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Digital Camouflage Design

Discussion in 'Modern Warfare' started by CONNAN, Feb 18, 2011.

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  1. CONNAN

    CONNAN Major ELITE MEMBER

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    [​IMG]

    These graphs show performance of the improved MARPAT (Dual-Tex derivative) against the current NATO 3-color pattern and a forest green monochrome target, all adjusted for overall brightness.

    This test was run under SBIR contract to Office of Naval Research in Fall 2003/Spring 2004 at West Point, NY. Observers were first-year cadets; all has vision 20/20 Snellen or higher; all had normal color vision.

    Scenes were presented in random order with one target in each slide. Measure was time in msec required to make a correct detection, and time in msec required to make a correct identification (of target shape).

    Graph at left indicates very high performance improvement for the MARPAT (it took more than twice as long to detect).

    The slide on the next page (below) shows a similar recognition degradation (that is, it also took longer to identify the target shape once the target was detected).

    Overall effects were highly significant statistically.

    Results were presented at the midyear joint meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society and Division 19 of the American Psychological Association in March 2004. Results will appear in Military Psychology in 2004.

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]
     
  2. CONNAN

    CONNAN Major ELITE MEMBER

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    Recent digital developments, by Guy Cramer

    [​IMG]

    A picture is worth a thousand words: (left) U.S. Army personnel get a good look at the new Army Combat Uniform with ARPAT (Army Pattern); as you can see there is a large difference with the color and pattern over the existing woodland they are wearing.



    Designing a digital pattern can be as simple as using graph paper and filling in the squares or as complex as running multiple fractals (graphics with feed back loops) and advanced algorithms through graphics programs, this process is called C2G (Camouflage Designated Enhanced Fractal Geometry). This still doesn't mean you're going to end up with a good concealment pattern, if you don't understand the science and factor that into the design, the best efforts can still come up short as we believe happened with the unrealistic measure the the new U.S. Army pattern (ARPAT).



    Designed for multiple environments ARPAT was derived from the U.S. Marines digital MARPAT, however one main difference with ARPAT was the removal of black in the pattern leaving it with three colors and with only one color scheme for Woodland, Desert, and Urban we believe it is equally ineffective in each environment, we affectionately refer to ARPAT as the Alternate Reality Pattern as we cannot determine on what scientific basis it was developed. Dr. O'Neill has designed objective tests of ARPAT to compare the results in a number of environmental settings with Woodland MARAPT / Desert MARPAT and our new Advanced Generation II MARPAT: Woodland / Desert and Cold Weather (3 separate) color schemes. Actual testing is scheduled to take place within the next few months.



    Our concern with ARPAT is that concealment effectiveness has been compromised by the one (multi-environment) color scheme requirement, which seems to be based on budgetary restrictions rather than protection of the individual. Our past research shows a minimum of two different color schemes; woodland and high desert are required for sufficient concealment in global operations.



    My initial camouflage experimentation began after reading the Canadian Government spent millions on the development of CADPAT in the 1990's. I spent a few hours on my computer and improved on the design, posting these new patterns on the internet. This page caught the attention of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and I began the journey of designing camouflage for government and military. Jordan wanted the best design I could produce and given the lack of bureaucratic red tape usually associated with something on this scale I was able to produce the KA2 pattern, with a number of improvements over CADPAT/MARPAT/ARPAT.



    KA2 has a larger Macropattern over Canadian/U.S. digital patterns to better break the symmetry of the soldier. KA2 is omnidirectional but with a higher trend toward horizontal disruption to further break the human SymAxis. Further enhancements of KA2 are the bright and dark areas to mimic natural reflections and shadows which simulate depth. Different color schemes have been adjusted to take advantage of this effect as KA2 Digital Urban for Jordan's Police shows the greatest amount of depth and texture typical of urban/suburban settings. KA2 Digital Desert for Jordan's Army / Air Force has the highest contrast for disruption (Jordan has dark deserts) but the reflective element of the pattern was replaced with a green to represent sparse vegetation, this change removes some of the depth and texture appearance of the Urban pattern making the Jordan Desert Digital closer to sparse Arid/Desert environments where small reflective elements are typically few and far between.



