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Mega Thread - Indian Cyber Security & Attacks

Discussion in 'Indian Military Doctrine' started by PARIKRAMA, Jun 29, 2017.

  1. PARIKRAMA

    PARIKRAMA Captain IDF NewBie

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    Mega Thread - Indian Cyber Security & Attacks

    Dedicated Thread as part of changing times..
     
  2. Zer0reZ

    Zer0reZ 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    Petya ransomware targeted Ukraine but India also affected badly, experts call it wiper

    The Petya ransomware, which was first seen in March 2016 basically overwrites a Windows computers master boot record. It is known to be delivered through legitimate services such as Dropbox. Petya spreads swiftly across an organisation's computers using either the EternalBlue vulnerability in Microsoft Windows or via two Windows administrative tools.

    Which means even if companies have patched against Eternal Blue, Petya can still spread on their systems as it also uses uses classic SMB network spreading techniques.Once on the computer, Petya takes over and demands 300 dollars, to be paid over Bitcoin.

    The fact that Petya is using not one but multiple Windows vulnerabilities to spread itself is what makes it more dangerous than WannaCry. Petya is a crypto-ransomware, which means it is not just locks systems but also encrypts their files.


    How badly is India affected?
    Contrary to IT Minister, Ravi Shankar's claims that India is not much affected by the Petya Ransomware, Symantec asserts that India was the worst hit in the Asia Pacific region. In fact, India was also the 7th most affected country globally.

    Reuters claims that India's largest container port - Jawaharlal Nehru Port, located in Mumbai was affected by the cyber attacks. Reports claim that operations at one of three terminals of the Jawaharlal Nehru Port have been massively disrupted by the ransomware attack.

    [​IMG]
    "The terminal impacted is operated by Danish shipping giant AP Moller-Maersk, which said separately on Tuesday that the cyber attack had caused outages in its computer systems globally. The Indian port has been trying to clear containers manually, but operational capacity has dropped to a third at the terminal" Anil Diggikar, chairman of Jawaharlal Nehru Port (JNPT) told Reuters.

    BNP Paribas Real Estate, a company which provides property and investment management services, also confirmed yesterday that their firm were also a victim of the ransomware attack. "The international cyber attack hit our non-bank subsidiary, Real Estate. The necessary measures have been taken to rapidly contain the attack" the bank told Reuters.

    The attackers used a single bitcoin wallet and a single e-mail account for contact. The e-mail account was suspended soon after the attacks were discovered. While the wallet is still active, it most probably will be closely monitored by law enforcement making it very difficult for the attacker to collect the payment.

    Many reports claim that the motivation behind the attack was political - aimed at disrupting critical infrastructure in Ukraine. In fact, Petya is being termed as a wiper as it's motive was mass destruction of data and not the collection of money.

    So the second theory comes into play. The theory which says that money was not the motive behind the attack at all - that there was a more nefarious motive - disruption and data destruction. Many reports claim that the attack was political - aimed at disrupting critical infrastructure in Ukraine. The attack affected some of Ukraine's crucial infrastructure such as its airport, central bank and even the Chernobyl power plant. Kapersky Labs has reported that 60% of the systems infected globally were located within Ukraine.

    In fact, Petya is being termed as a wiper by researchers, not as a ransomware as the motive behind the attack seems to be mass destruction of data. Researchers have compared the code of the 2016 and 2017 versions of Petya and come to the conclusion that the latest version is in fact a wiper.

    Matt Suiche, founder of cyber security firm Comae said - "After comparing both implementation, we noticed that the current implemented that massively infected multiple entities in Ukraine was in fact a wiper which just trashed the 25 first sector blocks of the disk."
     
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  3. Zer0reZ

    Zer0reZ 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    WannaCry did hit India and even central govt portal. So why did Centre downplay the ransomware attack?

    Though the central government had earlier claimed that global ransomware WannaCry didn't have a serious impact in the country, but its official documents reveal that its corporate affairs ministry's key portal for making filings by companies - MCA21 - had come under cyber attack last month.

