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India Ballistic Missile Defense news and discussions thread

Discussion in 'Indian Military Doctrine' started by CONNAN, Feb 3, 2011.

  1. CONNAN

    CONNAN Major ELITE MEMBER

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    The Indian Ballistic Missile Defense Program is an initiative to develop and deploy a multi-layered ballistic missile defense system to protect India from ballistic missile attacks.

    Introduced in light of the ballistic missile threat from Pakistan, it is a double-tiered system consisting of two interceptor missiles, namely the Prithvi Air Defence (PAD) missile for high altitude interception, and the Advanced Air Defence (AAD) Missile for lower altitude interception. The two-tiered shield should be able to intercept any incoming missile launched 5,000 kilometers away

    [​IMG]

    "With its early support of the former US president George W Bush's ballistic missile defense program and its current drive to develop anti-ballistic missile/anti-satellite capability, New Delhi is determined not to make the same mistake twice," added Gupta. "If and when globally negotiated restraints are placed on such strategic defensive systems or technologies - perhaps restraints of some sort of ASAT testing/hit-to-kill technologies - India will already have crossed the technical threshold in that regard, and acknowledgement of such status [will be] grand-fathered into any such future agreement."

    After watching China's moves since the highly controversial satellite shootdown which China undertook in January 2007, India has now openly declared its desire to match China.

    "There is no reason to be surprised. India is anxious to be seen as not lagging behind China - ergo - if China has an ASAT program, India can do it, too. That's all there is to it." said Uzi Rubin, a defense consultant and former head of Israel's missile defense organization.

    China was not specifically mentioned by V K Saraswat, director general of India's Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO), when he announced at the 97th Indian Science Congress earlier this month that India had begun to develop an anti-satellite capability. He declared that India is "working to ensure space security and protect our satellites. At the same time, we are also working on how to deny the enemy access to its space assets."

    There is no doubt as to the identity of the "enemy" in question.

    "The Indians are engaged in a major active missile defense program which, because of the technological affinity between missile defense and ASAT, could eventually grow up to the latter," said Rubin. "India, like all countries with their own space assets, is aware that ASAT is a double-edged sword and that if they embark on a program, they will legitimize the Chinese program and endanger their own national satellites."

    As for Saraswat's statement - "India is putting together building blocks of technology that could be used to neutralize enemy satellites" - Rubin almost downplays it entirely.

    "His is quite a tepid statement, I wouldn't make much of it," said Rubin.

    On the other hand, Subrata Ghoshroy, research associate in the Working Group in the Science, Technology, and Global Security Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has met senior former India Space Research Organization (ISRO) officials who were eager to let it be known that India has the capacity to respond.

    "There are growing ties between ISRO and the Indian Ministry of Defense and the two are beginning to feed off each other," said Ghoshroy.
     
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  2. CONNAN

    CONNAN Major ELITE MEMBER

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    [​IMG]

    What Saraswat did was, in effect, to inject a powerful destabilizing element into the South Asian strategic equation at a time when the US is determined to do everything in its power to bolster regional stability.

    When US Defense Secretary Robert Gates planned his trip to India this week, the last thing Gates probably expected to contend with was the possibility that New Delhi might be accelerating its timetable for the development of an ASAT weapon. Writing in the Times of India in advance of his visit, Gates made no mention whatsoever of space, anti-missile activities or ASAT weapons in particular, although there are certainly space-related items on the agenda.

    What Gates avoided entirely was any mention of the US acting as a solid partner and supporter of India's ASAT program. While that might well be the case, it could be argued that in the interest of regional stability, the US might at least be rethinking how it will proceed in these matters in light of mounting concerns over the situation in Pakistan where China obviously enjoys significant leverage.

    China's decision this month to proceed with a well-publicized test of its midcourse missile interceptor technology - just a few days after Pradeep Kumar, India's Defense Secretary, departed from Beijing - certainly has sent a strong message, while doing the US a favor in terms of providing the US with a timely excuse for allowing India to go ahead with its plans.

    However, the US cannot have it both ways in the end. Courting India as a favored client for major arms purchases one moment, and as a strategic hedge against China, and then trying to promote regional stability the next moment is not a very coherent way to make meaningful progress in South Asia. The dilemma for the US is considerable.

    Saraswat was quite careful in his choice of words, and went out of his way this time to assure any interested parties, including Gates, that no actual ASAT tests were now planned by India.

    Saraswat has good reason to be very careful about his choice of words. A day after the US Navy cruiser USS Lake Erie shot down an errant US spy satellite in February 2008, for example, former Indian president APJ Abdul Kalam - one of the key players in India's nuclear and missile programs - told reporters at a DRDO-sponsored International Conference on Avionics Systems in Hyderabad that India has, "the ability to intercept and destroy any spatial object or debris in a radius of 200 kilometers. We will definitely do that if it endangers Indian territory".

    Saraswat, on the other hand, was less specific at the time. And while seeming to agree with Kalam's statement, he did not do so with absolute certainty.

    "It is just a matter of time before we could place the necessary wherewithal to meet such requirements," Saraswat said. "We can predict and can always tackle such challenges."