    Similar research was use to determine the most appropriate color schemes for KA2 Digital Woodland for Jordan's Special Forces, and the separate KA2 Digital Woodland for the Jordan Royal Guard (not yet shown to public).



    As I progressed in pattern development and began to design digital patterns for vehicles for a large Defense Contractor, my work was forwarded to Lt. Col. O'Neill, considered the world expert on camouflage. After reviewing my work Lt. Col. O'Neill asked me to work with him on the design side of new patterns based on his extensive research. These new patterns (which we can't show you) currently undergoing simulation studies, have special features not seen in existing digital patterns and are considered advanced next generation patterns for the U.S. Military.



    We believe through the development of over 300 digital concealment patterns, we have overcome many of the obstacles that plague the current field of CCD (Camouflage, Concealment and Deception) in military camouflage design.
     
  3. CONNAN

    CONNAN Major ELITE MEMBER

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    Abstract

    Military applications of camouflage principles have traditionally fallen short of their potential, owing in large part to naïve interpretations of natural processes and the scientific basis of camouflage; lack of confidence in poorly-designed results has led to continued development of uniforms and other personal concealment measures that use camouflage as a fashion statement rather than as a tool for reducing personal vulnerability. A major contributor to this waste of resources is the complex nature of concealment processes. Understanding how camouflage works in the visual spectrum depends on tracing the braided contributions of such seemingly unrelated threads as the biophysics of visual processing, the distinction between detecting a target and recognizing it, signal detection theory, biomechanics and perceptual vector analysis, and the integration of camouflage design, tactical doctrine, and training. Current work on these topics for the United States Marine Corps and other foreign and domestic customers underscores the need for a coherent strategy to replace the present combination of chaotic objectives, research and development stovepiping, and lack of coherent vision. We provide an alternative theoretical and practical approach based on careful science and common sense.

    The Science of Digital Camouflage Design
     
  4. tariqkhan18

    tariqkhan18 Major Staff Member ADMINISTRATOR

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    Does anyone know how much Indian Army have advanced as far as the digital camouflage is concerned?

    The Chinese Army has advanced a lot in this department.
     
  5. CONNAN

    CONNAN Major ELITE MEMBER

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    BSF introduced Flecktarn pattern in its newly formed female contingent.

    [​IMG]

    Barracuda has offered its individual soldier-specific Special Operations Tactical Camouflage Suiting. This system, when tested by the Indian Army’s Northern Command, denied detection to 45 meters, where ordinarily it was 200 meters. The SOTCS is also available for all kinds of terrain including jungle, snow, desert etc. “We have now been asked for laboratory tests. This should happen in the next two weeks. We should be able to get a consolidated report within a month,” says Ummat, who also expects the army to be interested in MCS systems for 30 per cent of its armored vehicles.

    ASIAN DEFENCE: Barracuda pitches camouflage system to Indian Army

    [​IMG][​IMG]

    Barracuda Personal Camouflage Systems (PCS) has been developed to offer all soldiers including special operation forces a Signature Management tool that will provide protection as well as allow them to perform stealth operations in hostile territories.

    The Barracuda PCS are divided into three general categories:

    1. Barracuda Personal Screen
    2. Barracuda Personal Poncho
    3. Barracuda Special Operations Tactical Suit (SOTACS)
     
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  6. CONNAN

    CONNAN Major ELITE MEMBER

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    Personal Camouflage -Poncho

    [​IMG][​IMG]

    Barracuda Personal Camouflage Systems (PCS) has been developed to offer all soldiers including special operation forces a Signature Management tool that will provide protection as well as allow them to perform stealth operations in hostile territories.

    The Barracuda PCS are divided into three general categories:

    1. Barracuda Personal Screen
    2. Barracuda Personal Poncho
    3. Barracuda Special Operations Tactical Suit (SOTACS)

    All above systems offer the soldiers cover from various reconnaissance systems currently available.