    Without disclosing the magnitude of attack, the documents mentioned that the malware affected certain services.

    The attack was presumably the first on a central government portal and prompt measures were taken to contain it. Last month, WannaCry impacted computer systems and networks in more than 150 countries, including India.

    Cyber security experts said it affected at least 48,000 systems across various organisations in India, but not many came forward raising doubts whether possible ransomware attacks were being properly reported.

    WHY DID THE CENTRE LIE?

    Mail Today had earlier reported how corporates are downplaying the incidents and refraining from reporting to the central agency. According to experts, many corporates, institutions and individuals have been hit by the ransomware. But only government offices had come forward and no business enterprises have admitted to the cyber breach.

    In May 2017, the MCA21 system was subjected to WannaCry ransomware attack. The attack was in the nature of a 'zero day attack' and was first noticed on May 7, the document said. Zero day attack refers to hackers exploiting a flaw in a software system that is not known to the vendor itself.

    MCA21 is managed by IT major Infosys, provides for making electronic filings related to compliances under the Companies Act and Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008. During the peak of WannaCry's outbreak, a series of attacks were reported in Odisha, Kolkata, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Kerala, apart from other parts of the country. As per the document, the system servers were reformatted and systems redeployed. Prompt measures helped all services being restored without any loss by May 12, it said.

    While some documents related to front and back office services were affected, technical teams informed CERT-In immediately. CERT-In is the government's cyber security arm.
     
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  4. Zer0reZ

    Zer0reZ 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    After Petya, Wannacry attacks, experts say India vulnerable to cyber attacks

    Technology infrastructure in the country remains vulnerable against cyber intrusions such as Petya and WannaCry as many large corporations still rely on old systems with not much importance attached to the security, say experts.


    Technology infrastructure in the country remains vulnerable against cyber intrusions such as Petya and WannaCry as many large corporations still rely on old systems with not much importance attached to the security, say experts. An IBM-Ponemon Institute 2017 study notes that the average cost of data breach has grown from Rs 9.73 crore in 2016 to Rs 11 crore in 2017 in India and unless preventive measures are taken, these costs are likely to increase year on year. While experts termed the Petya impact in India as limited, they warned that increasing thrust towards digitisation through initiatives such as Digital India and demonetisation are expected to attract the attention of cyber criminals. “Most businesses are unprotected, unequipped with critical updates and resort to firefight such attacks with emergency patching. Business leaders need to appreciate the importance of security updates.

    All too often we see IT departments needing to wait for approval from divisions higher up in the hierarchy before they can issue critical patches,” said, Srini CR, SVP – Global Product Management & Data Centre Services, Tata Communications. Ransomware like Petya or the earlier Wannacry primarily encrypt the critical data held by targeted companies and seek ransom money in exchange for the release. Experts believe that some firms may be tempted to pay the ransom but there is no guarantee that once the payment is made they can get access to their data. Rakesh Kumar Singh, Datacenter lead, Juniper Networks India, said, “We are seeing some big impact at few of the Indian corporates and PSUs. Mainly corporates which are not in high-tech are more vulnerable as they have lots of legacy OS installations that were ignored as they were used for non-intensive purposes like data entry.”

    The practice of many of India’s corporations to store data on their machines has also increased the vulnerability to cyberattacks. Greater prevalence of older operating systems makes it more prone to attacks with not much attention given to security updates.
    Rana Gupta, VP – APAC Sales, of cyber security company Gemalto said “Data is the new oil in the digital economy, and ransomware attacks that restrict access to important data until the attacker is paid has become an increasingly common feature.”

    Watch this:


    In terms of protection against such cyberattacks, experts believe there is much to be done in terms of preventing attacks on critical infrastructure like power and transport. Jaspreet Singh, partner, – IT risk & assurance practice, EY said, “It is important to review what assets we are trying to protect and how we go about providing the security cover. There cannot be any generic solution to this.”

    “You won’t be able to thwart every cyber-attack ahead of time but much like the game of chess, implementing a good strategy will always swing the odds in your favour,” said, Srini CR of Tata Communications.
     