    India's position at the time of the China's ASAT test in January 2007 is hard to ignore. Pranab Mukherjee, India's external affairs minister, appealed for a more reasoned and less destabilizing approach by all nations as their military activities in space intensified.

    "The security and safety of assets in outer space is of crucial importance," said Mukherjee. "We call upon all states to redouble efforts to strengthen the international legal regime for peaceful uses of outer space. Recent developments show that we are treading a thin line between current defense-related uses of space and its actual weaponization."

    The same theme surfaced in a speech last year about the Indo-US Civil Nuclear Agreement given by Shyam Saran, special envoy to the prime minister on climate change, at the Brookings Institution in Washington DC last March, when Saran briefly mentioned ASAT weapons.

    "India is one of a handful of countries with significant space capabilities. We have a large number of communications and resource survey satellites currently in orbit. Although this does not fall strictly within the nuclear domain, the need to ensure the peaceful uses of outer space, is important for nuclear stability and international security," said Saran.

    "We welcome [US President Barack Obama's] intention to join multilateral efforts to prevent military conflict in space and to negotiate an agreement to prohibit the testing of anti-satellite weapons. This is an area of convergence on which we would be happy to work together with the US and contribute to a multilateral agreement."

    In early 2010, India's objectives are very clear.

    "From a political/diplomatic angle, the guiding principle of India's missile defense/ASAT policy is not much different from China's - ie, maintain a basic political commitment to the non-weaponization of space, or, at minimum, the non-deployment of space-based offensive capabilities in global disarmament talks while assiduously cultivating the domestic technical capability to use space-based resources for strategic missile defense purposes," said Gupta.

    At this point, nobody believes that some sort of magic firewall separates ongoing work on ABM and ASAT systems in a growing number of countries around the world.

    "As for the linkage between BMD and ASAT, the linkage is very obvious - many Low Earth Orbit satellites orbit no higher than the ceiling of large BMD interceptors (like the US-built SM3, which was used by the US to shoot down a satellite in February, 2008) which are designed to take out very fast targets with km/sec closing speeds. Some modifications are necessary of course to take into account the greater closing speeds, but nothing drastic," said Rubin.

    Saraswat knew this all too well back in 2008 when he admitted that India's efforts to deploy a missile defense system had been given a substantial boost by radar technology for tracking and fire control which the DRDO developed jointly with Israel and France.

    "Israel is playing a major role in the ABM program. One can read from the open literature that they are helping India upgrade the Green Pine radar to act as the so-called Long-Range Tracking Radar (LRTR) that India has deployed and used during its ABM system tests," said Ghoshroy. "The Israelis are also reportedly providing UAV-type [unmanned aerial vehicles] platforms for forward-deployment of radars. I would not be surprised if BMC3 [battle management, command, control, and communications] expertise for the ABM system is also shared with India."
     
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  3. CONNAN

    CONNAN Major ELITE MEMBER

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    Rubin disagrees with this assessment.

    "As for the question of an Israeli-Indian link in missile defense, I'm not aware of such a link since the US banned the sale of [the] Arrow [missile interceptor]," said Rubin. "If the US lifts the ban then [US defense contractors] Lockheed Martin and Raytheon will see to it that Israel is squeezed out. Anyway, the Indians have embarked on their own program."

    According to Gupta, Israel's primary role is two-fold: sale of off-the-shelf defensive platforms at the present time to cover gaps in India's defense preparedness, such as the "Phalcon" phased array radar system slowly giving way to joint research and development projects in the future, such as the short-range naval anti-missile system.

    "Other point radar and anti-missile defenses currently in the pipeline include aerostat (blimp/balloon-based) radars to provide coverage in sparse border areas as well as a medium-range anti-aircraft system,' said Gupta. "India's government sector defense research and development unit has a particularly poor track record in developing air-defense systems. Given Israel's immense defense-industrial sophistication in radars and avionics, the relationship between the two parties is likely to remain more in the supplier-purchaser mode rather than the joint collaborator mode."

    For India, Israel is all about access to cutting-edge platforms and technologies without the unpleasant compromises to India's much cherished strategic autonomy that similar systems from the US entail.

    "Though Israel with US co-development assistance has made immense strides in its strategic anti-missile capabilities, the Israeli-Indian anti-missile defense conversation has mostly concentrated on plugging gaps in the area of point defenses. Theater and strategic defenses particularly have been a lesser focus," said Gupta. "Also, the conversation has mostly been a bilateral one, and not a [trilateral] one, except [when] US technologies are embedded within Israeli systems."

    More than anything else, the US is trying to open doors, not close them, as far as defense sales to India are concerned. However, India has enjoyed a long-term and relatively stable relationship with the Russians, and while that relationship has been a bit rocky of late, India may see the Russians as more reliable - and perhaps more affordable - than others standing in line.

    "The Russians will come in much cheaper than the US and possibly, also the Israeli systems. For example, the Russian ABM system S-300-PMU2 is much less expensive and better performing than the US's PAC-3 or THAAD systems," said Ghoshroy.

