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Military Avionics

Discussion in 'Defence Analysis' started by PARIKRAMA, Oct 27, 2016.

  1. PARIKRAMA

    PARIKRAMA Captain IDF NewBie

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    Military Avionics

    As the topic suggests, will try to cover the very basic of stuff from Military Avionics Systems.. The whole thread would be very much generalized to begin with and later will try and focus on more intrinsic details

    Special Credit to Military Avionics Systems by Ian Moir and Allan G. Seabridge
     
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  2. PARIKRAMA

    PARIKRAMA Captain IDF NewBie

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    Introduction
    • Avionics is a word coined in the late 1930s to provide a generic name for the increasingly diverse functions being provided by AVIation electrONICS
    • World War II and subsequent Cold War years provided the stimulus for much scientific research and technology development which, in turn, led to enormous growth in the avionic content of military aircraft.
    • Today, avionics systems account for up to 50% of the fly-away cost of an airborne military platform and are key components of manned aircraft, unmanned aircraft, missiles and weapons.
    • It is the military avionics of an aircraft that allow it to perform defensive, offensive and surveillance missions.
    • Over the years, as specialist military operational roles and missions have evolved, they have often driven the development of role-specific platforms and avionics.
    • Looking across the range of today’s airborne military platforms, it is possible to identify categories of avionics at system, subsystem and equipment levels that perform functions common to all platforms, or indeed perform unique mission-specific functions.
    Avionics as a Total System
    Avionics systems may be represented at a number of different levels as described below:
    1. A major military task force may comprise a large number of differing cooperating platforms, each of which contributes to the successful accomplishment of the task force mission. Within this context an individual strike aircraft or surveillance platform avionics system may represent one component of many within the task force.
    2. At the individual platform or aircraft level, a collection of subsystems and components or modules operate to support the successful completion of the primary role of the platform, be it reconnaissance, strike, support or surveillance.
    3. The individual equipment that supports the overall system of the platform is a collection of units or modules, control panels and displays, each of which has to operate correctly to support subsystem and overall system operation.
    4. Finally, the electronic modules that form the individual components of the aircraft avionics systems may be regarded as systems within their own right, with their own performance requirements and hardware and software elements.
    In short the best way to describe avionics as a system is
    upload_2016-10-27_18-26-54.png


    If we wish to understand Military Avionics system, then we have to understand from the basic product breakdown of what comprises it really

    upload_2016-10-27_18-29-58.png

    Increasing Complexity of Functional Integration
    • In the early stages, the major avionics subsystems such as radar, communications, navigation and identification (CNI), displays, weapons and the platform vehicle could be considered as discrete subsystems, the function of which could be easily understood.
    • The performance requirements could be relatively easily specified and captured, and, although there were information interchanges between them, each could stand alone and the boundaries of each subsystem was ‘hard’ in the sense that it was unlikely to be affected by the performance of a neighbouring subsystem.
    • As time progressed, the functionality of each subsystem increased and some boundaries blurred and functions began to overlap. Also, the number of subsystems began to increase owing to the imposition of more complex mission requirements and because of the technology developments that furnished new sensors.
    • Improved data processing and higher bandwidth data buses also contributed to providing much higher data processing capabilities and the means to allow the whole system to become more integrated.
    • Further technology developments added another spiral to this trend, resulting in greater functionality, further increasing integration and with a blurring of functional boundaries as subsystems became able to share ever greater quantities of data
    upload_2016-10-27_18-34-26.png

    • The outcome of this evolution has been to increase: performance; sensor types; functionality; cost; integration; complexity; supportability (reuse); software programs in terms of executable code; memory requirements; throughput; reliability; data handling; datalinks; and obsolescence.
    • The result has been to decrease: size; weight; power consumption; and technology windows.
    Next will cover the roles that military air forces typically need to perform
     
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  3. PARIKRAMA

    PARIKRAMA Captain IDF NewBie

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    Roles that military air forces typically need to perform


