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India's Anti-Satellite Weapons

Discussion in 'Indian Military Doctrine' started by Indx TechStyle, Dec 29, 2016.

  1. Indx TechStyle

    Indx TechStyle Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Use this thread to discuss about Indian ASAT capability (via rockets, missiles, DEWs, or Railguns etc..),
    Does India has capability, should it demonstrate or not, if yes advantages and consequences, when must be done.
    For discussion DEWs,
    We have a separate thread as well.
    Indian Laser and Directed Energy Weapons (DEWs) Thread
    For EMWs(something like Railgun),
    Indian Navy has planned some new techs in next 15 years which includes railguns and railguns can be used as an ASAT asset.
    India's navy wants 100 technologies by 2031 including railguns, hypersonic weapons and lasers
    Eklavya: The Indian ASAT Missile (or possibly name of blogger :D)!
    I'm kicking it off with a article from The Diplomat Magazine. :)
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Dec 29, 2016
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  2. Indx TechStyle

    Indx TechStyle Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    By The Diplomat
    [​IMG]A surface-to-surface Agni V missile is launched from Wheeler Island off the eastern Indian state of Odisha April 19, 2012.
    Image Credit: REUTERS/Indian Defence Research and Development Organisation/DRDO/Handout
    India's Anti-Satellite Weapons

    Does India truly have the ability to target enemy satellites in war?

    The utility of space as a medium for war has grown exponentially since the days of the Cold War Space Race. The military potential of satellites is manifold: communications, navigation, early-warning systems, reconnaissance, and signal intelligence. Any state that manages to get the upper hand in this frontier can be expected to dominate the outcome of any war. A state with command over space-based assets can jam enemy satellites or destroy them, and stop the enemy from communicating with troops or accessing vital information about troop movements or incoming missiles. It is in this context that the events in India’s neighborhood have caused anxiety and have led to calls for a new space policy aimed at countering the growing might of China’s space military program.

    Threats From China’s Anti-Satellite (ASAT) Program

    According to some reports, Beijing conducted its latest anti-satellite missile test in 2013, when it launched its new ASAT (anti-satellite) missile, the Dong Neng-2 or DN-2. A U.S. defense official familiar with military intelligence, speaking on the condition of anonymity, described the DN-2 as a “ground-based, high earth-orbit attack missile.” Further, a report by the Secure World Foundation stated that “while there is no conclusive proof, the available evidence strongly suggests that China’s May 2013 launch was the test of the rocket component of a new direct ascent ASAT weapons system derived from a road-mobile ballistic missile.”

    This was not the first time Beijing tested its ASAT program. A more prominent test occurred in January 2007, when the Chinese military launched a KT-1 rocket that successfully destroyed a redundant Chinese Feng Yun 1-C weather satellite in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), approximately 800 kilometers above the Earth. The test left behind approximately 2,500 to 3,000 pieces of dangerous debris in LEO, where reconnaissance and weather satellites and manned space missions are vulnerable to space debris. In May 2013, a Russian satellite was struck and destroyed, reportedly by one such piece of debris.
    Hazardous space debris aside, the test also confirmed China’s capability to attack and destroy enemy satellites in the event of war, sabotaging the enemy’s military operations.

    Such developments have not gone unnoticed in New Delhi’s defense establishment. Security experts and scholars have called for a rethink of India’s space policy, augmenting India’s ASAT weapons capability. Following China’s 2007 ASAT weapons test, the then-chief of army staff of the Indian Army, General Deepak Kapoor, was quoted in a Times of India report saying that China’s space program was expanding at an “exponentially rapid” pace in both offensive and defensive capabilities, and that space was becoming the “ultimate military high ground” to dominate in the wars of the future. Then-Integrated Defense Staff Chief Lt. General H S Lidder was also quoted as saying, “with time, we will get sucked into the military race to protect space assets and inevitably there will be a military contest in space. In a life-and-death scenario, space will provide the advantage.”

    A breakthrough emerged in 2012 when V.K. Saraswat, then the chief of the Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO), India’s premier defense R&D organization, announced that India has all the building blocks in place to integrate an anti-satellite weapon to neutralize hostile satellites in low earth and polar orbits. In an interview, Saraswat suggested that India’s anti-ballistic missile (ABM) defense program could be utilized as an ASAT weapon, along with its Agni series of missiles. This was corroborated by DRDO, which said that the Indian Ballistic Missile Defense Program can incorporate anti-satellite weapon development.

