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Indian Lunar Space Probes and Exploration

Discussion in 'Education & Research' started by Indx TechStyle, Dec 16, 2016.

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  1. Indx TechStyle

    Indx TechStyle Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Press Information Bureau
    Government of India
    Department of Space

    01-December-2016 16:43 IST
    ****​
     
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  2. Indx TechStyle

    Indx TechStyle Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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  3. Indx TechStyle

    Indx TechStyle Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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  4. Indx TechStyle

    Indx TechStyle Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    So, further missions worldwide are planned.
    First four are under GLXP competition but besides Changé 5, our hero Chandrayaan 2 will be the soonest upcoming Lunar exploration probe by a government space agency.:)
    1. HHK-1 (by Team Indus) (2017)
    2. Astrobotic Technology (2017)
    3. Moon Express (2017, interestingly, it wants to demonstrate mining as well)
    4. SpaceIL
    5. Changé 5 (2017, sample return, China)
    6. Chandryaan 2 (Q1 2018, lander, rover, and sample analyzing)
    7. Changé 4 (Q4 2018, lander rover)
    8. Lunar Flashlight (Q4 2018, USA)
    9. Luanr Ice Cube (Q4 2018)
    10. Luna H-map (Q4 2018)
    11. Skyfire (Q4 2018)
    12. Selene-2 (2019, Japan, lander and rover)
     
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  5. Indx TechStyle

    Indx TechStyle Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Lander:
    [​IMG]

    Rover:
    [​IMG]

    Operator: Axiom Research Labs

    Registered Team: Team Indus, a Google Lunar X Prize team

    Mission type: Lunar Rover

    Proposed Launch date: Q4-2017

    Proposed trajectory: 9 Steps to Moon
    1. G1 – Initial Orbit: 880 x 71,000 km
    2. G2 – 48 hours
    3. G3 – 144 hours
    4. G4 – Lunar Transfer Trajectory
    5. S1 – Initial Lunar orbit with capture burn of 250 seconds
    6. S2 – Orbit lowered to 3500 km apolune
    7. S3 – Parking orbit – 100 x 100 km
    8. S4 – Orbit lowered 12.6 km perilune
    9. Descent Trajectory – braking from 1.7 km/s

    Launch vehicle:
    PSLV operated by ISRO (proposed)

    Launch site:
    SDSC, Sriharikota (proposed)

    Mission duration:
    Flight duration: 30 days
    Surface operations: 10-15 days

    Orbital parameters:
    Earth Inclination : 19.2 degrees
    Moon Inclination: 143 degrees
    Argument of Perigee: 178 degrees

    Delta – V:
    Orbital – 1270 m/s
    Descent – 1940 m/s
    Net – 3210 m/s

    Mass:
    Lift off Mass: ~ 600kgs
    Propellant Mass: ~ 404 kg
    Landed Mass: ~210 kg

    Total Lunar Payload mass: ~ 20kgs
     
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  6. Indx TechStyle

    Indx TechStyle Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Wait for tomorrow now. I'm bus, actually sleepy.:D
     
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  7. Indx TechStyle

    Indx TechStyle Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Experiments (Chandrayaan 2):

    CHACE-2 (CHandra's Atmospheric Composition Explorer-2) onChandrayaan-2 Orbiter
    [​IMG]ChaSTE (Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment)

    RAMBHA (Radio Anatomy of Moon Bound Hypersensitive ionosphere and Atmosphere)
     
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  8. Indx TechStyle

    Indx TechStyle Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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  9. Indx TechStyle

    Indx TechStyle Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    [​IMG]
    TeamIndus Announces Launch Contract with ISRO
    Posted by Sandhya Ramesh
    2016/12/01 22:45 UTC
    TeamIndus, India’s only entry for the Google Lunar XPRIZE, just announced their launch contract with ISRO. If successful, TeamIndus would be the first private company from India to land a craft on an extraterrestrial body.

    The Google Lunar XPRIZE (GLXP) is a competition for privately funded space companies to land a spacecraft on the Moon, deploy a rover to travel 500 meters on the surface and send back high-quality images and videos. The total prize money is $30 million, funded by Google. The winner would get $20 million, the runner up $5 million, and the other five is split across different milestone prizes through the course of the competition.

