is now prolonged and more pronounced."

    This has meant more and more people queuing up at hospital OPDs. In one such long queue of coughing, wheezing people at the AIIMS or All India Institute of Medical Sciences' Pulmonary OPD is daily wage earner, Sher Singh, a 50-year-old who decided to see a doctor after initially ignoring repeated complaints of cold, cough and congestion over the last three months. (Read: Delhi gets tag of most polluted city in the world)

    "It has been particularly bad this season. I don't have asthma but breathing has become so difficult I finally had to come to the hospital," Sher Singh said.

    Here is why: PM2.5 or particulate matter 2.5 basically are particles floating in the air that are smaller than 2.5 micrometers, which is 100 times thinner than a human hair. These are toxic organic compounds and heavy metals hanging low in the air as the grey smog that envelopes the city.

    When people inhale, they breathe in the particles which could then travel deep into the lungs causing serious respiratory problems. (Read: Beijing ahead of Delhi in controlling air pollution: study)

    A new paper suggests that such high levels of pollution can reduce life expectancy by three years.

    Rohini Pande who is a Professor of Public Policy at Harvard and wrote that paper says, "We see that looking across 180 Indian cities in 2010, the ambient air quality as measured by SPM (suspended particulate matter) is roughly twice the national standard (60 micrograms per cubic meter) and over six times the standard recommended by WHO (25 micrograms per cubic meter).

    She says that if particulate matter pollution is brought down to the prescribed levels, then life expectancy can be increased by three years.

    Delhi's alarming pollution level can reduce life expectancy by three years: study - NDTV
     
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