    According to Gupta, while India is increasingly open to distributing its near-term procurement needs according to the quality of the bids, India remains reticent to the extreme in broadening its procurement of strategically salient items beyond its trusted Russian sales partner.

    "This calculation will change only slowly even as US defense suppliers slowly build up a relationship of trust starting with sales of platforms and moving gradually perhaps thereafter towards co-licensing/development with its Indian private defense sector partners," said Gupta.

    What India really wants is for its ASAT-related technology to evolve quite quickly because India senses that China's lead is steadily increasing.

    "India's anti-missile system is still embryonic. They do not yet have an infrared sensor that will be absolutely necessary for tracking and final homing," said Ghoshroy. "The Chinese obviously got that technology since they were able to track and hit their satellite."

    Weapon and Technology: Hunt for Anti Satellite Defence System
     
  4. CONNAN

    CONNAN Major ELITE MEMBER

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    Phased Development and Deployment

    DRDO Chief V.K. Saraswat told the press on March 21, 2010, that the Ballistic Missile System is being developed in two phases under a capability based deployment plan.

    In the first phase, which is currently underway, DRDO will develop and deploy a system for defense against missiles with less than 2,000 km range like Pakistan's Ghauri and Shaheen missiles.

    In the second phase, system capability will be upgraded to defend against missiles with ranges greater than 2,000 km that can additionally deploy decoys or maneuver.

    Phase 1 system will be deployed within two years and Phase 2 system by 2016.

    The Phase 2 system will require longer range radars (Detection range of 1,500km as opposed to 600 km for Phase 1 radars), and new hypersonic interceptor missiles flying at Mach 6-7 (As opposed to Mach 4-5 for Phase 1 missiles) with agility and the capability to discriminate against ballistic missile defence counter measures.

    “Our effort is to have interception at very high altitudes, and the entire system will be able to handle multiple, simultaneous attacks,” Saraswat said.

    Phase 1 System Overview

    The system will be based on radar technology for tracking and fire control which the DRDO developed jointly with Israel and France.

    It will be implemented as a two tiered terminal phase interceptor system comprising of

    1. Prithvi Air Defense (PAD) exo-atmospheric interceptor missile for intercepting targets outside the atmosphere.
    2. Advanced Air Defense (AAD) endo-atmospheric interceptor missile for intercepting targets up to an attitude of 30 kms .
    3. 'Swordfish' Long Range Tracking Radar (LRTR). The Swordfish LRTR has been developed from the Green Pine early warning and fire control radars imported by India from Israel in 2001-2002.

    The integrated exo and endo-atmospheric systems offer a hit-to-kill probability of 99.8 per cent.

    Prithvi Air Defense
    To begin with the exo-atmospheric interceptor PAD-1 was a two stage missile with one liquid and one solid stage.

    PDV Interceptor Missile

    The PAD-1 missile is now being replaced with the PDV missile, which does away with the liquid fuel first stage and has two solid fuel stages.

    The PDV will armed with a 'kill vehicle' which destroys the enemy missile and equipped with a innovative system to allow the missile to maneuver at altitudes approaching 30km, where the air is thinner.

    The first trial of the missile is scheduled for late June or early July 2010.

    "The PDV will be the mainstay of the defence shield," Dr Saraswat told India Today in June 2010.

    Advanced Air Defense

    The endo-atmospheric interceptor AAD is a 7.5m long, single stage solid fueled missile, equipped with a ring laser gyro based inertial navigation system, a hi-tech computer and an electro- mechanical actuators totally under command by the data up-linked from the sophisticated ground based radars to the interceptor.

    P-Charge Interceptor Warhead

    The AAD interceptor is equipped with a P-charge [projectile charge] warhead that can penetrate thick steel and cause damage with a high hit [repeat hit] density.

    "That means the number of holes you create per unit area is very high," a DROD official told the press in October, 2009.

    Phase 2

    The Phase 2 missile defense system will be based on the AD-1 and AD-2 interceptor missile that are currently under development.

    "Ground testing of the AD-1 will begin next year and the AD-1 missile will be test-fired in 2012," Saraswat told India Today in June 2010.

    These interceptors would be capable of shooting down missiles that have ranges greater than 5,000 km, which follow a distinctly different trajectory than a missile with a range of 2,000 km or less. During their final phase, ICBMs hurtle towards their targets at speeds twice those of intermediate range missiles.

    The Phase 2 system will match the capability of the THAAD or Terminal High Altitude Area Defence missiles deployed by the United States as part of its missile shield beginning this year. THAAD missiles can intercept ballistic missiles over 200 km away and track targets at ranges in excess of 1,000 km.
     
  5. CONNAN

    CONNAN Major ELITE MEMBER

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    Floating Test Range for Phase 2 system

    A floating test range is being developed for developing the Phase 2 system.

    Scientists have started designing the ship and associated systems such as radar, mission control centre, launch control centre, communication network and many other equipment needed for phase-II trials, Sarsawat told the press.

    [​IMG]
    AAD interceptor missile displayed on Republic Day 2009. Photo Credit: Sawf News

    BMD Tests
    A total of four successful test of the BMD system have been carried out: Two using the PAD exo-atmospheric interceptor and two using the AAD endo-atmospheric interceptor.

