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Right Wing Contribution In Indian independence movements

Discussion in 'General History' started by NKVD, Sep 9, 2017.

  1. NKVD

    NKVD 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    There are Many Misconceptions in Present day Which Secular Liberals use to dissociate Right-wingers from Indian Independence movement .They use RSS as tool For It.

    RSS is just Bearer of torch Of right wing ideology In current day politics.

    My this thread Is Dedicated To Clear A Mist of Misconceptions and Lies Being Told To younger generations about Right wing Nationalism

    @Levina @nair @Agent_47 @Veeran

    CHAPTER :ONE

    LAL - BAL - PAL

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    Punjab Kesri Lala Lajpat Rai , Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and Bipin Chandra Pal were a triumvirate of hardcore nationalists in British-ruled India from 1905 to 1918. They advocated the self rule or Swadeshi movement involving the boycott of all imported items and the use of Indian-made goods in 1907 during the anti-Partition agitation in Bengal which began in 1905.




    The last and final years of the nineteenth century saw a radical sensibility emerge among some Indian intellectuals. This position burst onto the national all-India scene in 1905 with the Swadeshi movement - the term is usually rendered as "self reliance" or "self sufficiency"


    In the 1907 at the Surat Congress, there was a major difference of opinion between the ‘moderates’ and the ‘extremists’. The ‘extremist’ group was known as ‘Lal’, ‘Bal’ and ‘Pal’, after Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal. Besides advocating swadeshi movement, they also advocated a total boycott amounting to non-coperation and non-payment of taxes. ‘Lal’ and ‘Bal’ were deported to Mandalay in Burma. Tilak’s trial for incitement bought Bombay’s industries to a standstill and his 6 year sentence bought the troops into the street and there were 16 deaths. Sitting in a prison in Mandalay, Tilak wrote his commentary on the Bagavad Gita.


    Lala Lajpat Rai

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    Lala Lajpat Rai was a prominent nationalist leader who played an important role in India’s struggle for freedom. He was a prominent member of the famous ‘Lal Bal Pal’ firebrand trio during the independence movement. His fierce brand of patriotism and potent vocalism against the British rule earned him the title of ‘Punjab Kesari’ or the Lion of the Punjab. He also initiated the foundation of Punjab National Bank.


    Lala Lajpat Rai was a voracious reader and everything he read left a great imprint on his mind. He was deeply impressed by the ideals of patriotism and nationalism outlined by Italian revolutionary leader Giuseppe Mazzini. Inspired by Mazzini, Lalaji became indoctrinated into the revolutionary way of attaining freedom. He, together with other prominent leaders like Bipin Chandra Pal, Aurobindo Ghosh from Bengal, and Bal Gangadhar Tilak from Maharashtra, began to see the negative aspects of moderate politics advocated by many leaders of the Indian National Congress. They voiced their strong opposition to the Congress’ demand for gradual progress to dominion status and began voicing the need for complete independence or ‘Purna Swaraj’. In personal views he was a great believer in inter-faith harmony, but he did not think right of the trend by Congress leaders to sacrifice Hindu interests to appease the Muslim section of the party. Lala was one of the few leaders who realized the difficulties of a united anti-colonial struggle and a possible source of religious conflict between the Hindus and Muslims of the country. His proposal for "a clear partition of India into a Muslim India and non-Muslim India" on December14, 1923, in The Tribune, met with major controversy.


    Lajpat Rai gave-up his legal practice and put all his efforts towards freeing his Motherland from the shackles of the British Imperialism. He recognized the need for presenting the state of affairs in the Indian Freedom struggle to prominent countries in the world in order to highlight the atrocious nature of the British rule in India. He went to Britain in 1914 and then to the USA in 1917. In October 1917, he founded the Indian Home Rule League of America in New York. He stayed in the USA from 1917 to 1920.


    In 1920, after his return from America, Lajpat Rai was invited to preside over the special session of the Congress in Calcutta, (now Kolkata). He led fiery demonstrations against the British in Punjab in protest for their brutal actions at Jallianwallah Bagh. When Gandhi launched the non-cooperation movement in 1920, he plunged into action leading the movement in Punjab. When Gandhi decided to suspend the movement post Chauri Chaura incident, Lajpat Rai criticized the decision and went on to form the Congress Independence Party.

    The Simon Commission visited India in 1929 with the aim to discuss constitutional reforms. The fact that the Commission was comprised solely of British delegates greatly angered the Indian leaders. The country erupted in protest and Lala Lajpat Rai was in the forefront of such demonstrations.