    The Poncho General Characteristics

    The Poncho has multispectral characteristics (VIS, NIR, TIR). The winter poncho also has UV properties.

    VIS/NIR characteristics blend with those of the surrounding background environment.

    [​IMG]

    The TIR (Thermal Infrared) signature:

    • Reduce detection in all climate conditions.
    • Obstruct thermal reconnaissance.
    • The imaginary temperature of the Poncho is not more than 4°C above ambient temperature.

    The ‘non-snagging’ construction allows a long service life for the system.

    The Poncho can be customized to the end-users wishes.

    The Poncho is ultra light and weighs approximately 1500 gr. The winter Poncho is single layered and weighs approximately 1000 gr.

    The Poncho is water resistant maintaining its ultra lightweight in wet weather conditions.
     
  7. CONNAN

    CONNAN Major ELITE MEMBER

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    Barracuda Special Operations Tactical Suit (SOTACS)

    [​IMG][​IMG][​IMG]

    [​IMG][​IMG]

    Barracuda Personal Camouflage Systems (PCS) has been developed to offer all soldiers including special operation forces a Signature Management tool that will provide protection as well as allow them to perform stealth operations in hostile territories.

    The Barracuda PCS are divided into three general categories:

    1. Barracuda Personal Screen
    2. Barracuda Personal Poncho
    3. Barracuda Special Operations Tactical Suit (SOTACS)

    All above systems offer the soldiers cover from various reconnaissance systems currently available.

    The SOTACS General Characteristics


    The Special Operations Tactical Suit (SOTACS) has been developed to offer special operation forces a Signature Management tool that allows them to perform stealth operations in hostile territories. The suit offers the soldier cover from various reconnaissance systems currently available.

    The SOTACS has multispectral characteristics (VIS, NIR, TIR).

    VIS/NIR characteristics blend with those of the surrounding background environment.

    The TIR (Thermal Infrared) signature:

    • Reduce detection in all climate conditions.
    • Obstruct thermal reconnaissance.
    • The SOTACS blocks 80% of the thermal energy transmitted by the soldier.

    The ‘non-snagging’ construction allows a long service life for the system.

    The SOTACS can be customized to the end-users wishes.

    The SOTACS is ultra light and weighs approximately 2,9 kg.

    The SOTACS is water resistant maintaining its ultra light weight in wet weather conditions.
     
  8. CONNAN

    CONNAN Major ELITE MEMBER

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    Video clearly shows the Barracuda MCS ( Mobile Camouflage System) for tanks.

     
    Last edited by a moderator: Mar 12, 2014
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  9. CONNAN

    CONNAN Major ELITE MEMBER

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    Army patents two varieties of camouflage

    KOLKATA: The army has finally patented its uniform. The Ordnance Factory, Avadi, in Chennai, has warned that legal steps would be taken against
    companies that continue to churn out clothing that resemble battle fatigues worn by soldiers.

    For long, the army had been concerned about the use of camouflage clothing by civilians. Even militants in insurgency-hit areas use such clothing. This makes it difficult for troops to distinguish between the enemy and their comrades. Even Maoist leader Koteswar Rao alias Kishanji was seen wearing camouflage trousers on the night he released Atindranath Dutta, the abducted officer-in-charge of Sankrail police station.

    "We have patented two varieties of camouflage. One is a jungle pattern in green and the other a desert pattern in brown. Both will have the logo of the Indian Army. Till now, we could do little against companies manufacturing such textile. Now, we can take legal action even if a product resembles our cloth in any way. Textile manufacturers, traders and even the general public have been asked to inform us of any misuse of the designs," a senior officer said.

    In some parts of the country, like Jammu and Kashmir, Manipur and Assam, use of camouflage clothing by civilians is banned in principle. The use of jungle' shoes readily available across the counter at many stores is also discouraged. However, with no law to fall back on, the defence ministry could not take any legal steps against the offenders.