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  5. defc0n

    defc0n 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    A malware researcher found a Kill-Switch in Schrodinger's Pet(ya), perfc in C:\Windows folder and make it read only.
     
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  6. Zer0reZ

    Zer0reZ 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    Israel ready to be cyber security partner to India

    The Indian National Security Advisor Najit Doval visited Israel on the 28th February 2017 to prepare and lay the groundwork for the Historic upcoming visit of Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s visit to Israel in early July 2017. This visit, the first ever by an Indian Prime Minster, will significantly mark 25 years of diplomatic ties between the two Nations.


    In November 2016, Marc Kahlberg was a member of Israel’s President, Reuven Rivlin’s delegation that visited India for the first time in nearly 20 years and it signified the growing closeness of the two Nations.


    Since the upgrade of the relations between India and Israel in 1992, the two countries have focused on agriculture and defense as a main focus. India is seen globally as an IT hub of excellence, so too Israel is seen as an expert in Cyber Security solutions and the upcoming visit by Prime Minister Modi will certainly have an important agenda of broad based Cyber security subject matter.


    As Israel is ready and indeed has been assisting India with comprehensive and effective cyber security plans to counter and thwart threats from extremist groups, industrial hackers and cyber thieves, the opportunity will certainly arise to introduce some of the world’s most advanced cyber intelligence technologies, leveraging some of the world’s brightest and most qualified cyber and HLS security minds with an extensive infrastructure of hard earned experience.


    Companies like Israel’s Vital Intelligence Group that understand, through such experience and practice, what it takes to minimize risk through Cyber Intelligence methods of predicative and proactive concepts fusing unique technology design and integration will assist in empowering Indian companies and certain government sectors with Vital Intelligence through partnerships and recently established cooperative relations with some of India’s top companies.
    On the eve of this historical visit by Prime Minister Modi to Israel and the fact that Israel is said to already be amongst the top military hardware suppliers to India, with more than $1 billion in annual sales to New Delhi according to the “Hindustan” newspaper, Prime Minister Modi will surely discuss both technological cooperation and indeed the threats and vulnerabilities that lie in the stealth but intriguing world of Cyber and Intelligence.


    Close to 14 years has passed since the Al Qaida terror attacks of September 11, 2001 in the United States, 13 years, after possibly the worst single terror attack at the Park Hotel in Netanya, Israel, and 9 years after the 2008 Mumbai attacks in India where a series of coordinated terrorist events where carried out by 10 members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, an Islamic militant organization based in Pakistan, carried out a series of 12 coordinated shooting and bombing attacks lasting four days across Mumbai.


    The world witnesses mass carnage via terror and cyber threats and the influence of the media and more so the social media is so fast and so widely available today that reaction is simply a thing of the past. Today everyone lives the events that take place continents away in a live scenario. The world is at war, each with a different adversary who are committed to destroying each-others people, ways of life and freedom. The only difference today is that the borders are no longer physical, no longer relevant in many ways and each and every human being is vulnerable to a terror attack not only in the form of a vehicle ramming into innocent people anywhere on earth, as seen in Europe recently or a stabbing or suicide bombing attack but by a simple click of a button in the form of a Cyber Attack that has consequences that are so far reaching it must and certainly will be one of the high level points of discussion between Prime Minister Modi and Prime Minister Netanyahu.


    In the midst of these global conflicts, we all face the dual challenges of preventing terrorist attacks in any manner and any form, be it cyber carnage or physical destruction. In leveraging all possible resources to meet these obligations these two important and relevant leaders must make demands on their peers and those entrusted to protect their countries and engage in more innovational multinational proactive efforts of cooperation in the cyber security sphere and indeed turn the big data and mass amounts of information into actionable and credible intelligence.


    In strengthening overall homeland security through cooperation between industries, foreign partnerships and initiatives that can be created by these two leaders, we all must be committed to assisting them in expanding and increasing our layers of defense, which extend well beyond our different borders, by seeking further cooperation with our international partners and admitting that as the free world tries to secure their Homelands, we cannot simply rely on defensive approaches and well-planned response and recovery measures.


