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Deriving an Energy Consumption Equation based on Controlling Pollution of Cities

Discussion in 'World Economy' started by santosh, Apr 11, 2014.

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  1. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Delhi Metro helps reduce vehicular air pollution, indicates research :tup:
    April 28, 2013

    The Delhi Metro has not only reduced your travel time and made commuting hassle-free but has also helped in bringing down the pollution level in the Capital. :cheers:

    The Centre for Development Economics at Delhi School of Economics has come up with a research paper claiming that the Delhi Metro has resulted in reduced levels of two important vehicular pollutants - nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO). :tup:

    The research found that the level of CO in the area around ITO, a busy intersection in Delhi, has fallen by at least 35 per cent.:india:

    The research paper prepared by Deepti Goel in association with Sonam Gupta from Food and Resource Economics Department at University of Florida in the US was presented at a seminar at Indian Statistical Institute recently.

    "Looking at each extension of the rail network as a separate event, it has resulted in three to 47 per cent reduction in NO2 concentration, and a 31 to 100 per cent reduction in CO concentration," Goel said. :tup:

    "We quantified the effect of the Delhi Metro on air pollution. We used hourly data on four criteria pollutants from 2004 onwards.

    Both NO2 and CO are important constituents of vehicular emissions and our findings are suggestive of the diversion effect of the Delhi Metro," she said. :coffee:

    Delhi Metro helps reduce vehicular air pollution, indicates research : North, News - India Today
     
  2. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Solar Power: Cost of production dropped 60%; price to equal thermal power's in three years :cheers:
    Mar 17, 2014

    Earlier this month, when Madhya Pradesh accepted the bid of Himgiri Energ y Ventures to supply solar power to the state grid at Rs 6.5 a unit, it was a figure to note even by the industry's standards of smashing records by the season. This contract award shaved off 13 per cent from the lowest price at which Indian industry was willing to supply solar power; over three years, the drop is a steep 61 per cent.

    [​IMG]
    (More importantly, the MP tender brought the price of solar power closer to the price of thermal power produced from coal or gas, and Indias largest source.) :india:

    More importantly, the MP tender brought the price of solar power closer to the price of thermal power — produced from coal or gas, and India's largest source. For 2012-13, Delhi's power utilities were projecting to buy conventional power at an average unit price of Rs 5.71. :cheers:

    In other words, at Rs 6.5, solar is just 14 per cent above thermal. Its price prognosis is also better. Even as coal and natural gas become costlier, solar plants bask in free and ample sunshine and falling equipment prices. All this is taking the energy sector towards a game-changing milestone: grid parity, or the situation where solar costs the same as conventional sources.

    "Price bids in conventional power have been up to Rs 5 per unit," says Sanjay Chakrabarti, partner (clean energy), Ernst & Young. "Keeping that as the grid parity price, wind power has already achieved grid parity and solar is quite close." The ministry of new and renewable energy is projecting grid parity by 2017 -- five years ahead of its initial projection of 2022.

    :india:
    [​IMG]


    Cheaper solar power

    Some countries are there. Like Germany, which has 36,000 MW of solar capacity, according to Bloomberg New Energy Finance. An early adopter, Germany started seeing a spike in solar capacity from 2001. :coffee:

    In India, the spike came only in 2012, since when its solar capacity has increased from 2.5 MW to 1,759 MW (See graphic). The Central government is looking to increase capacity through the National Solar Mission, which gives a certain set of incentives to companies and aims to put up 22,000 MW of solar capacity by 2022. :tup:

    In its last round of bidding, held this January, the government received bids for 2,170 MW, three times the advertised requirement, from 53 companies. Among them were state power utilities, global renewable-energy players and fresh entrants with international funding, holding out an investment of Rs 5,000 crore.

    Also active are select states. Madhya Pradesh leads, with Rs 30,000 crore in the pipeline for renewable power development. It is followed by Gujarat, an early mover that has 850 MW of solar capacity at an investment of—11,000 crore up and running. The jump in capacity is coming from the ongoing recalibration in tariffs.

    The second phase of the National Solar Mission, from 2013 to 2017, set the tariff at Rs 5.5 per unit, with some financial support from the government in the form of 'viability gap funding'.

    According to Tarun Kapoor, joint secretary at the ministry of new and renewable energy, viability gap funding was about Re 1 per unit. He sees this reducing with equipment becoming cheaper, particularly from China, and competing fuels becoming costlier.

