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France- Nuclear Deterrence. All About The Bomb In 16 Issues

Discussion in 'The Americas' started by PARIKRAMA, Nov 3, 2016.

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  1. PARIKRAMA

    PARIKRAMA Captain IDF NewBie

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    France- Nuclear deterrence. All about the bomb in 16 issues

    Published November 3, 2016 at 12:00
    [​IMG]
    Hervé Chambonnière

    [​IMG]
    A significant proportion of French nuclear warheads are located in the missile for nuclear submarines ballistic missile (SSBN as the Bold, below cons), based in Ile Longue near Brest.


    It costs nearly $ 4 billion per year. One of its nuclear warheads (there may be six ballistic missile) can destroy a city like Paris. Here are 16 questions about the French nuclear deterrent. 16 answers drawn from the instructive book "The President and the Bomb" (*).


    1- When?
    The first French atomic bomb in the Sahara February 13, 1960 (baptized test "Blue Jerboa"). His power was equivalent to three times that of Hiroshima. The (209) following tests will mainly air until 1974, then underground until 1996. The tests are now modeled and simulated numerically.

    This is a great diplomatic lever

    2- Why acquire the bomb?
    It was a way "to erase the defeat of 1940", and thus prevent a new invasion, and to guarantee to France the same status as his allies. "It gives us direct access to the table of super majors", argued Charles de Gaulle. And can weigh in international negotiations. "This is a great diplomatic leverage," confirms now a presidential adviser.
    At the time of the selection, only the United States (1945), the USSR (1949) and Great Britain (1952) have this weapon. China will get it in 1964. The United States wanted to install missiles on French soil, but France has a say on whether a shot and objectives. The fear of the French: that Europe does not become nuclear battlefield Americans and Soviets.

    3- How much?
    France currently dispose of "less than 300 nuclear warheads" (against more than 500 in the early 90s). A portion of this stock is integrated with 48 ballistic missiles (three lots of 16 missiles each capable of carrying up to six nuclear warheads) for three of four nuclear submarines ballistic missile (SSBN) based in Long Island, against Brest.
    the other part of team stock ASMPA 54 missiles (including those for testing), divided between the strategic air Forces (SAF) represented by two squadrons (53 aircraft, including 22 Rafale two-seater and 31-seater Mirage 2000) located in eastern France (near Saint-Dizier, Haute-Marne) and the South East of France (near Istres, Bouches-du-Rhône), and nuclear naval force (Fanu) on the board aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle, consisting of a dozen Rafale cars of Landivisiau Naval air Station (29).

    4- Why four submarines?
    This is the minimum to ensure that at least one SSBNs at sea is ready to continuously draw presidential order. While one is at sea (70 to 90 days), a second is docked, ready to take over from or reinforcement within hours or days by order of the President (in the year 1982). The third is technical stop (IE, downtime for maintenance) for one month. And the fourth is disarmed, because periodic unavailability (every ten years for 2.5 years) for maintenance and repairs (Iper or "major technical stop" or "refit").

    5- Why airplanes and submarines?
    Two arguments are better than one. This pair strengthens the credibility and security of deterrence (in case of simultaneous multiple crises parade to possible technological developments defense ...). They are also complementary. Submarines are an enormous firepower and are undetectable. The air forces are more accurate, but their destructive power is more limited. Unlike submarines, aircraft are highly visible and can also be a warning means.

    6- Why so many nuclear weapons?
    It is a political choice (Chairman), also motivated by technical considerations (probability of achieving the target based on the reliability of weapons and especially the defense ...).

    7- What power?
    The warhead fitted to the first version of the M51 ballistic missile (SSBN) had a power of 100 kilotonnes (unknown power of the new head). On paper, this is ten times that of Hiroshima. But, "for physical reasons, it would rather twice." The bomb explosion is always programmed at altitude to maximize the effects of blast and heat, and minimize the fallout (45% of breath, 40% heat and 5% to 10% of radioactivity).
    All French bombs are hydrogen bombs (H), whose power can be modulated. A nuclear warhead of 100 kilotons largely destroy a city like Paris and kill hundreds of thousands of people.