    It must be recognized and agreed that our combined efforts also must involve self –defensive methods in all aspects of the term. By deploying passive methods, policies and strategies against aggressors and offenders the criminals or enemy’s plans cannot be disrupted therefore the impact of future disasters through measures that enhance the resilience of economies and critical infrastructure before an incident occurs must be thwarted predictably and proactively.
     
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  7. Zer0reZ

    Zer0reZ 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    Mapping of India’s Cyber Security-Related Bilateral Agreements

    With the rapid spread of cloud computing and the growth of cyber spaces, large masses of information are now easily transmittable transnationally, necessitating the ratification of new agreements and cooperation efforts amongst states in order to secure cyber spaces and regulate exchanges of information. In an attempt to understand the nature and extent of current international collaborative efforts in cyber security, we have compiled the following data regarding India’s cyber security-related bilateral agreements. The intention of this exercise is to offer a dynamic visualization that demonstrates which countries India has collaborated with on cyber security efforts and initiatives. This is an ongoing map that we will be updating as our research continues.

    Download: Infographic (PDF) and data (XLSX)

    The data used for the info-graphic consists of India’s MLATs, cyber security-related MoUs and Joint Statements, and Cyber Frameworks. An MLAT is an agreement between two or more countries, drafted for the purpose of gathering and exchanging information in an effort to enforce public or criminal laws. A MoU (Memorandum of Understanding) is a nonbinding agreement between two or more states outlining the terms and details of an understanding, including each party’s requirements and responsibility; it is often the first stage in the formation of a formal contract. For the purpose of this research, we have grouped Joint Statements with MoUs, as they both generally entail the informal agreement between two states to strengthen cooperation on certain issues. Lastly, a Cyber Framework consists of standards, guidelines and practices to promote protection of critical infrastructure. The data accounts for agreements centered on cyber security as well as any agreements mentioning cooperation efforts in Cyber Security, information security or cybercrime.

    [​IMG]

    The Mapping of India’s Cybersecurity-related bilateral agreement has been updated on April 12, 2017 with the following changes:

    1. A new MoU was signed between Australia and India in April 2017, focusing on combating terrorism and civil aviation security. Cybersecurity cooperation is mentioned in the MoU[1].
    2. A new MoU was signed between Bangladesh and India in April 2017. The Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In), Indian Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology and the ICT Division of Bangladesh are the signing parties of the MoU. The agreement focuses on Cooperation in the area of Cyber Security[2].
    3. A preexisting MoU between France and India was added to the mapping, signed in January of 2016. Officials of both countries agreed to intensify cooperation between the Indian and French security forces in the fields of homeland security, cyber security, Special Forces and intelligence sharing to fight against criminal networks and tackle the common threat of terrorism[3].
    4. A new MoU was signed between Indonesia and India in March 2017. It focuses on enhancing cooperation in cyber security and intelligence sharing[4].
    5. A new MoU was signed between Kenya and India in January 2017, with “cyber security” mentioned as one of the key areas of cooperation[5].
    6. A preexisting MoU between Malaysia and India was added to the mapping, signed in November of 2015. Both sides agreed to promote cooperation and the exchange of information regarding cyber security incident management, technology cooperation and cyber attacks, prevalent policies and best practices and mutual response to cyber security incidents[6].
    7. A preexisting MoU between Mauritius and India, signed July 2016, was added to the mapping. This is a non-governmental MoU. Leading bourse BSE signed an agreement with Stock Exchange of Mauritius (SEM) for collaboration in areas including cyber security[7].
    8. A new joint statement between India and Portugal was signed in March 2017. The two countries agreed to set up an institutional mechanism to collaborate in the areas of electronic manufacturing, ITeS, startups, cyber security and e-governance.[8]
    9. A preexisting MoU, signed between Qatar and India in December of 2016, was added to the mapping. The agreement was regarding a protocol on technical cooperation in cyberspace and combatting cybercrime[9].
    10. A new MoU was signed between Serbia and India in January 2017, focusing on cooperation in the field of IT, Electronics. The MoU itself does not explicitly mention cybersecurity. However, the MoU calls for cooperation and exchanges in capacity building institutions, which should entail cyber security strengthening[10].
    11. A preexisting MoU between Singapore and India was added to the mapping. The MoU was signed in January 2016, focusing on the establishment of a formal framework for professional dialogue, CERT-CERT related cooperation for operational readiness and response, collaboration on cyber security technology and research related to smart technologies, exchange of best practices, and professional exchanges of human resource development[11].
    12. A new joint statement was signed between UAE and India in January 2017, following up on their previous Technical Cooperation MoU signed in February 2016. To further deepen cooperation in this area, they agreed to set up joint Research & Development Centres of Excellence[12].
    13. A preexisting MoU has been included in the mapping, signed in May of 2016. CERT-In agreed with the UK Ministry of Cabinet Office to promote close cooperation between both countries in the exchange in knowledge and experience in detection, resolution and prevention of security related incidents[13].
    14. A new MoU between India and the US was signed in March 2017. CERT-In and CERT-US signed a MoU agreeing to promote closer co-operation and exchange of information pertaining to cyber security in accordance with relevant laws, rules and regulations and on the basis of equality, reciprocity and mutual benefit[14].
    15. A new MoU was signed between Vietnam and India in January 2017, agreeing to promote closer cooperation for exchange of knowledge and experience in detection, resolution and prevention of cyber security incidents between both countries[15].
    NOTE: Some preexisting MoUs were added as we were initially only including the most recent agreements in the mapping. Upon adding newly signed MoUs, we decided to also keep the preexisting ones and revisit the other entries to include any preexisting MoUs that were initially excluded due to not being the most-recent. In this respect, the visualization will be adjusted to indicate the number of MoUs per country.
     