    "Our experiment with viability gap funding turned out to be successful, with foreign investment coming in," he says. "Looking at the current trend, this amount would gradually go down." :tup:

    Solar Power: Cost of production dropped 60%; price to equal thermal power's in three years - Economic Times
     
  3. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    India, Oman mull sub-sea pipeline to pump Turkmen and Iranian gas

    India and Oman are in talks to build a deepwater gas transportation system to pump gas from Turkmenistan, Iran and Qatar, bypassing troubled regions in Central and South Asia, the Times of Oman said on Monday. :coffee:

    The pipeline, with an estimated cost of $4 billion, is expected to pump 31.1 billion cubic meters of gas per day. :tup:

    "We are trying to create an energy corridor. It is a grand scheme of several pipelines. It will connect energy producing countries like Iran, Turkmenistan, Qatar, and will pass through the UAE and Oman, all the way to India," SAGE head Subodh Kumar Jain said during his brief visit to Oman's capital Muscat.

    South Asia Gas Enterprise Pvt Ltd (SAGE), a joint venture of Oman's Siddhomal group, U.K.-based Deep Water Technology and India, was established to build a 2,000-km deepwater pipeline to connect India and Iran.

    The pipeline to bring Iranian gas to India was initially designed to go by land via Pakistan and Afghanistan, but the project was largely abandoned amid continuing instability in the area.

    Jain said the transit states, such as the U.A.E. and Oman, will also be able to receive gas supplies via the pipeline.

    "Apart from India, it will benefit countries in the Gulf region. It can feed Oman and the UAE. It will also benefit gas producing countries like Turkmenistan, Iran and Qatar. These are countries with huge natural gas reserves," he said. "Oman needs more gas to feed its gas-based industries and power plants."

    SAGE is now negotiating gas supplies from Turkmenistan, Iran and Qatar. :tup:

    "That is the biggest challenge. Besides this, there are a lot of geopolitical and security issues involved," Jain said, expressing hope that all the problems will be resolved next year.

    As soon as gas supplies are ensured, the pipeline project will be completed within five years.

    India is facing natural gas shortages as its own reserves are expected to run out by 2012. It currently buys around 26 million of standard cubic meters of liquefied natural gas per day.

    http://en.ria.ru/world/20100920/160655519.html
     
  4. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    A Qatar-to-India Pipeline?

    While the much talked about India-Pakistan-Iran (IPI) gas pipeline remains in limbo, there has been progress in a proposed deep-sea gas pipeline from Qatar, via Oman, to India.

    In August, state owned utility Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL), which is keen on sourcing new gas supplies, signed an agreement with the New Delhi-based South Asia Gas Enterprise Pvt. Ltd (SAGE), aimed at building a 2,000-kilometer deep-sea gas pipeline from Qatar to Oman and then on to the Indian states of Gujarat or Maharashtra. No cost estimates have been published, but the final price tag for such a project would almost certainly exceed $10 billion. :tup:

    [​IMG]

    GAIL is India ”s flagship natural gas company, integrating all aspects of the value chain – exploration and production, processing, transmission, distribution and marketing. It expects the Mideast pipeline will be built given the never-ending delays on the IPI line and the ongoing increases in India’s gas consumption. And new gas supplies from the Krishna-Godavari (KG) fields on India ‘s east coast won’t be enough to slake demand.

    India’s natural gas consumption presently is 180 million standard cubic meters per day (6.4 Bcf per day) while the domestic production is 80 million standard cubic meters (2.8 Bcf per day.) The KG basin, owned by private-sector giant Reliance Industries, will fill a bit of this demand supply gap, but will be insufficient to meet requirements of the emerging Indian economy expected to reach 300 million cubic meters per day (10.6 Bcf per day) by 2012.

    Currently, Qatar supplies the bulk of rising natural gas imports into India in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and those imports are slated to double this year. In 2008 India imported between 6.5 and 7 million metric tons (mt) of LNG, about 0.9 to 1 Bcf per day.

    India’s Petronet buys 5 mt a year of LNG from Qatar ‘s Rasgas and another 1.5 mt from BP and others for its 10 mt Dahej terminal. Imports from Rasgas are due to rise to 7.5 mt next year.

    SAGE, an Indian private sector initiative, is a joint venture between the Siddhomal group, an Indian firm, and UK-based Deep Water Technology Co. The venture is independent of state-to-state negotiations for implementing trans-national pipelines which have generated headlines in recently. The consortium has claimed financial feasibility in connecting India to the Gulf and is looking to create a $3-billion natural gas transportation infrastructure, with another $3 billion needed if Iran is brought into the loop. :coffee:

    If all goes well, the SAGE energy corridor is expected to be completed by about 2015. The pipelines would reach a depth of 3,500 meters and the terrain has been extensively surveyed over the last two decades.