    A typical Battlefield of today looks like this
    upload_2016-10-27_18-42-47.png

    Here will try and define these roles

    Air Superiority
    • The primary aim of this role is to deny to an enemy the airspace over the battlefield, thus allowing ground attack aircraft a free rein in destroying ground targets and assisting ground forces, secure in the knowledge that the airborne threat has been suppressed.
    • The air superiority aircraft is typically designed to enable the pilot to respond rapidly to a deployment call, climb to intercept or loiter on combat air patrol (CAP) and then to engage enemy targets, preferably beyond visual range.
    • The aircraft should also have the capability to engage in close combat, or dogfight,with other aircraft should this prove to be necessary. For this to be successful, an extremely agile machine is necessary with ‘carefree handling’ capability.
    • The systems must allow for accurate navigation, accurate identification of targets, prioritisation of targets, accurate weapon aiming capability and the ability to join the tactical communications network.
    Mission Profile
    upload_2016-10-27_18-45-29.png
    Crew
    • Usually single pilot, but some types employ a pilot and a rear-seat air electronics officer or navigator depending on the role.
    • Trainers or conversion aircraft will have two seats for instructor and student.
    System Architecture

    upload_2016-10-27_18-48-9.png


    Typical Systems
    upload_2016-10-27_18-49-7.png

    ASRAAM/AMRAAM - Example for western forces.

    AIRCRAFT for this role

    Su30 MKI, EF Typhoon, Rafale, Gripen, F16, F18 etc
     
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  4. PARIKRAMA

    PARIKRAMA Captain IDF NewBie

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    Ground Attack
    • The ground attack role has been developed to assist the tactical situation on the battlefield.
    • The pilot must be able to identify the right target among the ground clutter and multiplicity of targets and friendly units on the battlefield.
    • The ability to designate targets by laser has enabled precision bombing to be adopted by the use of laser-guided bombs or ‘smart’ bombs.
    • The role must enable fixed targets such as buildings, radar installations and missile sites, as well as mobile targets such as tanks, guns, convoys, ships and troop formations, to be detected, positively identified and engaged.
    • This role includes close air support (CAS), where support is given to ground forces, often under their direction, where weapons will be deployed in close proximity to friendly forces
    Mission Profile
    • Depending on the target and the on-going military situation, the ground attack role may be performed by either fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft.
    • A fixed-wing aircraft usually needs very fast, low-level performance with good ride qualities. It should also be reasonably agile to perform attack manoeuvres and take evasive action.
    • Rotary-wing aircraft benefit from extreme low-level nap of the earth penetration, and the ability to loiter in natural ground cover – popping up when required to deliver a weapon.

    upload_2016-10-27_19-9-58.png
    Crew
    • This role is usually conducted by two crew members, a pilot and a crew member to operate the sensors and weapons systems.
    • The advent of smart weapons or cooperative target designation means that the mission can be conducted by a single crew, often a role designated to a fighter aircraft as a secondary role.
    System Architecture
    upload_2016-10-27_19-12-27.png

    Typical Systems
    upload_2016-10-27_19-13-24.png

    Aircraft Example - SEPECAT Jaguar, A10, Apache Helo
     
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  5. PARIKRAMA

    PARIKRAMA Captain IDF NewBie

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    Strategic Bomber

    Mission Profile
    upload_2016-10-27_19-19-15.png

    Strategic bomber aircraft attributes include high altitude cruise, long range and high payload capacity.

    Crew
    The crew includes pilots, a navigator, an engineer and specialist mission crew. For very long missions a relief crew may be provided.