    [​IMG]TeamIndus
    Artist’s impression of the lander and rover on the lunar surface

    TeamIndus will launch their craft atop India’s trusty PSLV rocket. The final launch date hasn’t been announced yet, but the end of December 2017 seems to be the most likely window. The team previously announced the landing spot will be on Mare Imbrium, a sprawling lava plain. This large region was chosen to maintain a line-of-sight between the lander and the rover. Once the lander settles itself on the soft Moon dust there, it will deploy its rover. The lander will act as a communication relay to Earth.

    The spacecraft will also carry the winning experiment from Lab2Moon, an ongoing competition TeamIndus announced earlier this year. The competition is open to student teams of up to three members under the age of 25 who submit experiments that help enable humans to become a multi-planetary species. The lander will also contain a small cube containing names of citizens who have contributed funding to the mission. Additionally, the team is also in talks with commercial entities to send marketing materials to the Moon.

    In December 2014, TeamIndus was the recipient of one of the technical challenge prizes as a part of this competition. Titled the Landing Milestone Prize, a total of three teams were awarded $1 million for a demonstration of the capability of their landing hardware and software.

    The Launch
    [​IMG]TeamIndus
    Trajectory

    For the launch from ISRO’s pad at Sriharikota, India, the PSLV rocket will carry the lander in its XL configuration. The payload, weighing 600 kilograms, will be injected into an 880-by-70,000 kilometer orbit, inclined at 19.2 degrees twelve minutes after launch. (70,000 km is the highest orbit provided by PSLV). The craft will then use two gravity assists around the earth, raising its apogee by 10,000 km the first time (G2; 80,000 km), and to 365,000 km the next (G3 to Lunar Transfer Trajectory), over a period of nine days to launch itself towards the Moon. At the Moon, the injection burn will let it enter an initial orbit of 100 by 6,700 kilometers (S1, as shown in the diagram). The orbit will then be lowered to 3,500 kilometers (S2), where the craft will be parked until sunrise over Mare Imbrium. There will then be another orbit-lowering maneuver bringing the apolune down to 100 kilometers. The craft will then go into a 100 kilometer circular orbit (S3). A final insertion burn will bring the perilune to 12.6 kilometers, from where descent onto the lunar surface would begin. This entire capture and descent sequence is expected to last a week, bringing the total time of the trip to 15 days.

    [​IMG]TeamIndus
    Mission overview

    Ground stations communicating with the spacecraft would be India’s ISRO Telemetry, Tracking, and Command Network (ISTRAC), Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN-Byalalu), and NASA’s Deep Space Network (DSN).

    The lander and rover have a lifespan of one lunar day (14 Earth days) on the surface.

    The Rover
    The rover has undergone several design iterations over the past three years as shown below:

    [​IMG]TeamIndus
    Design changes, from right to left

    [​IMG]TeamIndus
    The current design of the rover

    The rover is named ECA (pronounced eeka), which expands in Hindi to Ek Choti si Aasha, or “One Small Wish.” It weighs 7 kilograms with wheels made of high-strength aluminium. The rover’s body will be made of carbon fiber and aluminium, while the lander is comprised of aluminium and aluminium honeycomb sandwich composite panels. Both spacecraft will power themselves with solar panels, but will be perennially exposed to the sun.

    ECA will move on the lunar surface at a speed of 6 centimeters per second, with a maximum speed of 10 centimeters per second. It will use an autonomous onboard navigation system, and come equipped with temperature and inertial sensors, a low-resolution camera for mapping terrain, and two high-resolution micro-cameras (called CASPEX or Colour cmos cAmera for SPace EXploration) for spotting obstacles in the rover’s path. The two state-of-the-art cameras are provided by CNES, the French national space agency. CNES has supplied cameras for other space missions in the past, including the Curiosity rover.

    Out of the 13 teams still in the competition, four others have announced their launch contracts. SpaceIL is from Israel and has a contract with SpaceX (Given the recent unfortunate incident with the Falcon 9, SpaceIL’s launch could be delayed). Moon Express, a space startup owned by Silicon Valley entrepreneurs, have a contract with RocketLab. SynergyMoon, an international collaboration, has a launch contract with Interorbital Systems. The German team, PT Scientists, announced their launch contract with Spaceflight Industries two days ago, although this is yet to be verified by GLXP. The last date to announce a launch contract is Dec 31st of this year.

    TeamIndus is owned by the parent company Axiom Research Labs, which was founded for the purpose of this mission by five former IT employees: Rahul Narayan, Indranil Chakraborty, Sameer Joshi, Dilip Chabria and Julius Amrit. The group also has advisors who have worked with ISRO. They are headquartered in Bangalore, India.