    In the first phase, 31 million cubic meters per day (1.1 Bcf per day) could be transported to the Indian west coast from Qatar. Three pipelines are expected to be laid. The deepwater pipelines will traverse the Arabian Sea south of territorial waters and economic exclusion zones of all third party nations.

    The financial and technical issues are challenging. No pipelines have ever traversed such deep waters. But a senior official from GAIL, told Energy Tribune “We expect that the pipeline will draw good investment response from players in India and West Asia . GAIL has procured intensive studies conducted by leading oil and gas industry deepwater pipeline specialists, Heerema Marine Contractors and INTECSEA, who have said that the Mideast pipeline project is technically feasible. This was an important consideration in signing the deal with SAGE.”

    India’s interest in the Mideast pipeline stems from failed efforts in sourcing gas from Iran, Myanmar and Bangladesh. And suspicions between India and China have meant that the prospects of a South Asian oil and gas grid remain slim.

    The pan-Asian grid was to connect hydrocarbon extracted in West Asia and Southeast Asia to the main markets in Turkey, India , China , Korea and Japan .

    Meanwhile, India’s efforts to build a 1,400-kilometer Indo-Myanmar gas pipeline have failed, even as China has become the sole buyer of Myanmar gas from its Shwe fields, where ironically, India’s largest oil and gas companies, ONGC and GAIL, own large stakes. Transit and security issues raised by Bangladesh and Beijing ‘s superior financial, strategic and military muscle in the region have meant that India lost out.

    The proposed $7.5 billion IPI pipeline remains stuck for many reasons including America ‘s misgivings about any country doing business with Iran. The pipeline, if constructed, has the potential to deliver 5.3 Bcf per day of gas from southern Iran to Pakistan and India. Though the Iran-Pakistan portion of the pipeline is making some progress, there are reports that Washington is pressuring Islamabad to refrain from the pipeline. Washington has threatened sanctions under the Iran Refined Petroleum Sanctions Act that has the backing of the US Congress.

    With a reserve of nearly 23 Tcf of natural gas, Bangladesh offers an attractive option for India that remains unexplored. Since the gas reserves exist in the eastern parts which face political turmoil, the India-Bangladesh gas corridor has not materialized.

    Further, Dhaka has linked gas supply with other bilateral issues such as reducing its trade deficit that has stymied any progress. This has also affected the transit pipeline from Myanmar via Bangladesh .

    India, however, has some hopes from the US-backed $ 3.5 billion Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan (TAP) pipeline. India is studying the TAP project, but feasibility reports have been mixed.

    Obviously, India needs more gas. And that hunger for methane has the country looking in every direction, and at every possible partner.

    A Qatar-to-India Pipeline? - Energy TribuneEnergy Tribune
     
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  5. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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  6. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    SCO membership to help India get foothold in energy-rich Central Asia

    NEW DELHI: India will get a major boost in its quest for greater access to hydrocarbons in Central Asia as it is all set to get full membership of the Shanghai Corporation Organisation,comprising all major energy producing nations of the region and dominated by China and Russia. :coffee:

    India, one of the largest energy consumers in the world, is keen to get the membership of the grouping as it will help it play a major role in the SCO energy club which was set up to create a unified energy market as well as to ensure cooperation among major oil and gas companies from the member nations.

    Three major suppliers of energy -- Russia, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan - have been playing crucial role in the SCO energy club and the Indian government feels getting membership of the bloc will give it greater access to a number of key energy projects in the region.

    Government sources said SCO membership will also help to make headway in the proposed pipeline project from Russia to India, being billed as one of the most ambitious initiatives in recent years in the energy sector in the region. :tup:

    India does not want the pipeline, which may cost over $40 billion, to enter India through Pakistan and may look for alternative route including through China. :tup:

    "The SCO membership will help India get a foothold in major energy projects involving Central Asian countries. It will ensure India's integration with the region," a top government official told PTI.

    India had formally applied for membership of SCO in its summit meeting in Dushanbe on September 12 where External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj had said India was ready to step up engagement with the grouping.


    India is almost certain to get the SCO membership within a year as China has backed the move. India has been an observer at SCO since 2005 and has generally participated at the ministerial-level at summits of the grouping which focuses mainly on security and economic cooperation in the Eurasian space.