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  8. defc0n

    defc0n 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    This is good. Partering with the co-creators of #Stuxnet
     
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  9. Zer0reZ

    Zer0reZ 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    Well you have learn first how to create in order to defend from such threats, WannaCry has US roots too. So i agree its good to partner with Israel.
     
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  10. defc0n

    defc0n 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    So does Petya. They both use the same vulnerability - Eternal Blue to spread. It was hacked out of NSA.
     
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  11. Zer0reZ

    Zer0reZ 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    India presses Microsoft for Windows discount in wake of cyber attacks

    MUMBAI (Reuters) - India is pressing Microsoft Corp to offer a sharply discounted one-time deal to the more than 50 million Windows users in the country so that they can upgrade to the latest Windows 10 operating system in the wake of ransomware attacks.

    Microsoft officials in India have "in principle agreed" to the request, Gulshan Rai, India's cyber security coordinator, told Reuters over the phone on Friday.

    A spokeswoman for Microsoft in India declined to comment on the matter. Officials at the company's headquarters in the United States and regional headquarters in Asia also declined to comment.

    If Microsoft agreed to such a discount, it could open up the global software giant to similar requests from around the world. Rai said the government was in talks with Microsoft management in India. It is not immediately clear whether any other countries were seeking similar deals.

    Rai said India began talks with Microsoft after the WannaCry ransomware attack last month, noting that both WannaCry and this week's attack, dubbed by some cyberexperts "NotPetya", exploited vulnerabilities in older iterations of the Windows OS.

    "The quantum of the price cut, we expect some detail on in a couple of days," Rai said, adding the Indian government expected the company to offer the software at "throw-away prices."

    "It will be a one-time upgrade offer to Windows 10 and it will be a discounted price for the entire country," said Rai, who was hand-picked by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi to be the country's first cyber security chief.

    Rai declined to be more specific, but said he was confident that it would be "less than a quarter of the current price."

    Rai, who has over two decades of experience in different IT areas including cyber security, said his team began coordinating with government agencies and regulators to push for OS upgrades soon after the WannaCry attack began on May 12.

    The government's quick action helped minimize the impact of the NotPetya attack, which affected two of India's container port terminals, he said.