    By Planetary Society
     
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  10. Indx TechStyle

    Indx TechStyle Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Indus Team from India may win $30 million Google Lunar X prize
    Only private team from India.
    [​IMG]Team Indus
    When Rahul Narayan started a software startup back in 2010, he never thought his ideas would perhaps end up on the moon.

    Narayan’s company was involved in developing products for e-commerce companies, but when Google announced the Google Lunar X-Prize completion, Narayan was genuinely interested and now, the progress he made in creating a rover that can move on the lunar surface, makes him the frontrunner in winning the prize.

    Google Lunar X-Prize competition announced in 2007 invited companies to build a rover that can move at least 500 meters on the lunar surface and send high-resolution images and videos of earth’s satellite.

    Narayan’s team “Indus” is the only private company to represent India in the Google Lunar X-Prize completion which has 16 teams competing for a chance to go to the moon and win the $30 million prize.

    Team Indus has won one Milestone Prize: the Landing Prize, for a total of $1 million in prize winnings and is all set to land the rover on moon next year.


    According to the official website of Google Lunar X-Prize, “Team Indus’ Mission is a celebration of all things great about India – the audacious goal, the young bright engineers, the can-do entrepreneurial spirit, partners who commit their resources, and the new breed of world-class entrepreneurs who have supported our mission – all of whom are united by a vision to deliver a best-in-class technology outcome entirely out of India.”

    In a milestone achievement that no other competing teams have achieved, Team Indus has successfully convinced the ISRO to launch a rocket carrying its rover to Moon in December 2017, thus becoming the first private company to get a dedicated rocket built by ISRO.

    Going by the rules of theGoogle Lunar X-Prize, the teams should privately fund 90% of the mission cost and have to secure the contract of a space agency before the end of 2016. The launch must happen in 2017.

    The operation needs to be 90 percent privately funded, and the launch contract needs to be secured with a space agency before 2016.
    [​IMG]Prototype of the moon rover.
    Team Indus has been working with the Indian space organization since 2014 and they have been working on the project since 2012. If things work as planned, the rover will blast off in a PSLV rocket on December 28, 2017, and will land on the lunar surface on January 28, 2018.

    “What gave us confidence to dream big when we started on this journey many years back was the heft of the scientific legacy that India, with ISRO, created over decades. This launch contract reaffirms our mission as a truly Indian mission where the best of India’s public and private enterprises have come together to realize a common dream,” said Narayan, TeamIndus’ Fleet Commander.

    “As far as simulation, design, and analysis go, we’re 90 percent sure of ourselves. Touchdown can be tricky, but I’d say we’re about 75 percent sure about,” he added. “Recently European Space Agency’s mars rover crashed destroying nearly nine months of their work. We believe we have an advantage compared to the other teams because we have an indigenous ecosystem available for us thanks to ISRO.”

    Team Indus designed the lunar rover as a complete “Made in India” project in order to cut the cost. Close to 100 people have worked on the project which also includes 20 retired ISRO scientists. The Indian team got funding from private firms, including that of Ratan Tata’s.

    The PSLV rocket carrying the rover will lift off to an orbit 880km x 70,000 km above the earth from where the spacecraft will commence its 21 days’ travel to the moon. It will land in the north-western hemisphere of the Moon.


    By The American Bazaar
     
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  11. sangos

    sangos Lt. Colonel ELITE MEMBER

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    Chandrayaan2 will possibly land at the water rich south pole. That's the ideal spot for future human outpost when we start mining Helium3.
     
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  12. Indx TechStyle

    Indx TechStyle Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Shoot for the Moon[​IMG]Sooraj Rajmohan
    DECEMBER 12, 2016 18:20 IST
    UPDATED: DECEMBER 12, 2016 18:20 IST

    A rover designed by Bengaluru-based Team Indus, India's entrant into the Google Lunar XPRIZE competition, is in the final development stages before its flight to the moon next year.

     
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  13. Indx TechStyle

    Indx TechStyle Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Bengaluru's Team Indus Attempts Record With 2 Rovers To Moon: 10 Points
    Written by Pallava Bagla | Updated: Dec 21, 2016 18:25 IST
    [​IMG]Team Indus is aiming to be the country's first to send a rover to the moon.

     
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  14. Indx TechStyle

    Indx TechStyle Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    ISRO to launch world’s first rocket with 3 rovers to moon in 2017
     
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  15. Indx TechStyle

    Indx TechStyle Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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