    India's key ally Russia has been favouring India's permanent SCO membership, saying the largest democracy joining the group will add weight to the organisation. Another major oil-producer Iran is also aspiring to become member of the SCO. :coffee:

    SCO was founded at a summit in Shanghai in 2001 by the Presidents of Russia, China, Kyrgyz Republic, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. India, Iran and Pakistan were admitted as observers at the 2005 Astana Summit.

    Last week, during his meeting with Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Chinese President Xi Jinping had supported India's bid for SCO membership.

    Officials said an SCO membership will help India address its growing energy needs. India has oil deals with Russia, Kazakhstan and was working on a gas deal with Turkmenistan.

    They said the SCO platform will also help speedy implementation of the TAPI (Turkmenistan-Afghanistan- Pakistan-India) gas pipeline project

    The nearly 1800-km-long TAPI pipeline would originate from Turkmenistan and pass through Afghanistan and Pakistan before entering India.

    It will have a capacity to carry 90 million standard cubic metres of gas per day (mmscmd) for a 30-year period and scheduled to be operational in 2018. India and Pakistan would get 38 mmscmd each, while the remaining 14 mmscmd will be supplied to Afghanistan.

    Kazakhstan had recently offered ONGC Videsh Ltd (OVL) a stake in medium-sized Abai oil block in Caspian Sea.

    The Indian government is of the view that SCO membership will offer India more opportunities to work closely with China in certain areas including in Afghanistan.

    India also feels as SCO member, it will be able to play a major role in addressing the threat of terrorism in the region.

    India is also keen to deepen its security-related cooperation with the SCO and its Regional Anti-Terrorism Structure (RATS) which specifically deals issues relating to security and defence.

    SCO membership to help India get foothold in energy-rich Central Asia - Economic Times
     
  7. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    as per the above news, is India considering a Gas Pipeline from China, which may be an extension of the Gas Pipeline they would have from Russia, a recently signed deal? :coffee:
     
  8. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Deriving an Energy Consumption Equation to be based on Controlling Pollution of Cities

    Gas as The Prime Fuel for Vehicles in India

    Gas is the 'cleanest' "High Grade Energy", which may be used for vehicles too. its price is always cheaper than petrol/diesel, and would obviously be much cheaper than market rate for a long term contract for a high demanding market like India. and yes its the biggest market at the closest geo-graphical proximity to Iran. Iran, which has second largest gas reserve after russia too...... a gas pipeline with a big cross sectional area is needed, for a long term contract to cover the whole western region of india is needed at present, along with the current supplies of gas from eastern region we already have.....

    India needs to rely more and more on LNG for vehicles etc. first Gas engines are always bit cheaper than petrol and diesel and also its a very less polluting source of energy...... government would consider to reduce tax on those passenger vehicles which require gas to run its engine. once we imagined India to be having a type of tax system which would encourage the three categories of vehicles as below. :cheers:

    1st; Two wheel drives like bike etc to be run by Petrol.

    2nd; Passenger four wheel vehicles like cars/buses/ auto ricksha etc to be run by Gas only, a majority at least by reducing taxes on gas engines and higher tax on diesel/petrol engines. (auto ricksha on electricity is also a concern.)

    3rd; Vehicles to transfer goods like trucks etc to be run by diesel, a cheaper fuel than Petrol to reduce transportation bill, while being operated outside cities.


    (with a separate tax systems for luxury cars, as we already have.)

    (and a Gas pipeline with a big cross sectional area from Iran would be the big concern in this regard, to fulfill demand of gas, which has the second largest gas reserve of world, and India is the largest market in its closest Geo-proximity. and this idea would get more strength with the recent news that pipeline under sea route is now cheaper than that of the pipeline on the surface too, hence avoiding any type of transit problems through neighbors too this way :tup:)
    New automation concept promises to enhance deepwater pipeline integrity | Indian Defence Forum

    => for example, "Having metro rails in all the cities/ more modern express ways etc too", but these things are the basic things. its clear that you have to have more and more metro lines in cities, similar to other infrastructure projects. and we do see progress in this direction too, but we demand more expenditure on Infrastructure projects....... and yes, transferring a big portion of the city population to electric metro trains is the most Ideal way to reduce pollution of cities :india:

    =>

    hmmmm, i could add in my above post, "metro rails in all the cities/ more modern express ways etc too", but these things are the basic things. its clear that you have to have more and more metro lines in cities, similar to other infrastructure projects. and we do see progress in this direction too, but we demand more expenditure on Infrastructure projects....... and yes, transferring a big portion of the city population to electric metro trains is the most Ideal way to reduce pollution :cheers:

    =>
    hmmmm we always expect the new technologies to be having lessons of the previous once. and safety is always taken as the major concerns, before cost reduction is considered. as, any accidents may itself cost enough ?????