    The government has also worked with banks to ensure that some 200,000 of the more than 240,000 ATMs in the country, most of which run on older Windows XP systems, have been upgraded with security patches released by Microsoft following the WannaCry attack, Rai said.

    This is just an interim solution, however, said Rai, because although the patches fix vulnerabilities in older OS versions, they retain the limitations of those versions.

    "New OS versions have different architecture, much improved architecture and much more resiliency," said Rai.


    Price-Sensitive

    Windows 10 Home currently retails for 7,999 rupees ($124) in India, while the Pro version of the software typically used by large companies and institutions costs 14,999 rupees ($232).

    Roughly 96 percent of an estimated 57 million computers in India currently run on Windows, according to Counterpoint Research. Apple- and Linux-based systems account for the rest.

    Given that only a small minority of Windows users in India already have Windows 10, Microsoft could be forgoing several billion dollars of potential revenue if they agreed to sell just the more widely used Home version of Windows 10 at a quarter of its current Indian retail price.

    In the price-sensitive Indian market, people using computers in households or small businesses often do not upgrade their OS given the steep costs. The wide use of pirated Windows OS versions, which would not automatically receive security patches, exacerbate the vulnerabilities.


    In light of the attacks, Rai said, the government "wants to incentivise the common man to upgrade their systems".

    The WannaCry attack in May affected a state-run power firm in western India, while the NotPetya attack this week crippled operations at two port terminals in India operated by shipping giant AP Moller Maersk, which was affected globally.
     
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  12. Zer0reZ

    Zer0reZ 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    Banks lost Rs 88,553 an hour to cybercrime in last 3 years

    BENGALURU: In the past three years and three months, banks lost Rs 88,553 every hour on an average to cybercrime. The total money lost from April 1, 2014 to June 30, 2017 — Rs 252 crore — could have written off 50,400 farm loans of Rs 50,000 each.

    Nearly 40 cases of cybercrime costing Rs 21.24 lakh a day on an average have been reported by banks in the said period, shows data of 102 banks of all categories obtained from the Reserve Bank of India. In all, 46,612 cases were reported in the said period.

    The data is compiled from frauds related to credit, debit and ATM cards and internet banking.

    From card skimming to hacking of bank systems, the growing number of cybercrime cases is not just an indication of vulnerable backend systems but also a warning that the financial system cannot underestimate the threat any longer.

    Analysis of data for the first quarter of 2017-18 (April 1 to June 30) shows that banks reported 56 cases a day, against the average of 40 in the past three years.

    Banks are also losing more money per day: Rs 21.57 lakh (Rs 89,880 per hour) from Rs 21.24 lakh (Rs 88,553 per hour) in the past three years. These cases are from 23 banks which reported to RBI.

    Nearly 70% of the ATMs in the country, which operate on the outdated Windows XP software, are seen to be sitting ducks. Microsoft stopped providing support — security patches and other tools — for the Windows XP System in 2014.

    Read more at:
    http://economictimes.indiatimes.com...ofinterest&utm_medium=text&utm_campaign=cppst

    Credit cards, debit cards, online transactions frauds: RBI moves to protect customers; zero liability if loss reported in 3 day period
     
    Last edited: Jul 25, 2017
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  13. defc0n

    defc0n 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    3 days is little short! Don't you think so?
     
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  14. Zer0reZ

    Zer0reZ 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    Well its still better than having nothing, btw RBI said “The SMS alerts shall mandatorily be sent to the customers, while email alerts may be sent, wherever registered,”. RBI is doing its work but what GoI is doing? We're too slow regarding improving protection from cyber attacks, Ravi Shankar Prasad doesn't seems concerned regarding this either.
     
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  15. defc0n

    defc0n 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    Agreed. My concern was bit different. Given the customary delays that occur in case of mass mail or sms I.e. Delivery of these sms and emails, some people might find it extremely inconvenient as they will have very short time frame to react.

    As for GoI, I have no clue as to how this Digital India concept will survive without the proper precautions and protections that a truly digital diverse framework needs.
     
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