    Death

    On October 30, 1928, Lala Lajpat Rai led a peaceful procession to oppose the arrival of the Simon Commission in Lahore. Intercepting the march, Superintendent of Police, James A.Scott ordered his police force to 'lathi-charge' at the activists. The police targeted Lajpat Rai, in particular, and hit him on the chest. This action left Lala Lajpat Rai with severe injuries. He died of a heart attack on November 17, 1928. His followers squarely placed the blame on the British and vowed to avenge his death. Chandrasekhar Azad along with Bhagat Singh and other associates plotted the assassination of Scott but the revolutionaries shot J.P. Saunders, mistaking him as Scott.

    Role as an Influencer

    Not only Rai was this heavyweight leader of the Indian Nationalist Movement, his views on patriotism and nationalism earned him the status of a venerated leader. He inspired young men of his generation and kindled latent spirit of patriotism in their hearts. Young men such as Chandrasekhar Azad and Bhagat Singh were driven to dedicate their lives for the sake of freedom of their Motherland following his example.

    Legacy

    Lala Lajpat Rai made lasting impression in the minds of his countrymen not only by his leadership abilities, but made his presence felt in fields of education, commerce and even healthcare. He was a follower of Dayanand Saraswati and helped establish the nationalistic Dayanand Anglo-Vedic School. He initiated the established of a bank which later evolved as the ‘Punjab National Bank’. He established a trust in his mother Gulabi Devi’s name in 1927 and oversaw the opening of a tuberculosis hospital for women named Gulabi Devi Chest Hospital.
     
    Last edited: Sep 9, 2017
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  2. NKVD

    NKVD 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    Bal Gangadhar Tilak

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    Bal Gangadhar Tilak was an Indian social reformer and freedom activist. He was one of the prime architects of modern India and probably the strongest advocates of Swaraj or Self Rule for India. His famous declaration “Swaraj is my birthright, and I shall have it” served as an inspiration for future revolutionaries during India’s struggle for freedom. The British Government termed him as the "Father of Indian Unrest" and his followers bequeathed upon him the title of ‘Lokmanya’ meaning he who is revered by the people. Tilak was a brilliant politician as well as a profound scholar who believed that independence is the foremost necessity for the well being of a nation.


    Gangadhar Tilak joined the Indian National Congress in 1890. He soon started vocalizing his strong opposition to the moderate views of the party on self-rule. He maintained that simple constitutional agitation in itself was futile against the British. This subsequently made him stand against the prominent Congress leader, Gopal Krishna Gokhale. He wanted an armed revolt to broom-away the British. Following the partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon, Tilak wholeheartedly supported the Swadeshi (Indigenous) movement and Boycott of British goods. But his methods also raised bitter controversies within the Indian National Congress (INC) and the movement itself.

    Due to this fundamental difference in outlook, Tilak and his supporters came to be known as the extremist wing of Indian National Congress Party. Tilak’s endeavours were supported by fellow nationalists Bipin Chandra Pal of Bengal and Lala Lajpat Rai of Punjab. The trio came to be popularly referred to as the Lal-Bal-Pal. In the 1907 national session of the Indian National Congress, a massive trouble broke out between the moderate and extremist sections of the Indian National Congress Party. As a result of which, the Congress split into two factions.


    During 1896, an epidemic of bubonic plague broke out in Pune and the adjacent regions and the British employed extremely rigorous measures to contain it. Under directives from Commissioner W. C. Rand, the police and the army invaded private residences, violated personal sanctity of individuals, burned personal possessions and prevented individuals to move in and out of the city. Tilak protested against the oppressive nature of the British efforts and wrote provocative articles on it in his newspapers.

    His article inspired the Chapekar brothers and they carried out assassination of Commissioner Rand and Lt. Ayerst on June 22, 1897. As a result of this, Tilak was imprisoned for 18 months on Sedition charges for inciting murder.

    During 1908-1914, Bal Gangadhar Tilak spent had to undergo six years of rigorous imprisonment in Mandalay Jail, Burma. He openly supported the revolutionaries Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki’s efforts to assassinate Chief Presidency Magistrate Douglas Kingsford in 1908. He continued to write during his years of imprisonment and the most prominent of which is Gita Rahasya.

    Following his growing fame and popularity, the British government also tried to stop the publication of his newspapers. His wife died in Pune while he was languishing in Mandalay prison.