    =>
    thats true. we need at least 3 gas pipelines, including TAPI too.........

    and as Iran is having the second largest gas reserve of world after Russia, and India is its largest customer in its closest geo-proximity, so its always more wise to have a gas pipeline deal with Iran, with a large cross sectional area, on a long term contract hence obviously offered for the lesser price than the market rate etc....

    and the most favorable thing in this regard is the recent nuclear deal between Iran and US, which would certainly help India to have closer trade relation with this energy rich nation, located at the closest distance than anyone else :tup:

    :tup:


    =>
    look, electricity production through Coal is the major concerns for USA and China, and its plants are located in the regional areas. while here we want to reduce pollution level of cities, with more and more use of gas through the four wheel drives carrying passengers, including cars and city buses both. 2 wheel drives, like scooters/bikes etc do need petrol but they consume less petrol too. and here its a fair idea that bringing more passengers on the metro trains will definitely reduce their reliance on cars/buses :tup:

    also, we find India to be poorly ranked with China and USA in electricity production through coal as the source of energy, as below. :coffee:

    (India at hardly 600TWH+ per year, as compare to China and USA at 2500+ TWH per year, as of 2012, likely.......)

    => Electricity generation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
     
    Last edited: Sep 23, 2014
  9. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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  10. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    INDIA-OMAN GAS PIPELINE: NOT JUST A PIPE DREAM – ANALYSIS
    MARCH 21, 2014

    Energy (oil and gas) is a geopolitically sensitive commodity, and the pipelines that transport them are no different. Besides the geopolitics of the countries that produce energy and those that consume this energy, the security situation in the regions that the transporting pipelines traverse can also make a project viable and attractive to investors. As the geopolitics of the Middle East is taking a churn, India is again evaluating undersea energy pipelines from the Gulf.

    The new plan proposes to transport oil and natural gas sourced from countries in the Middle East and Central Asia through deep sea pipelines via Oman to the ever-growing Indian energy market. Oman is India’s most trusted partner in the Gulf, therefore comfort levels are high between New Delhi and Muscat. Yusuf bin Alawi bin Abdullah, Oman’s foreign minister, raised the possibility with his Indian counterpart Salman Khurshid during their meeting on Feb 28. Abdullah suggested the pipeline could transport gas from Iran, even Qatar, as well as Central Asian states. Khurshid then introduced the proposal to Javad Zarif, the Iranian foreign minister, who he met later in the day. :coffee:

    Iran has reportedly shown interest in the project. Zarif also informed that Iran was negotiating separately with Turkmenistan for an overland pipeline to carry its gas to an Iranian terminal for export. If these proposals fructify, Iran would be looking to market gas not only from its fields but from other Gulf suppliers, even Qatar, which is India’s largest supplier of LNG. Therefore, even though sources of gas remain the same, it is the mode of transportation that is the key differentiator.

    The history of the India-Oman pipeline project goes back to 1985, when Oman and India signed an agreement to expand the development of energy-related enterprises between them. In mid-1992, a joint commission was set up to identify and monitor several new areas of cooperation between Muscat and New Delhi. Oman had invested $90 million in the project over a decade ago, but it did not get implemented.

    What has changed?
    Firstly, the technology has come of age. An undersea pipeline from Iran to India could now be completed as quickly as three-four years and costing approximately $5 billion, according to New Delhi-based South Asia Gas Enterprise Pvt Ltd (SAGE); a joint venture of Siddhomal group, and UK-based Deep Water Technology. SAGE has proposed building an under-sea energy infrastructure corridor comprising of gas (and maybe later oil) pipelines, which could be used by major gas suppliers to connect to terminals in India’s west coast. Any such pipeline could transport about 31 million cubic meters (MMSCMD) of gas a day. :coffee:

    Secondly, the Iranians have shown interest in deep-sea pipelines to India after the failure of the Iran-Pakistan-India (IPI) pipeline. Iran cancelled a $500 million loan to Pakistan in December 2013. India had pulled out of the IPI several years ago citing price and security issues. The TAPI pipeline from Turkmenistan through Afghanistan and Pakistan is fast losing its attractiveness due to security uncertainties and other gas pipeline projects from Turkmenistan to Iran, China etc. Thirdly, the recently concluded Iran-Oman gas deal is another driver.