    It should also be remembered that with the recent successes of its Mars mission and the geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle (GSLV-D5), the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) now has the capability to launch satellites weighing in excess of two tons, an important prerequisite for the deployment of any weapons system. And while existing space treaties prohibit placing weapons of mass destruction in space, they do not explicitly prohibit the placing of other types of weapons. For DRDO then, the next goal would likely be to develop orbital weapons, which could remain in space for as long as required while orbiting Earth or the Moon.

    Does India Really Have an ASAT Weapons Capability?

    While the statements by V.K. Saraswat created ripples all over, at home his statements were dismissed by certain scholars as an exaggeration. Questioning India’s “purported” capabilities, scholars like Michael Listner and Victoria Samson have pointed out that without conducting a test and demonstrating its ASAT capability explicitly, India will only be seen as a “paper tiger” by the arms control and intelligence community. Listner pointed out that the acknowledgement by Saraswat about India developing and bringing together the basic technologies to create a system that could be used against enemy satellites, and the decision to adapt India’s ABM technology for an ASAT role was “doubtless encouraged by the ancillary capability demonstrated by the United States when it adapted its ABM system to deorbit USA 193 in 2008.” But should such ancillary capability be taken as a evidence of full ASAT capability?

    Expressing perplexity over contradictory statements from Indian officials, and their refusal to clear the air about India’s ASAT program, Listner states that public statements about India’s purported ASAT capability seem to “fit neither an active program to develop an ASAT or an ancillary capability to ballistic missile defense.”

    However, in 2011, Bharath Gopalaswamy, who was then a researcher in the Arms Control and Non-Proliferation Program at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, claimed that India’s scientific community is open to an ASAT test, if it was done with caution. Rajeswari Rajagopalan, senior fellow at the Observer Research Foundation, a New Delhi based think tank, said that “India might do an ASAT test in the next five to 10 years.” While these statements are illuminating as to the going-ons in India’s academic and scientific circles, actually testing India’s purported ASAT capacity is easier said than done. As pointed out by Arvind Kumar, professor of Geopolitics and International Relations at Manipal University, ASAT capabilities require a number of technologies related to space-based sensors, synthetic aperture radars, electronics, a sound navigation system, guidance and control, and global positioning systems. A number of different types of sensors, including infrared sensors, optical sensors, electronic-optical sensors, and magnetic sensors are vital to monitor, detect, and help in sensing the events. Whether India has the ability to acquire or build these technologies is doubtful.

    The Case for ASAT Weapons Demonstration

    The questions raised over India’s ASAT weapons capacity are doubtless important. Even if New Delhi does have an anti-satellite weapons capability, it will only be acknowledged if it comes out in the open with a successful test. But such a demonstration will come with its own costs. What would be the consequences if New Delhi decided to demonstrate its purported ASAT capability?

    It should be remembered that along with causing grave insecurity, and possibly a space-weaponization race in the region, such a test will also lead to the creation of hazardous space debris, which could doubtless elicit international opprobrium, and possibly even sanctions. Burgeoning relations with the United States — which even led to the signing of the 2005 India-US Civil Nuclear Agreement and made India the first country with nuclear weapons which is not a signatory to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), but still allowed to carry out nuclear commerce with a nuclear weapons state — could end in jeopardy if India unilaterally tests ASAT weapons.

    Further, at a time when India is looking at the indigenization of its defense industry to cut the costs of importing weapons (India is the world’s largest arms importer) and hoping to garner international investments in its defense and manufacturing industry, such a move could stall such developments as investors would see the tests as a sign of aggression and defiance of international norms. Additionally, for India to establish its defense-industrial base, it needs the transfer of technology from technologically advanced nations. If New Delhi decides to go ahead with ASAT tests, it will possibly be looking at sanctions, not tech transfers.

    It would also also be incongruous with India’s own conduct if New Delhi decides to test ASAT weapons. India is a member of the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC), and has contributed significantly to crafting that organization’s mitigation guidelines. A successful test of an ASAT weapon by India and the resulting debris would seriously erode its credibility in this arena. Security analysts and scholars advocating the demonstration of ASAT weapons should not be under any impression that New Delhi will be treated to the same measured response from the international community as Beijing was after 2007.

    However, a new treaty banning space weaponization could inhibit India from demonstrating its ability in the future. After the 2007 test conducted by China, there has been renewed talk of a restrictive treaty banning space-weaponization. Much like the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) that forced restrictions on the non-nuclear weapons states of the time (including India), a new restrictive regime on space-weaponization could foreclose India’s options, giving the United States, China, and Russia ASAT-weapons-state status a la NPT, while keeping India out of the club. This could again lead to discrimination against India in case it decides to conduct a test to display its existing ability. It would also put New Delhi at a serious disadvantage, as it would then only be able to negotiate on such a new treaty as an “outsider” rather than an “insider” with ASAT weapons capability. If India shies away from demonstrating its ASAT weapons capability before a restrictive treaty is enforced, it will be repeating a historic mistake.