    8- How far and how long?
    Every M51-1 missile can carry up to six warheads capable of reaching different objectives on a 220 km zone of 60 km (13,000 km²).
    The M51-2 ( number of swept heads, more heavy and bulky, unknown), who begins to equip SSBN, can hit targets at nearly 10,000 km of distance (against 5,000 km for M45), at a speed of Match 20 (7 km per second). When shooting, the Asian border would be achieved in about 30 minutes. In 2020, all SSBNs will be equipped with M51-2.

    9- What looks like the bomb today?
    The heart consists of a few kilograms of plutonium carved half-shells and surrounded by a sheath. Everything about the size of a watermelon (or handball) and is intended to form the core of the primer (detonator). The heart is enclosed in a sealed sarcophagus and entrusted to the armies. It is then assembled vectors (missiles) on nuclear air bases, and on Long Island, where is the base of nuclear submarines ballistic missile (SSBN), against Brest. The lifespan of a weapon is estimated at 25 years. It is then dismantled, appraised. Plutonium is recovered, cleaned, processed and consolidated.

    10- Can the bomb exploded accidentally?
    All weapons come with government control box (BCG) require twice presidential code. All activation sequences of weapons and firing are controlled. Accidental nuclear explosion would be "impossible": the bomb was designed to detonate "in very specific physical conditions." However, zero risk does not exist for other types of accidents: dispersion of radioactive elements, nuclear reactor accident on a submarine ...

    11- And the security of nuclear sites?
    The security of nuclear sites, which is also part of deterrence, would be the subject of "monitoring and a formidable protection," according to the authors of the book. According to them, the latest incursion in Long Island (SSBN) goes back "in the early 80 ', during an exercise conducted by combat swimmers DGSE.
    According to our own sources (survey in our June 11 column 2013, "the incredible vulnerabilities of Long Island" ), security of the site was regularly caught out in recent years, and even the most sensitive areas of the base.
    substantial efforts have since been undertaken . Last example on 8 September with a tender of the Ministry of Defence spent for "operational maintenance of intrusion detection system by sea" operational base.

    12- What target?
    During the Cold War, the French missile targets were the major Russian cities. Since 1998, the target coordinates are not always pre-recorded in missiles. Previously planned strikes were massive. Thus, a SSBN detectable during its shooting phase and therefore likely to be destroyed, should draw its 16 missiles at once. This is no longer the case today (it can fire only one missile if necessary).
    Today, the President issued directives to the Chief of Staff (ECS). It offers in return targets as valid or not President, in writing.
    Deterrence is all power possessing weapons of mass destruction threaten the vital interests of France. Any opponent and knows he is exposed to "unacceptable damage": a minimum, destroying its power centers, economic, political and military. A "final warning" can be addressed. A possible strike limited (in a deserted place / limited power / high altitude, so as to neutralize all electronic circuits on the surface)
    What are the vital interests of France? The definition is fuzzy (identity, existence and state sovereignty) "to prevent an opponent is able to calculate the risk inherent in the attack, and also that this concept may change depending on circumstances. This provides a margin of flexibility and freedom to the President.
    could the Daesh France hit? no, but the decision is not closed. Especially if the terrorist group were to be in state and was equipped with weapons of mass destruction.

    13- How would it be a shot fired?
    On presidential order. It manages the armed securely (authentication code and signature written, visual and voice signature, encryption) and diversified (seven different transmission means for the former Albion plateau which hosted the ground-ground missiles). When the order is issued, no turning back is possible. In a submarine, the commander and his deputy trigger simultaneously and separately shot. In the two-seater aircraft FAS, the co-pilot receives the code and unlock weapons, and the driver can then shoot (different procedure for aircraft to cars Fanu). For submarines, the president does not know where the SSBN and the construction commander ignores the target of its missiles.

    14. Who has the code?
    The president carries a fragment of code. This would be a mathematical formula or an alphanumeric code contained for a long time in a locket attached to a gold chain. This would be different today. If lost, this object would not be identifiable, and remain incomprehensible and unusable. Its loss would have no impact on deterrence.
    The other code fragment is held by a soldier of the presidential entourage. Codes can be submitted at any time via the black briefcase that carries aide accompanying the president. Other characters of the state could also be the return if the President was prevented (Prime Minister and Defense Minister, Foreign Minister and Interior also mentioned). Another person designated by the president in the provinces would also have the code. Although the head of state or his family, were taken hostage, the system would work.