    Iran-Oman gas deal
    In August 2013, Iran’s oil minister and his Omani counterpart signed a memorandum of understanding on energy cooperation, reportedly the largest economic agreement between the two countries so far. Under the US$ 60 billion gas supply deal, Oman would buy over the next 25 years nearly half of its total natural gas imports from Iran, which would be transported by a newly-laid undersea gas pipeline. Construction of the planned pipeline, its length and possible route will be explored, and pipe laying operations are expected to start soon after a final decision is made.

    The announcement came as Oman’s Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al Said concluded a three-day visit to Iran as the first head of state to meet Iranian President Hassan Rouhani after his inauguration in August 2013. Oman is a close US ally and has reportedly acted as a go-between for Tehran and Washington in the dispute over Iran’s nuclear programme, according to U.S. embassy cables published by WikiLeaks dating back to 2006. Omani officials have been visiting Tehran in a bid to buy Iranian gas in the hope that someday sanctions on Iran will be lifted and Oman can finally get the supplies it desperately needs over the Strait of Hormuz.

    India-Oman Gas Pipeline
    Transportation cost of natural gas through deep water pipelines will be much lower than transporting in the form of LNG through tankers/carriers by sea. SAGE feels that the burgeoning future energy requirement of India can be met only through such pipelines. If the pipeline project gets the nod, SAGE plans to lay a total of three natural gas pipelines over the next 10 years. Each line will have a length of 1,300 km with a capacity to carry 31.5 MMSCMD per line. Each pipeline is estimated to cost $4.2 billion, and additional investment is required to lay onshore pipelines in the Middle East. :coffee:

    Assessment
    Besides the more obvious cost trade-off between LNG and transportation of gas by pipelines and that between undersea pipelines and overland ones, it is the availability of diverse gas producing countries to provide gas to the India-Oman gas pipeline that makes the proposal attractive. The availability of existing (and proposed) overland gas pipelines such as the Qatar-UAE-Oman line further increases the attractiveness and viability of the project. In an environment of political uncertainty, energy buyers invariably choose the more flexible option of transporting gas as LNG rather than laying pipelines. However, in the case of India-Oman pipeline, issues of geopolitical risks and gas pricing would remain.

    Geopolitically three power blocs currently appear to dominate the Middle East — the Iran-led Shia group, a rival emergent Cairo-Riyadh axis leading a group of smaller Sunni states, and a smaller, much weaker Qatar-Muslim Brotherhood alliance. Their competition is set to influence regional affairs in the period ahead. India’s relationship with these power groupings will determine the availability of oil and gas from the Middle East for India. On the issue of gas pricing, Iran is a hard (and at times a fickle) bargainer as India had experienced in the case of the IPI pipeline.

    For India diversification of sources of energy and distribution of energy supply risks is imperative for its energy security. As the country stares at the prospect of almost 20,000MW of its gas-fuelled power plants going off grid due to gas shortages, an undersea gas pipeline from Oman appears to be a distant possibility despite the project making economic and strategic sense. :coffee:

    India-Oman Gas Pipeline: Not Just A Pipe Dream - Analysis - Eurasia Review

    India-Oman Gas Pipeline: Not Just A Pipe Dream - Analysis - Eurasia Review
     
  11. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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  12. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Seven years ago, everyone saw Delhi’s air take a deadly U-turn but no one did a thing
    March 31, 2015

    As many as 15 authoritative studies red-flagged how landmark gains from CNG were being frittered away.

    The way the graph moves tells the story of a public health disaster that has been allowed to happen: over the last 15 years, the fall and rise of the lethal, fine dust that clogs your lungs every day in the nation’s capital. READ: ‘Judiciary hasn’t been as active, needs to step in,’ says Kuldip Singh



    After the historic Supreme Court judgement in 1998 forced all public transport vehicles, an estimated 100,000, to switch to cleaner Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), the levels of respirable suspended particulate matter, or RSPM, in the city’s air begin to dip year on year.

    In 1995, suspended particulate matter in Delhi had hit a high of 409 µg/m3 (micrograms per cubic metre). In 2000, two years after the CNG verdict, scientists measured the tinier and virtually invisible RSPM for the first time and found the level at 191 µg/m3 — it fell to 161 µg/m3 in 2007.