    System Architecture
    upload_2016-10-27_19-20-21.png

    Typical Systems
    upload_2016-10-27_19-21-1.png

    Example Aircrafts : B52, Tu22M, T160
     
  6. PARIKRAMA

    PARIKRAMA Captain IDF NewBie

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    Maritime Patrol

    The typical tasks that an MPA is called upon to perform include:
    Anti-surface unit warfare (ASuW)
    • Reconnaissance;
    • Shadowing;
    • Strike against surface vessels;
    • Tactical support of maritime strike aircraft;
    • Over-the-horizon targeting for friendly vessels;
    • Intelligence collection;
    • Communications relay;
    • Limited airborne early warning capability.
    Anti-submarine warfare (ASW)
    • Close air support to task forces and convoys;
    • Open ocean searches;
    • Extended tracking of submerged targets;
    • Deterrence of hostile submarines;
    • Cooperation with friendly submarines;
    • Intelligence collection.
    Search and rescue (SAR)
    • Location of survivors;
    • Dropping of survival equipment;
    • Scene-of-action commander for rescue operations;
    • Escort to rescue helicopters;
    • Cooperation with rescue services;
    • Escort of aircraft in difficulties.
    Exclusive economic zone protection
    • Oil rig surveillance;
    • Fishery protection;
    • Pollution detection and dispersal.
    Customs and excise cooperation
    • Anti-illegal immigration;
    • Anti-gun running;
    • Anti-terrorist operations;
    • Anti-drug smuggling.
    Mission Profile

    upload_2016-10-27_19-23-31.png

    Key Performance

    • Long endurance
    • Long range
    Crew
    • The flight deck crew consists of two pilots who may alternate the roles of flying pilot and second officer throughout a long-duration mission in order to maintain vigilance.
    • Some types may carry an engineer who will operate the general systems and usually acts as a monitor for height. On types expected to perform very long-duration missions, for example, with air-to-air refuelling this may be in excess of 20 h, a supernumerary pilot may be carried.
    • The mission crew will be sized to operate the sensors and conduct the tactical mission. Crew sizes for a long-range maritime patrol and anti-submarine aircraft may exceed 10.
    System Architecture
    upload_2016-10-27_19-25-16.png

    Typical MPA Systems
    upload_2016-10-27_19-25-49.png
    Aircraft Example- P8I
     
  7. PARIKRAMA

    PARIKRAMA Captain IDF NewBie

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    Battlefield Surveillance

    The key performance characteristics are high altitude, long range and a stable platform often based on a commercial airliner airframe.

    upload_2016-10-27_19-27-49.png

    Crew
    • The flight deck crew consists of two pilots who may alternate the roles of flying pilot and second officer throughout a long-duration mission in order to maintain vigilance.
    • Some types may carry an engineer who will operate the general systems and usually acts as a monitor for height.
    • On types expected to perform very long-duration missions, for example, with air-to-air refuelling this may be in excess of 20 h, a supernumerary pilot may be carried.
    • The mission crew will be sized to operate the sensors and conduct the tactical mission. Crew sizes for a long-range, long-duration mission may exceed 10.
    System Architecture
    upload_2016-10-27_19-29-5.png

    A Typical System
    upload_2016-10-27_19-29-31.png

    Aircraft Example - E8 JStar,
     
  8. PARIKRAMA

    PARIKRAMA Captain IDF NewBie

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    Airborne Early Warning

    upload_2016-10-27_19-31-10.png

    Key Performance Characteristics
    • A long-range, long-endurance aircraft enables a patrol pattern to be set up to cover a widesector area from which attack is most likely.
    • A radar with a 360 scan, and a capability to look down and look up, provides detection of incoming low-level and high-altitude attack.
    • The radar will usually be integrated with an interrogator to enable friendly aircraft to be positively identified.
    • The aircraft will also act as an airborne command post, controlling all airborne movements in the tactical area, compiling intelligence and providing near real-time displays of the tactical situation to both local forces and remote headquarters.
    Crew
    Same as MPA and Battlefield Surveillance

    System Architecture
    upload_2016-10-27_19-33-26.png

    Typical System
    upload_2016-10-27_19-33-49.png

    Aircraft Example : Grumman E-2 Hawkeye, Boeing E-3 Sentry
     
  9. Picard

    Picard Lt. Colonel RESEARCHER

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    @PARIKRAMA Will you cover Close Air Support? It is rather different from generalized ground attack mission.
     

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