    15- What cost?
    Deterrence costs between 2014 and 2019, nearly 3.88 billion euros a year. This represents 50 € to 60 € per year and French (€ 4 to € 5 per month), or 200 € per year and per household imposed. This cost, however, should reach a peak of € 6 billion in 2025 (renewal of equipment).

    16- Going without deterrence
    Besides military and diplomatic risks (loss of influence and credibility), the authors point out the technological and economic risks: one euro invested in nuclear power would generate more than one euro in the economy. Furthermore, dismantling would be "long and extremely expensive."

    Finally, deterrence feeds many other industries, including technology: space (eg Ariane would cost a lot more), aerospace, astrophysics, climate science, medical research , defense electronics, telecommunications, iT, nuclear power, metallurgy shells, laser, satellite observation, precision optics (...).
    Without deterrence, the French army would not have the dimension it has today (role nuclear submarines SNA attack submarine frigates, mine buildings, satellites, Rafale and airstrikes long distance capabilities ...).
    she M51 missile the sector employs only to over 450 industrial ( 800 SMEs). Military nuclear research would lead in the industry between 10,000 and 20,000 jobs.

    * "The President and the bomb," John Guisnel and Bruno Tertrais (ed. Odile Jacob, 326 pages, € 22.90).

    http://www.letelegramme.fr/france/n...-questions-03-11-2016-11278292.php#closePopUp
     
    Aero, nair, randomradio and 3 others like this.
  2. Grevion

    Grevion Professional Think Troll IDF NewBie

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    A very nice article....also if anyone can explain this

     
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  3. Picdelamirand-oil

    Picdelamirand-oil Lt. Colonel MILITARY STRATEGIST

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    It's like nuclear Carrier, for nuclear submarine every 10 years you have a big technical review and a major maintenance where you change also nuclear fuel for the next 10 years.
     
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  4. Grevion

    Grevion Professional Think Troll IDF NewBie

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    How much time does one submarines takes for a major maintenance.
     
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  5. Picdelamirand-oil

    Picdelamirand-oil Lt. Colonel MILITARY STRATEGIST

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    2.5 years!
     
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  6. Picdelamirand-oil

    Picdelamirand-oil Lt. Colonel MILITARY STRATEGIST

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    Finally the amont of France nuclear warheads is easy to calculate:
    1 M51 ==> 6 warheads
    1 submarine= 16 M51 ==> 96 warheads
    4 submarines ==> 3 operational ===> 288 warheads
    53 Airforce planes and 12 Navy planes ==>65 warheads
    Total: 288 + 65 = 353 warheads.
     
  7. Grevion

    Grevion Professional Think Troll IDF NewBie

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    Oh!! Sorry i missed that.
     
  8. randomradio

    randomradio Colonel REGISTERED

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    No reserves?
     
  9. Picdelamirand-oil

    Picdelamirand-oil Lt. Colonel MILITARY STRATEGIST

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    why?
     
  10. randomradio

    randomradio Colonel REGISTERED

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    In case some of your nukes are nullified in some way, mainly using air defence, so you will need other ways to breach defences after you have lost your current stockpile.
     
  11. BlackOpsIndia

    BlackOpsIndia Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    I am little unsure what this exactly means. $4 Billion for what? Maintainance of all Nuclear planes and subs + expenses of the crew of all planes and subs carrying Nuclear warheads or is it the maintenance of just warheads?

    This is half the defence of Pakistan which operates or store 120 warheads.
     
  12. halloweene

    halloweene Major MILITARY STRATEGIST

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    The idea is not to stockpile warheads. Just to have opponents know that we can deliver warheads in a significant enough way to dismiss any idea of benefit in attacking us.
     
  13. BMD

    BMD Colonel ELITE MEMBER

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    You only have 240 SLBM warheads in total. And START II places a limit of 4 warheads per SLBM.

    http://bos.sagepub.com/content/64/4/52.full.pdf
     
  14. Picdelamirand-oil

    Picdelamirand-oil Lt. Colonel MILITARY STRATEGIST

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  15. mugundhan

    mugundhan 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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