    First Test
    On March 6, 2006 a PAD missile successfully intercepted a modified Dhanush surface-to-surface missile fired from INS Rajput anchored inside the Bay of Bengal, towards Wheeler Island, simulating a target “enemy” missile with a range of 1,500 km.

    Second Test
    On November 27, 2006 a PAD missile intercepted a Prithvi ballistic missile at 48 km altitude.

    Third Test

    In December 2007 an AAD missile intercepted a target missile at an altitude of 15kms.

    The interceptor used a 'gimbaled directional warhead' or a warhead only one side of which explodes close to an incoming ballistic missile, shattering it.

    The Advanced Air Defense (AAD) interceptor has so far been successfully tested up to an altitude of 15 kms.

    The interceptor will next engage an incoming target missile at 30 km to validate the efficacy of the missile in its entire endo-atmospheric envelope.

    Fourth Test Aborted

    A test of the AAD missile on March 15, 2010 at 10010 was aborted after the modified Prithvi (Dhanush) missile launched to simulate the target deviated from its flight path.

    In the test, a Dhanush missile launched from a naval ship was be guided along a trajectory similar to that of an 1,500 km range Ghauri missile in its terminal phase zeroing in on the Wheeler Island, off Damra village on the Orissa coast. A PAD interceptor launched from Wheeler Island was to intercep the "enemy" missile with a hit to kill at 70-80 km.

    In an explanatory statement, DRDO said:

    "The target missile took off in normal way; at T+20 sec (approx) the target deviated due to some onboard system malfunction and could not maintain the intended trajectory, failing to attain the desired altitude profile. The Mission Control Centre computer found that the interception is not warranted as the deviated target did not present the incoming missile threat scenario and accordingly the system intelligently did not allow take-off of the interceptor missile for engaging the target. The cause of the target malfunction is being investigated by analysis of tele-metered data."

    On March 18, after analyzing the telemetry and other data, DRDO scientists conclude they had figured out the reason for the failure.

    The target missile reached an altitude of nearly 65 km and then spiralled down into the Bay of Bengal having travelled 27 km.

    Fuel leak caused test failure
    On April 11, 2010, DRDO Chief VK Sarsawat said:

    “Analysis of the earlier trial revealed there was a leakage in the target missile leading to system failure. We are rectifying it to ensure the next flight test in June will hit the target and demonstrate our advance capability in developing the missile defence shield against any adversary missile attack.”

    He was speaking at the sidelines of a national convention on 'The Frontiers of Aeronautical Technologies', organised by the Aeronautical Society of India in Bangalore..
     
  6. CONNAN

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    Fourth Test

    [​IMG]
    A Prithvi target missile lifts off during a BMD test on July 26, 2010

    A fourth test of the AAD interceptor missile was conducted on Monday, July 26. The test was partially successful as the missile failed to score a direct hit.

    A modified surface-to-surface Prithvi was launched from a mobile launcher at 10:05 am from launch complex-3 of ITR at Chandipur-on-sea.

    The interceptor AAD missile, positioned at Wheeler Island, about 70 km across sea from Chandipur, engaged the target missile at an altitude of 15 km.

    The warhead exploded within a few metres of the target missile releasing multiple bullet-like particles which hit and destroyed the target missile 26 seconds after its launch. The debris which fell into the sea was tracked by radars located along the coast.

    The AAD missile for the first time used P-charge directional warhead.

    A DRDO press release cryptically stated


    Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), today successfully conducted fourth consecutive Interceptor Missile test in Endo atmospheric regime at 15 Km altitude off ITR, Chandipur, Orissa. The single stage Interceptor Missile fitted with Directional Warhead and other advanced systems neutralized the target.

    The target ballistic ‘enemy’ missile was launched from Launch Complex – III, ITR Chandipur. The Interceptor Missile fitted with directional warhead was launched from Wheeler Island and destroyed the Target Missile breaking it into fragments. This was tracked by various Radars and sensors. All weapon system elements including Command and Control, Communication and Radar performed satisfactorily.

    Fifth Test

    The test will involve a maneuvering target missile.

    The test has been scheduled for February 10, 2011.

    "As per the program, the interceptor missile will destroy an incoming hostile missile mid-flight over the Bay of Bengal. This experimentation will be to observe the operational effectiveness of the high-speed interceptor," said a scientist. "A Prithvi missile, modified to mimic a hostile ballistic projectile with a range of over 300 km, will lift off from the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur and it will be destroyed in the endoatmospheric region (at an altitude of 15 km) by the interceptor fired from Wheeler Island a few seconds later," he added.

    PDV Test

    DRDO had scheduled a test of its PDV Phase-1 endo-atmospheric interceptor missile (See above) in end June - early July

    "We will have a test in end June or early July and are calling this new missile the PDV and it will have two solid stages," Dr Saraswat had said.
     
  7. CONNAN

    CONNAN Major ELITE MEMBER

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    Boost Phase Missile Defense
    The Laser and Science Technology Centre (LASTEC) is also reported to be developing lasers to takeout enemy missiles during their boost phase, when they are most vulnerable.