    READ: ‘You have to understand there are various lobbies,’ says Sheila Dikshit

    Then, as sharply as a sudden gasp, from 2008 to be precise, the levels begin to rise and rise.

    And rise to the current 316 µg/m3, nearly 16 times what is considered healthy by the World Health Organisation (WHO), and nearly twice that of Beijing, the next most-polluted city in the world. So much so that even during the last monsoon in July-September — when nature ensures the lowest RSPM levels thanks to rain — the number was 171 µg/m3. It didn’t have to be this way.

    As an investigation by The Indian Express reveals beginning today, at least 15 authoritative studies, public and private, tracked the curve take this treacherous U-turn and rang alarm bells at regular intervals. But the Sheila Dikshit government in the state and the Manmohan Singh government at the Centre couldn’t care less.

    Result: the dramatic CNG gains — a 20% dip in RSPM levels in seven years — were steadily and sharply being frittered away. By a combination of government inaction and a set of factors linked to the manner in which the city and its suburbs were growing and how they were handling — mishandling, to be precise — construction, transport and fuel.

    READ: Delhi pollution: The studies no one acted on

    “You never get such an opportunity, very few cities of this size get to clean up so fast,” said Justice Kuldip Singh who was, till his retirement in 1996, a member of various Supreme Court benches that heard a number of pleas on environmental issues, including the one on air pollution in Delhi.

    “And then you waste all that. Today, your air has actually become like poison. Either it was ignorance or neglect or both,” he added.

    READ: Explained: Know your toxins

    Said Advocate M C Mehta, the petitioner in the CNG case: “Once we were showcased and celebrated as a success and then we completely failed to hold on to the good days.” That the good days were ending wasn’t lost on anyone. Consider these:

    FIRST ALARM BELL FROM THE LAB, 2007

    Dr Pramila Goyal, from IIT Delhi’s Centre for Atmospheric Studies, rang the first alarm in 2007, a year before the line spiked. As the principal investigator of a study sponsored by the Delhi government, she predicted that “emissions of air pollutants” by diesel-fuelled vehicles may exceed norms soon.

    “I don’t know what happened after I submitted my findings. The Delhi Government had approached me after I finished my study and asked me to send it to Sheila Dikshit, who was the chief minister at the time. I refused because that’s not my job,” Goyal said.

    TWO MORE IN 2009 & 2012, ON TRANSPORT

    Apart from a number of other studies that warned about the rising danger, two of the loudest alarm bells were sounded by the NCR Planning Board — in 2009 and 2012.

    In 2009, the board — an inter-Ministerial group under the Union Urban Development Ministry with representatives from Delhi, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh — warned that the “latest trends indicate increase in PM levels, particularly in PM2.5, which have reached alarming proportions”.

    Levels for PM2.5 in Delhi exceeded the standard by six times, the board said. RSPM includes PM10 and below — particulate matter lesser than 10 micron (a micron is one-millionth of a metre) in diameter.

    Three years later, the board’s transport plan monitored the air quality at 82 stations in Delhi, and warned that “the prescribed standard limits were… being violated at all the monitoring stations. These levels are expected to rise further beyond critical limits”.

    One person who was on the board was Naini Jayaseelan, who was member secretary and chairperson of Delhi Pollution Control Committee from 2006-2008. “Had the government of Delhi and member states of NCR taken decisions to leapfrog into second generation reforms we would have perhaps ensured that the graph of air quality had a different curve — the pollutants would have continued dipping and new pollutants would not have surfaced in the air,” she said.

    WHO WAS WATCHING, WHAT DO THEY HAVE TO SAY?

    The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and the Delhi Pollution Control Committee (DPCC) are directly responsible for ensuring clean air in Delhi.

    When contacted, current CPCB member secretary A B Akolkar said that the figures need to be placed in context. “From 2007-2015, you’ll see that overall air pollution has decreased, but the annual PM2.5 and PM10 averages are increasing. This needs to be understood in the context of increase in vehicles. The problem is that while emission norms were made more stringent and pollution levels dipped, the increase in vehicles skewed the matter.”

    So what was the CPCB doing all this while?

    “I am not in a position to comment… the current authorities can comment, whatever was done is documented in files, and available with the current post-bearers,” said J S Kamyotra who was the member secretary of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) from 2008 to 2012.

    Kamyotra was originally appointed by the then Congress-led UPA government to head the central body for a three-year term but was granted five extensions, of three months each. He is now a scientist in charge of the CPCB’s Pollution Control Planning division.