    Tilak returned to India in 1915 when the political situation was fast changing under the shadow of the World War I. There was unprecedented celebration after Tilak was released. He then returned to politics with a mellowed down outlook. Deciding to re-unite with his fellow nationalists, Tilak founded the All India Home Rule League in 1916 with Joseph Baptista, Annie Besant and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. By April 1916, the league had 1400 members that increased to 32,000 by 1917.

    He rejoined the Indian National Congress but could not bring about reconciliation between the two opposite-minded factions.


    Newspapers

    Towards his nationalistic goals, Bal Gangadhar Tilak published two newspapers -'Mahratta' (English) and 'Kesari' (Marathi). Both the newspapers stressed on making the Indians aware of the glorious past and encouraged the masses to be self reliant. In other words, the newspaper actively propagated the cause of national freedom.

    In 1896, when the entire nation was gripped by the famine and plague, the British government declared that there was no cause for anxiety. The government also rejected the need to start a 'Famine Relief Fund'. The attitude of the government was severely criticized by both the newspapers. Tilak fearlessly published reports about the havoc caused by famine and plague and the government's utter irresponsibility and indifference.

    Social Reforms

    After completing his education, Tilak spurned the lucrative offers of government service and decided to devote himself to the larger cause of national awakening. He was a great reformer and throughout his life he advocated the cause of women education and women empowerment. Tilak educated all of his daughters and did not marry them till they were over 16. Tilak proposed Grand celebrations on ‘Ganesh Chaturthi’ and ‘Shivaji Jayanti'. He envisioned these celebrations inciting a sense of unity and inspiring nationalist sentiment among Indians. It is a sheer tragedy that for his allegiance towards extremism, Tilak and his contribution were not given the recognition, he actually deserved.

    Death

    Tilak was so disappointed by the brutal incident of Jalianwala Bagh massacre that his health started declining. Despite his illness, Tilak issued a call to the Indians not to stop the movement no matter what happened. He was raring to lead the movement but his health did not permit. Tilak suffered from diabetes and had become very weak by this time. In mid-July 1920, his condition worsened and on August 1, he passed away.

    Even as this sad news was spreading, a veritable ocean of people surged to his house. Over 2 lakh people gathered at his residence in Bombay to have the last glimpse of their beloved leader.

    Legacy

    Although Tilak nurtured strong Nationalist sentiments, he was a social conservative. He was a devout Hindu and spent a lot of his time writing religious and philosophical pieces based on Hindu Scriptures. He was one of the most popular influencers of his time, a great orator and strong leader who inspired millions to his cause. Today, Ganesh Chaturthi, started by Tilak, is considered as the prime festival in Maharastra and adjacent states. Tilak has featured in a number of biographies for being an iconic figure of Indian Freedom struggle. The Marathi newspaper started by Tilak is still in circulation although now it is a daily instead of a weekly during Tilak’s time.
     
  3. NKVD

    NKVD 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    Bipin chandra pal

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    With the other two members - Lala Lajpat Rai and Bal Gangadhar Tilak - from the Lal Bal Pal team, Bipin Chandra Pal doled out a number of extremist measures like boycotting goods made by British, burning Western clothes and lockouts in the British owned businesses and industrial concerns to get their message across to the foreign rulers of India. Bipin Chandra Pal was a teacher, journalist, orator, writer and librarian. But above all, he was the one of the three famous leaders called "Lal Bal Pal" who comprised the extremist wing of the Indian National Congress. It was these three leaders who started the first popular upsurge against British colonial policy in the 1905 partition of Bengal.



    This was before Mahatma Gandhi had entered the fray of Indian politics. Bipin Chandra Pal recognized the positive outcome of the British kingdom, but at the same time upheld India's federal idea. Read on about the biography of Bipin Chandra Pal, who was born on 7 November 1858 into a wealthy Hindu family at Habiganj, which is now in Bangladesh. He was a staunch radical in both public and private life.



    He was also among the first who openly rebuked Mahatma Gandhi and his followers because they sought to reinstate the current government with no government or by the priestly tyranny of Gandhiji. It was, however, his coalition with pan-Islamism during Khilafat movement due to which he was cast off from the Congress till his death in 1932. With the other two members - Lala Lajpat Rai and Bal Gangadhar Tilak - from the Lal Bal Pal team, Bipin Chandra Pal doled out a number of extremist measures like boycotting goods made by British, burning Western clothes and lockouts in the British owned businesses and industrial concerns to get their message across to the foreign rulers. Later on during the course of his life history, Bipin Chandra Pal came in contact with prominent Bengali leaders like Keshab Chandra Sen and Sibnath Sastri, but not as one looking for a teacher for guidance. Pal died in the year 1932.