    "It's easier to kill a missile in boost phase as it has not gained much speed and is easier to target. It cannot deploy any countermeasures and it is vulnerable at that time," DRDO's Air Defense Program Director V K Saraswat told PTI in January 2009.

    "In LASTEC, we are developing many of these technologies. We have to package these technologies on aircraft like the Americans have done on their systems," he added.

    "It is an involved process and not just about producing lasers. We have to put in many systems like the surveillance and tracking systems together for such a system to work. It will take another 10-15 years before we talk of integrating all these elements," he said.

    A Boost Phase Missile defense system will need to rely on a space based launch detection system like the SBIRS satellite constellation being deployed by the US. Unlike the SBIRS, which is global in scope, India would require a more limited system to monitor Pakistan and China. India could also buy into the US SBIRS while developing its own limited constellation.

    Satellite Kill Vehicle

    ISRO is developing a satellite kill vehicle as part of its BMD system, according to DRDO Defense Research and Development Organization Director General V.K. Saraswat.

    The hit-to-kill vehicle will use an imaging infra-red seeker and a 3-D laser image of a target satellite in low earth orbit to guide itself to impact.

    No tests of the system have been scheduled so far.

    "We are working to ensure space security and protect our satellites. At the same time we are also working on how to deny the enemy access to our space assets," Saraswat told newsmen at the Science Congress on January 4.

    Capability Maturity

    On February 10, DRDO chief V.K. Saraswat told the press that India’s BMD programme is more advanced than China’s.

    “This (BMD) is one area where we are senior to China. We knew they had acquired the building blocks for BMD when they shot down a satellite in 2007. But we have been working on this programme since 1999.”
     
  8. CONNAN

    CONNAN Major ELITE MEMBER

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    Ballistic Missile Defence Options:Existing Systems

    At present, India's ballistic missiledefence plans have revolved around the evaluation of three distinct systems: the IsraeliArrow, the Russian Antey 2500/ S-300VM and the Russian Almaz S-300 PMU-1/-2. Moreover,India has made tentative requests for information on the American Patriot PAC-3. All ofthese systems have advantages and disadvantages that are worth considering.(18)

    The American Patriot system has beeninitially designed as an antiaircraft system. In addition, the absence of a need to coverUS territory against intermediate-range missiles has influenced the spectrum of weaponsagainst which this system can be effective. Considering its relatively poor result againstthe Iraq Scud missiles, the Patriot has been successively updated several times.Unfortunately, these updates have not eliminated the fundamental limitations this systemhas with respect to target engagement velocities (up to 3000 m/s, correspondingapproximately to the ballistic-missile extreme range of 1000 km). It is noteworthy thatthe last Patriot modification could not pass the testing phase for several years. InAugust 2002, after a series of failures, it was officially announced that there would beabout a one-year delay in the start of system manufacturing.

    Unlike its competitors, the Patriot doesnot have its own ballistic-missile acquisition aid. During the Gulf War, over-the-horizonradars deployed in Turkey and satellite surveillance systems were used to detect Scudmissiles. The cost of such information support is not generally included in the initialprice of American Patriots. In India's case, the additional problem of US approval must beconsidered. The United States - with typical shortsightedness - has balked at fullysharing ballistic missile defence systems and technologies with India.

    The main advantage of the Israeli Arrowadvanced air-defence missile system (ADMS) is its capability to engage tactical missilesup to 50-km altitudes and up to 70-km ranges - even up to 90 to 100 km according tosources. However, the Arrow system is designed to engage Iraq's Scud missiles and Iran'sballistic missiles that are capable of destroying targets throughout Israel, with theirrange not exceeding 800 to 1000 km.

    Furthermore, the Arrow, like the Patriot,has been optimised to engage launch vehicles intended to deliver conventional or at theoutside, chemical warheads, while the Pakistan missiles, unlike the Iranian and Iraqiones, are capable of delivering small nuclear warheads that may be imperative tointercept. The Arrow's lower engagement level is 8 km and so, will need additional weaponsystems to be deployed for protecting it against aircraft attacks.

    The performance analysis of targets to beengaged by the Patriot and the Arrow reveals that these systems will be able to engageabout 50% of these. In combination, however, the Arrow and Patriot could provide areasonably effective defence against ballistic missiles with ranges of up to 1000km.

    As a result of its huge US input, the Arrowmissile is subject to US approval and, despite Israel's willingness to supply the systemto India, the United States Department of State has have given no commitment to approvethe sale of the system to India.

    Another major strength of the Arrow systemlies in its superb "Green Pine" missile tracking radar. This system can detectmissiles at ranges of up to 500km and provides considerable warning time to alertdefences.(19)

    The Russian S-300 PMU-l system and itsmodification - the S-300PMU -2 - reportedly have similar ATBM capabilities to the PAC-3.The Russian systems feature an enhanced capability of changing firing positions quickly,which is important for their survivability on battlefields.(20)

    The Pakistan missiles threatening India arebasically similar to the US Pershing-2 missiles that forced Russia to develop the S-300Vand, further, the S-300VM (Antei-2500). The Pershing-2 had a nuclear warhead with a verysmall radar cross-section and delivery range of up to 2500 km. The Pershing-2 missileswere more difficult to intercept than their current Pakistan counterparts. However,Russian specialists were able to develop systems to engage them successfully.