    For policymakers in New Delhi the situation is tricky. There are both pros and cons for demonstrating India’s ASAT weapons capability. In this scenario, it is important to look for a middle ground where India can test its ASAT weapons without creating any hazardous atmosphere in outer space due to debris. One possibility would be to test anti-satellite weapons at a low altitude, where the resulting debris would enter the Earth’s atmosphere and burn up without causing any damage. At a lower altitude, the atmospheric drag results in orbital decay that reduces the altitude of space debris. It eventually enters Earth’s atmosphere and usually burns up on re-entry.

    Yet another way to demonstrate ASAT capability without causing debris would be to do a fly-by test, where the ground-based direct ascent missile will fly by the targeted satellite without destroying it. Lastly, New Delhi could also test its ability to sabotage satellites by jamming satellites using space-based lasers. This method falls under the category of “soft-kill” methods and does not create debris.

    Whether a fly-by test or jamming a satellite, both would require technological superiority to conduct the test and also to satisfactorily gauge the results. Whether DRDO and ISRO have such technological capability is not known.
     
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  3. Indx TechStyle

    Indx TechStyle Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    From Wikipedia:
    From references:
    http://www.defencenow.com/news/343/...egration-with-agni-iii-ballistic-missile.html
     
  4. Indx TechStyle

    Indx TechStyle Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    A few slides regarding developments/plans in this field, from a DRDO presentation by former chairman VK Saraswat;

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]
    Thanks @Gessler
     
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  5. Indx TechStyle

    Indx TechStyle Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    September 8th, 2016
    GSLV F05/INSAT-3DR
    10th Flight of GSLV
    Perigee achieved within +-300m of designated point.
    Apogee within+-80km of designated point
    AND GET THIS:- Inclination error = 0. PERFECT INCLINATION ACHIEVED!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
    :devilwork::devilwork::devilwork::devilwork::devilwork:
    And people still doubt about India's capability!
     
  6. Indx TechStyle

    Indx TechStyle Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Not India's but for upcoming Chinese ASAT Launch
    Jiuquan launch facility central China on 9th DEC 2016

    [​IMG]



    on 17th dec

    [​IMG]
     
  7. Schwifty

    Schwifty 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    What about kali as anti-sat weapon????
     
  8. Aqwoyk

    Aqwoyk Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Nope, It is an emp device and sats are proofed from emp like radiations that comes from sun hence I don't think it will be effective
     
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  9. lca-fan

    lca-fan Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    China is preparing to conduct a flight test of a new missile capable of destroying satellites in space, one of Beijing’s most potent asymmetric warfare weapons.

    Test preparations for the Dong Neng-3 anti-satellite missile were detected at a military facility in central China, according to Pentagon officials familiar with reports of the impending test.

    Intelligence agencies were alerted to the impending test by China’s announcement of air closure zones covering the expected flight path of the DN-3.

    The flight test could come as early as Thursday, the officials said.

    No other details of the missile test were available. A Pentagon spokesman and a State Department official both said, “We do not comment on intelligence matters.”

    Asia watcher Henri Kenhmann reported on his website Eastpendulum.com this week that missile tests were expected from the People’s Liberation Army satellite launch facility known as Jiuquan, located in Inner Mongolia, and a second launch complex at Korla, located in Xinjiang, western China.

    The expected tests were based on Chinese government announcements of air closure areas for Dec. 7 and Dec. 8 near those sites.

    Kenhmann said the flight tests could involve a missile defense interceptor test.

    China’s ballistic missile defense and anti-satellite missile programs are closely intertwined.

    After Beijing came under international criticism following a 2007 anti-satellite missile test that left thousands of pieces of floating debris in space, it began conducting its anti-satellite missile program under cover of a missile defense system.

    The last time China tested a DN-3 anti-satellite missile was Oct. 30, 2015 from the Korla Missile Test Complex.

    [​IMG]
    Kuaizhou-11 space launcher

    The anti-satellite missiles are part of what the Pentagon calls “counterspace” forces, part of China’s large-scale military buildup.

    “The PLA is acquiring a range of technologies to improve China’s counterspace capabilities,” the Pentagon’s latest report on the Chinese military said.

    “In addition to the development of directed energy weapons and satellite jammers, China is also developing anti-satellite capabilities and has probably made progress on the anti-satellite missile system it tested in July 2014.”