    "In recent times, it has become fashionable among the youth to wear combat fatigues. It may be alright in peaceful locations, but there is immense confusion in insurgency-hit states. It is very difficult to distinguish between friend and foe during a crisis. The situation turns worse when there are civilians moving around in fatigues. In fact, we also strongly object to the use of combat fatigues by security agencies," the officer added.

    But what about central paramilitary force units who use combat fatigues. Sources said the Ordnance Factory Board has already started selling the material to the ministry of home affairs.

    "Some paramilitary units have even started using the material for their uniform. When the OFB can manufacture weapons and supplies for such organisations, why can't we supply uniforms. The uniforms may carry the Indian Army logo but this will not lead to problems. In fact, this will lead to solidarity," another officer said.

    The officer added that action under the Copyright Act can also be taken against civilians continuing to wear camouflaged clothing. Such people may even be charged with wearing combat fatigues to confuse those actually entitled to wear them.

    Army patents two varieties of camouflage - The Times of India
     
  10. prototype

    prototype Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Other than Flektarn,India uses US-3 colour Desert and Palm Frond(a version of outdated British Denison smock).

    I do not have much idea about camouflages but I feel India is not at all ahead in this field,meanwhile China is known to euip it's forces by something around 30 different camo pattern's.
     
  11. Dilemma

    Dilemma Captain SENIOR MEMBER

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    I like BSF's new flecktarn pattern.
     
  12. CONNAN

    CONNAN Major ELITE MEMBER

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    New Chinese Camis Go Digital

    July 9, 2007: China is spending over a billion dollars to buy new combat uniforms for its troops. The new uniforms use a digital camouflage pattern similar to the one used by American soldiers and marines for the past four years.



    Digital camouflage uses "pixels" (little square or round spots of color, like you will find on your computer monitor if you look very closely), instead of just splotches of different colors. Naturally, this was called "digital camouflage" when it was first invented three decades ago. This pattern proved considerably more effective at hiding troops than older methods. For example, in tests, it was found that soldiers wearing digital pattern uniforms were 50 percent more likely to escape detection by other troops. What made the digital pattern work was the way the human brain processed information. The small "pixels" of color on the cloth makes the human brain see vegetation and terrain, not people. One could provide a more technical explanation, but the "brain processing" one pretty much says it all.



    Another advantage of the digital patterns is that they can also fool troops using night vision scopes. American troops are increasingly running up against opponents who have night optics, so wearing a camouflage pattern that looks like vegetation to someone with a night scope, is useful.



    China will take two years to get nearly two million troops equipped with the new uniforms. There are four camouflage patterns (urban, forest, desert and ocean), although the woodland pattern also works in urban areas, just not as well as the special urban pattern. The new uniforms have a lot of other improvements, based on feedback from the troops. The new uniforms are also sturdier, and are able to survive 700 washings, versus about 140 with the current uniforms.



    The U.S. Army developed digital camouflage in the 1970s. Lieutenant Colonel Timothy R. O'Neill, a West Point professor of engineering psychology, had first noted the "digital camouflage effect." It was never adopted for use in uniforms, but was used for a camouflage pattern on armored vehicles of the U.S. Army 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment in Europe from 1978 to the early 1980s. Why hadn't the army adopted it for uniforms back in the 1970s? It seems that the key army people (uniformed and civilian) deciding such things in the 1970s could not grasp the concept of how digital camouflage worked on the human brain, and were not swayed by field tests. Strange, but true, and it's happened before. In 2003, the U.S. Army decided to use digital camouflage patterns for their new field uniforms. A few years after that, China expressed an interest in the concept, for their new field uniforms.

    Infantry: New Chinese Camis Go Digital
     
  13. X-MAN

    X-MAN REGISTERED

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    Hi, up there is mentioned, that the results will appear in military psychology in 2004. I can´t find that article nowhere. Can someone tell me where i can find the results. If you know, can you post it. Thanks a lot.
     
  14. CONNAN

    CONNAN Major ELITE MEMBER

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    the host site is not updates yet ill post it to you as soon as i find it cheers
     
  15. X-MAN

    X-MAN REGISTERED

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    Thank you. I´m looking forward to it.
     
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