    S-300VM ADMS allows engagement of nearlyinvisible ballistic-missile warheads moving at up to 4500 meters per second and launchedfrom distances of up to 2500 km. ADMS includes a dedicated mobile radar capable ofdetecting a ballistic-missile warhead within 3 seconds and deliver timely data for firingagainst it. The S-300VM has the additional advantage in its capability to "cutout" enemy jammers and command-centre aircraft beyond its engagement range of 200 km.

    Yet even the S-300VM has significantshortcomings. The ceiling of the S-300VM is around 30km against aircraft and 25km againstballistic missiles and while its range against aircraft may be great, its published rangeagainst ballistic missiles is only 40km. Moreover, reports circulating in India haveindicated that the S-300VM has failed trials at the Pokhran test range.(21)

    The Almaz S-400 is a development of theS-300 PMU family with a staggering range of some 400km against aircraft. It has beensuggested that the ATBM performance of this missile is substantial and could providelong-range area defence against air and missile attack. It is also reported that a furtherdevelopment, the S-500 is in progress.

    With all these systems on offer to India,it would seem that India has thus far opted for the Arrow as its first choice with variousRussian systems as a second choice. Moreover, DRDO has embarked upon the first steps ofits own ATBM program.
     
  9. CONNAN

    CONNAN Major ELITE MEMBER

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    Indigenous BMD efforts andprospects

    Given shortcomings in existing foreignsystems and the reticence of the United States to permit the export of India's preferredchoice - the Arrow - it is not surprising that some effort has gone into developing somebasic BMD technologies in India.

    India's first efforts in this field can beseen in the much delayed Akash SAM. This medium range SAM, guided by the Rajendra phasedarray radar and linked to a 150km range Central Acquisition radar will provide a limitedATBM capability to India.

    The Akash uses an integral ramjet rocketpropulsion system to give a low-volume, low-weight (700 kg launch weight) missileconfiguration, and has a low reaction time - from detection to missile launch - of 15seconds. This allows the missile to carry a heavier warhead (60 kg). The solid-propellantbooster accelerates the missile in 4.5 seconds to Mach 1.5, which is then jettisoned andthe ramjet motor is then ignited for 30 seconds to Mach 2.8 - 3.5 at 20g. Akash has arange of 27 km, with an effective ceiling of 18 km.

    The Akash is capable of engaging aircraftflying at tree-top height. Development is on to increase speed, maximum altitude and rangeto 60 km. A dual mode radar/infra-red seeker is also being developed as is a longer rangeversion of the Rajendra radar, to give earlier warning and tracking of ballistic missiletargets.

    Rajendra is a 3-D phased-arraysurveillance/engagement radar developed by the Electronic Research & DevelopmentEstablishment (ERDE). Also mounted on a modified BMP-2 chassis, like the Akash, the radaris capable of tracking 64 targets, engage 4 simultaneously and guide up to 12 missiles.The Rajendra has air surveillance, multiple target tracking and multiple missile guidancefunctions via multi-channel monopulse features. It includes fully digital signalprocessing system with adaptive moving target indicator, coherent signal processing, FFTs,and variable pulse repetition frequency. Rajendra comprises a surveillance antenna arraywith 4000 elements operating in the G/H-Band (4-8 GHz), engagement antenna array with 1000elements operating in the I/J-Band (8-20 GHz), a 16-element IFF array and steering units.The range of the surveillance radar is some 60 km against aircraft targets. (22)

    The Akash-Rajendra combination is to belinked to a mobile Central Acquisition Radar with a planar-array antenna. This radar cantrack some 150 targets at ranges of up to 150km. It is as yet unclear as to itscapabilities in the BMD role.

    The Akash has been primarily developed tomeet the requirements for a successor to the IAF's Pechora SAM and the army's Kvadratmobile SAMs, however, it should have some limited ATBM capability especially against M-9and M-11 missiles.

    Moreover, India has announced plans todevelop a two-tier ballistic missile defence system to deal with incoming ballisticmissiles. The system is to use satellites for communications and a unique two layereddefensive line using surface-to-air missile for any incoming ballistic missile attack.(23)

    This will no doubt represent a massivechallenge to India's technological capabilities and significant imports may yet benecessary, but the Akash has demonstrated that the basic skills and technologies have beendeveloped and can be substantially enhanced without too much foreign input.

    However, assistance may come from asomewhat unexpected source. During Aero India 2003, the European missile giant - MBDA andBharat Dynamics Limited signed a very promising Memorandum of Understanding to extendco-operation in development and also manufacture of all varieties of missile systemsincluding anti-tank, surface-to-air and air-to-air missiles required both by the IndianArmed Forces and those abroad.(24)

    MBDA is responsible for development of theAster 30 SAM which has a limited ATBM capability in its basic version and a dedicated BMDversion is under development.(25) Should India make fulluse of the MBDA-BDL MoU, technology from the Aster 30 and its variants - if not the actualsystems - could be used to hasten the development of an Indian ATBM system. It is a goldenopportunity and should not be wasted. Joint-ventures and technology transfers are vitalfor progress on ATBM systems in India - Almaz and Antey would do well to heed this.