    In addition to missiles and lasers, China also is working on small maneuvering satellites that can grab and destroy orbiting satellites.

    Richard Fisher, a China military affairs specialist, said the DN-3 appears to be based on the Kuaizhou-1 (KZ-1) mobile space launch vehicle.

    “It’s about the same size as the DF-31 solid fuel mobile intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM),” he said.

    Fisher, senior fellow at the International Assessment and Strategy Center, said the DN-3 could be capable of hitting satellites more than 18,640 miles away in space—more than enough to reach large U.S. surveillance satellites that occupy orbit 186 to 620 miles from earth.

    “In late 2016 or by mid 2017 the PLA may test a larger solid fuel mobile space launch vehicle called the KZ-11, with a 2-meter diameter motor similar in size to the new large and multiple warhead armed DF-41 ICBM,” Fisher said.

    Another space launcher on a mobile transporter is being developed called the Long March-11 (LM-11).

    [​IMG]
    Long March-11 space launcher

    “Both the KZ-11 and the LM-11 are four-stage solid fuel mobile missiles that could also be used for anti-satellite missions,” Fisher said.

    “The bottom line is that the PLA now has at least two deployed ground-launched, mobile, solid fueled direct-ascent ASAT [anti-satellite] systems and may be able to soon field two more larger third generation ground-launched ASAT systems,” he added.

    The anti-satellite weapons programs are believed to be under the PLA’s new Strategic Support Force, a dedicated space warfare and cyber warfare service set up in late 2015.

    The developmental KZ-11 and LM-11 systems may be used by China to target U.S. Defense Support Program (DSP) early warning satellites, along with high-orbit Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation satellites.

    The DN-3 is known as a direct-ascent anti-satellite missile that destroys satellites with a warhead that rams into orbiting systems at high speeds. The DN-3 is also said to have the capability to intercept ballistic missiles in flight.

    If the DN-3 test is carried out, it will be China’s ninth known anti-satellite missile test. An earlier anti-satellite missile test was carried out in July 2014.

    For both the October 2015 and July 2014 tests, China asserted the tests were part of a missile defense interceptor program.

    U.S. officials, however, said both test involved anti-satellite weapons.

    A Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman did not return an email seeking comment.

    Frank Rose, assistant secretary of state for arms control, verification, and compliance said in February 2015 that Beijing engaged in deception about the 2014 test.

    “Despite China’s claims that this was not an ASAT test; let me assure you the United States has high confidence in its assessment, that the event was indeed an ASAT test,” Rose said.

    “The continued development and testing of destructive ASAT systems is both destabilizing and threatens the long-term security and sustainability of the outer space environment,” he added.

    Chinese netizens posted photos of the purported 2015 ASAT test near Korla, showing contrails said to be the result of the missile.

    China also has two additional anti-satellite missiles known as the SC-19 and DN-2.

    http://freebeacon.com/national-security/china-prepares-satellite-missile-test/
     
  10. Indx TechStyle

    Indx TechStyle Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    KALI is for research purpose. I guess some 100kW to 500 kW laser projects are there for satellites.
     
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  11. Golden_Rule

    Golden_Rule Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    if ISRO can launch 83 satellites in one go, those can for sure be replaced by space missiles which can be programmed to steer towards designated satellites!! This is 100% possible.
     
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  12. Indx TechStyle

    Indx TechStyle Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Who knows if targets are going among those 83. Further, ResourceSat-2A is launched, so RS-2 is a dysfunctional satellite now, it's best utilization must be target practice now!:D
    There have been chatters in Hyderabad about upcoming Indian ASAT Missile "Eklavya".
     
  13. Golden_Rule

    Golden_Rule Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Like a MIRV, ISRO can always launch a satellite simply to carry say 50 modified NAG missiles to be used on as needed basis. The MOD-NAG would use its fuel fractionally as compared to the actual NAG, because it will already have the velocity of the satellite. This miniature use of fuel can be used to steer it towards the hostile enemy target. It will be a Precision Space Bullet :)
     
    Last edited: Dec 31, 2016
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  14. Ripcord322

    Ripcord322 Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    ASAT "Eklavya" ...Interesting...
    So by the way... If the ASAT is ever operationalised... Will it come under the Department of Space or the Ministry of Defence....!?
     
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  15. Indx TechStyle

    Indx TechStyle Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Most likely DOS (for official only) just like our reconnaissance satellites who are property of DOS but used by MoD and DOS equally.
    Though, MoD also likes to get some dedicated SATs for Armed Forces, most likely Indian Air Force will get an ASAT separately. ISRO owed ASAT may be used for defence purposes but will always be dubbed for peaceful uses like removing useless SATs.
     
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