    Dr B Sengupta, who headed the CPCB from 1998-2008 said, “In Delhi, the pollutant levels increased for three reasons — increase in diesel vehicles, mobile towers which had diesel generating sets, and small scale industries. The findings were published by us every year, both the rise in pollutants and the reasons. We have also submitted them to MoEF at regular intervals,” Dr Sengupta said. :ranger:

    “I am not authorised to speak on this matter,” said Sanjiv Kumar, Delhi’s Environment Secretary and chairman of DPCC.

    There were alarm bells initially, admitted JK Dadoo, Delhi’s Environment Secretary from 2007-2009. “The IIT Delhi study suggested urgent need for monitoring, so we began monitoring air quality from 42 locations in Delhi. We would send DPCC team members to various locations, where the air quality was poor. Today, there are six permanent monitoring stations,” he said.

    The CPCB, meanwhile, has been without a full-time chairman since Prof S P Gautam completed his tenure in 2012, thanks to a lengthy recruitment process that was further stalled after one of the candidates challenged the move in court.

    Environment Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Ashok Lavasa, said that the ministry was “in the process” of selecting a fulltime chairman and that the appointment would “happen soon”.


    Seven years ago, everyone saw Delhi’s air take a deadly U-turn but no one did a thing | The Indian Express
     
  13. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    THE WASTED YEARS: WHAT WAS UNDONE, WHAT WASN’T DONE

    According to Dr Gufran Beig, project director, System of Air Quality Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR), Ministry of Earth Sciences, “From all available data, it is clear that Delhi made big gains in those immediate years after introduction of CNG, particulate matter levels went down exponentially. Then they started rising again because of the presence of more diesel vehicles, lack of curbs on the number of trucks entering Delhi, and the unruly construction the region has seen.”

    Official documents accessed by The Indian Express show that there were some attempts to get back on track.

    For instance, the minutes of a review meeting on air quality before the 2010 Commonwealth Games, which was attended by senior officials and experts, listed some remedial steps including the closure of industries on a “negative list”.

    An official who attended that meeting, but did not wish to be identified, admitted that nothing much happened after that.

    The Delhi government, meanwhile, proposed a slew of steps to get a grip on a crisis that was fast spinning out of control, including a cess on the sale of diesel, a congestion tax, making its main markets congestion-free zones, and regulating access to cars on specific days. Of these, only the 25 paise per litre cess on diesel has been implemented.

    Some of the environment experts that The Indian Express spoke to were clear that “there were no steps” taken to take the “CNG reforms” forward. CNG burns cleaner than petrol or diesel because of its lower carbon content and produces 95% fewer emissions than petroleum products.

    “When I travelled for international conferences immediately after the CNG days, scientists would say Delhi’s air has visibly improved. They said that when you land in a flight you could see the skyline of the city — at night you can see the stars. One would hear this and feel proud,” said Dr J N Pande, who had led an AIIMS study in 1997-98 linking outdoor air pollution to hospital visits for respiratory and cardiovascular events.

    Dr Pande’s study was cited by Supreme Court in its CNG judgment of 1998. “Those gains have been lost and it is very disheartening to people who were so closely involved in the first phase of pollution reforms,” Dr Pande added.

    Another key figure in that judgment was Bhure Lal, who headed a expert panel to advise the three-member bench. “Things have gone horribly wrong since then. An increase in the consumption of diesel combined with the city’s inability to keep out trucks not destined to Delhi has resulted in this situation,” he said.

    Another study that the Supreme Court cited in 1998 was conducted by Dr Maureen Cropper, a former World Bank economist, who joined hands with New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC), to find a link in 1997 between mortality rates and air pollution levels.

    “There are definite parallels in the pollution story in what we saw in India in the 1990s and the US in the 1960s. Court orders and directives preceded state action, which had many advantages, many decisions could be implemented more effectively because the judiciary took the first step, we saw that in air quality in Delhi,” Dr Cropper said.

    Last month, the Supreme Court-appointed Environmental Protection Control Authority (EPCA), responding to a petition from M C Mehta, whose earlier plea led to the CNG judgement 17 years ago, told the apex court: “In view of the significant increase in toxic air pollution and loss of air quality gains from the CNG programme and other first generation action directed by the Honorable Supreme Court, key directives are sought… to accelerate second generation reforms to protect public health in Delhi and the NCR.”

    Seven years ago, everyone saw Delhi’s air take a deadly U-turn but no one did a thing | The Indian Express
     
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