    India has also been enhancing its ballisticmissile detection capabilities by purchasing two Israeli Green Pine radars and a largenumber of Aerostat radars.(26)

    It is possible that at least some ofIndia's existing air defence radars have limited ballistic missile detection and trackingcapabilities, but this is as yet inadequate. The induction of the Rajendra and CentralAcquisition radars should alleviate this shortcoming to some extent. However, theinduction of more Green Pine radars and other shorter range radars with ballistic missiledetection and tracking capabilities is absolutely necessary.

    Nonetheless, if India is to deploy aneffective BMD system in the near future - 5-7 years - it is probable that imported systemswould need to be deployed in significant numbers alongside indigenous systems. What thenwould be the most effective combination for India ?

    Most manufacturers, in seeking to promotetheir own products, try to exaggerate the capabilities of their individual products. Yet,it has been shown that current BMD systems have shortcomings. As such, only a combinationof systems would provide adequate coverage.

    Regrettably, the political aspects of thesale of the Arrow ATBM system are now moving into the realms of the surreal. The Americanpenchant for appeasing Pakistan is staggering and the failure of the US to clear the saleof the Arrow to India - a fellow democracy - does not augur well for future India-USdefence cooperation or indeed for political trust.
     
  10. CONNAN

    CONNAN Major ELITE MEMBER

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    An Indian BMD network

    Any BMD network for India must be able toprovide defence in depth against a variety of threats from China and Pakistan. As has beenshown, these are sophisticated, of varying ranges and capabilities and can attack targetsdeep within India.

    The BADZ system provides the basis fromwhich a BMD network can be developed. At present, principal SAMs - the Pechoras - need tobe upgraded but even this upgrade can do no more than provide a limited ATBM capability.Of course this should be done so that even the ageing Pechoras can provide a veneer ofATBM defence.

    However, the SAMs of the BADZ must, in thefuture, be fully capable of ballistic missile defence and anti-aircraft/ cruise missiledefence out to the maximum range of the BADZ surveillance systems. To this end, it issuggested that a combination of Akash/ modified Akash SAMs and S-300VM ADMS systems -augmented of course by short-range mobile SAMs of the OSA-AKM class , AAA and MANPADS -should be deployed to defend every Indian air-base and important target throughout thecountry - including targets in the deep South and Heartland of India.

    This might sound like a preposterouslyexcessive deployment, however, India can no longer assume that only targets close to theIB, LoC and LAC will be attacked. India's two potential adversaries have the means toattack in depth and as such India must defend in depth.

    Cost is an important factor in any decisionand there is little doubt that any extensive BMD system would be very expensive. However,set against this are the following factors:

    1) The intial investment for BMD would belarge but maintaining and upgrading the system would represent relatively modest costs.

    2) It is likely that any comprehensivesystem could remain in service for several decades without the need for replacement.

    3) BMD cannot be seen in isolation. MostBMD system would also dramatically enhance India's defences against air-breathing targetssuch as aircraft and cruise missiles.

    The BADZs can at best provide pointballistic missile defence - because of the short ATBM ranges of the S-300VM and Akash -and as a result, it would be necessary to consider the deployment of an additional layerof longer range systems - a combination of S-400 and Arrow ( if it is made available )systems being the preferred choice. The latter two systems being particularly useful inthe defence of India's population and industrial centres as they facilitate engagements atextreme ranges and altitudes.

    In other words, India's BMD requirementscannot be served by only a single system but by networking and integrating a variety oftypes. The Akash and its derivatives alongside the S-300VMs ( and modifications/ upgradesthereof ) will form the backbone of the BMD network - supplementing and then supplantingSAMs in the existing BADZ network and expanding that network to cover all airbases andVital Areas / Vital Points ( VAs/ VPs ). To add additional defences to cities, Arrow andS-400 systems must be considered.

    In total, some 400 launchers - S-300VM,S-400 and Arrow - might be needed, besides some 200 Akash. This would represent a colossalexpenditure and a massive upgrade of India's current land based air defence cover. Yet, itmust be emphasized once more that the threat has increased to such proportions that thecurrent 120-180 odd Pechora launchers are wholly inadequate to meet future requirements.An alternative would be to wait for Indian versions similar in capability to the S-300VM,Arrow and S-400 to be developed. But does India have that much time ?

    Indian Air Force :: Ballistic Missile Defence for India
     
  11. Hashu

    Hashu Lieutenant SENIOR MEMBER

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    whne did this anti-balistic system be operational?
     
  12. CONNAN

    CONNAN Major ELITE MEMBER

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    India’’s ballistic missile defence system to be operational by 2011
    LAST KNOWN SOURCE

    New Delhi, Mar 9 (ANI): India’’s indigenous Ballistic Missile Defence System, which will be able to intercept and destroy enemy missile, will be ready for deployment by 2011.
    India on Friday inched closer towards its endeavour to put in place its own home-grown ballistic missile defence system as it successfully carried out the third Interceptor test on March 6 from Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Wheeler Island in Orissa.
    DRDO Chief Controller (research and development) and Air Defence Programme Director, Dr. V K Saraswat, today said that at least five repeated tests are needed before making the missile defence system operational.
    “The tests will be completed by the end of year 2010 and the interceptor missile system will be ready for deployment by 2011,” Dr. Saraswat added.
    Talking about the capability of the missile in taking on numerous targets, he said that the BMD could handle multiple targets simultaneously.
    Dr. Saraswat further said that to get the required kill, there would be salvo of missiles fired at the incoming target simultaneously.
    He said that it would take two to three minutes to identify and fire the missile at a incoming target, and pointed that radars located at Paradip and Pune would take 30 seconds to identify the incoming missile, adding “Our radars are capable of handling 200 targets at a time.”
    On Friday, the home grown BMDS scored a ”hat-trick” launch, as the previous two tests have also been successful. The difference this time was that the interceptor missile met the target at an altitude of 75 km, the highest so far.
    The target was ship launched ballistic missile Dhanush that was performing the role of an enemy missile during the trail.
    Dhanush was launched from 100 km inside the Bay of Bengal from the warship INS Subhadra at 4.19 p.m. After two minutes, Prithvi Air Defence (PAD) missile was fired from a mobile launcher at the Integrated Test Range in Wheeler Island.
    The PAD missile successfully intercepted and destroyed Dhanush, said officials. The entire process of eliminating the enemy missile took less than six minutes. DRDO scientists claimed that all the mission objectives were met.
    The first trial took place in the exo-atmospheric region when the enemy missile was intercepted at 48 km altitude on November 27, 2006. The second test took place in endo-atmospheric region at 15 km altitude using Advanced Air Defence (AAD) missile on December 6, 2007. (ANI)

    India’’s ballistic missile defence system to be operational by 2011
     
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  13. SpArK

    SpArK SorCeroR Staff Member ADMINISTRATOR

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    A nice , informative thread. I have made it sticky for faster reference and for posting all future articles related to it.
     
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  14. CONNAN

    CONNAN Major ELITE MEMBER

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  15. CONNAN

    CONNAN Major ELITE MEMBER

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    Missile Defense System Phase 1 to be Ready by 2011-2012: DRDO

    2009-03-10 After achieving a hat-trick of successful tests of the indigenous Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) shield, DRDO today said the first phase of the system would be developed by 2011.

    "All building blocks of the BMD are ready at the moment. Only part that remains to be developed is the interceptor missile and by the time they are in place, we will have our full mechanism in place. We have a programme till 2011 to complete this," DRDO's Chief Controller and Air Defence programme Director V K Saraswat said in New Delhi.

    Saraswat said DRDO needed to conduct five repeated trials of the interceptor missiles before the phase I of the programme is over.

    He added that DRDO will be conducting an "integrated test" of its endo-atmospheric and exo-atmospheric missiles by the end of this year to further strengthen the system.

    Speaking about the capabilities of the system tested on Friday last week, he said it was capable of "taking on" the Chinese M-9 class missiles with a range of up to 2,000 Km.

    On the new technologies added and modifications made in the interceptor missile PAD 02, Saraswat said, "We modified our interceptor missile and provided it with higher energy, an improved guidance and control system and on top of it all, we have integrated a Gimbaled Directional Warhead with it."

    Saraswat said the new warhead weighed only around 30 kg but was able to generate the impact that a 150 kg omni-directional warhead could make.

    He said the new guidance system in the missile allowed it to tackle the maneuvers of enemy's incoming missile and could be used against the Russian Topol M class of missiles, which move in a zig-zag manner.

    The DRDO official also said the system was "fully automated" and did not require human intervention in activating it in case of an attack by ballistic missiles.

    "Under the present system, the interceptor missiles are on 'Hot Stand-by mode' and can take-off within 120 seconds of the detection of the incoming missile by the tracking radars," he said.

    Saraswat also said the current missile is 30 per cent more powerful than the missile used in the December 2006 test of the endo-atmospheric interceptor.

    He said during the flight of the interceptor missile towards the ballistic missile, the interceptor is constantly updated about the position of its target by the ground-based radars.

    During a war, unlike the demonstration phase, a volley of interceptor missiles would be launched against enemy ballistic missiles to improve the hit probability, he said.

    Commenting on the possibility of the interceptor being jammed by enemy missiles, Saraswat said with the missile having only one link with the ground, it was "very difficult" to jam it as various counter measures were in place to stop such an effort.

    He said work on developing a new interceptor 'PDV' for phase-I programme was also going on.

    The official said to tackle missiles with a striking range of over 6,000 km, hypersonic interceptor missiles will have to be developed for the phase 2 of the air defence programme.

    "Phase 2 interceptors will have speeds of 6-7 Mach and they will be hypersonic. Missiles will have lesser time to intercept and our guidance systems have to be far more energetic and quick responsive," he said.

    Missile Defense System Phase 1 to be Ready by 2011-2012: DRDO | India Defence
     
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