    Pal blasted the British move to partition Bengal in 1905, and started a paper, Bande Mataram, to spell out his nationalist views. Aurobindo Ghosh joined as an editor of Bande Mataram, and the two leaders developed a special bond.

    Convinced that the partition was a shrewd move by the British to split the rising nationalism and political consciousness in Bengal, Pal became a prominent leader of a broad anti-partition front, and took his agenda even to places like Madras. He championed the swadeshi movement that was born in response to the partition of Bengal.

    An impressive orator, Pal said at a speech during the Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress in December 1906: “You will have observed the word ‘boycott’ attached to the word ‘movement’. It means that it shall move, move from point to point, move from city to city, move from division to division, move from province to province till we realise the highest destiny of our people as a nation in the comity of nations. I mean swaraj.”

    However, there was a split within the Congress as Pal and other militant nationalist leaders wanted to use the momentum gathered by the swadeshi and boycott movements to spark a pan-national struggle against the British; the ‘moderates’, on the other hand, felt the time was not ripe to go so far.

    In 1907, Pal was jailed for refusing to give evidence against Aurobindo in a sedition case. After he was released from jail, he went to England, in 1908, and lived there for three years.

    Pal made major contributions as a journalist and writer. He started the Bengali weekly Paridarshak in 1886, worked as an editor of the Bengali Public Opinion and had short stints with the Lahore Tribune, The Democrat and The Independent. His books include a Bengali biography of Queen Victoria, Indian Nationalism, Swaraj and the Present Situation, and The Basis of Social Reform.

    Since he was a member of the Brahmo Samaj, he championed the cause of social reforms in Hindu society. He married Nrityakali Devi, a widow, in face of opposition from his family. One of the earliest causes that Pal vocally took up was that of the harsh treatment meted out to workers at Assam’s tea plantations.

    Pal’s intellectual concerns were broad.

    In a series of memorable speeches at the 1907 Madras session of the Congress, he spoke on a wide range of issues, the British system of education being imparted to Indians, among them: “The education that you have been receiving all these years has been shallow and because of this fact, namely, that the education has been verbal education, it had no reference to things but words,” he said. “It helped develop our memory but never our sense or our understanding as it ought to have done. And the result is that not only we have suffered in intellectual life, but we have suffered in our ethical, our artistic and our spiritual life as well.”

    Independence activist and educator V. S. Srinivasa Sastri, an impressive orator himself, vividly recorded his impressions of Pal’s oratory during the Madras session: “Babu Bipin Chandra Pal burst into full fame in Madras as a preacher of the new political creed. For several days…he spoke words hot with emotion and subtle logic, invading their [the listeners’] whole souls. [T]he power of the spoken words had never been demonstrated on such a scale.”

    Bipin Chandra Pal played an important role in India’s freedom struggle at multiple levels, as politician, thinker, writer and activist. As Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru said about him: “[He was] a great man who functioned on a high level on both religious and political planes.”
     
  4. NKVD

    NKVD 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya (मदनमोहन मालवीय)

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    Humble Beginnings :

    Pt Madan Mohan Malaviya or Mahamana Malaviya, as he was popularly known, was born on 25th December 1861 at Prayag, in a family of six brothers and two sisters. His grandfather Pt Premdhar and father Pt Baijnath were Sanskrit scholars. His father, Pt Baijnath, was also an excellent Kathavacak (narrator of the stories from Bhagawat). After initial training in Sanskrit, Malaviyaji joined the Saraswati School for study in English. He passed his B.A. from Muir Central College in 1884. He was married in 1878 to Kumari Devi of Mirzapur.

    Early Dream :

    Malaviyaji wanted to be a good Kathavacak like his father. But his dreams were drowned “in the tears of his mother” and the poverty in the house. Circumstances forced him in 1884 to join the Government School as a teacher for a salary of Rs.40 per month.



    Legal Practice :

    After his graduation and the job of a teacher in 1884, Malaviyaji could pursue his education only from 1889 and passed LLB course in 1891. He first practiced in the District court in 1891 and then in the High Court from 1893. According to Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru “Soon he became a brilliant Civil Lawyer”. Sir Mirza Ismail said “I have heard a great lawyer say that if Mr.Malaviya had so willed it, he would have been an ornament to the legal profession”. He decided to give up his roaring practice during his 50th birthday and retired in 1913 to serve the country. Gopala Krishna Gokhale said “Malaviyaji’s sacrifice is a real one. Born in a poor family, he started earning thousands monthly. He tasted luxury and wealth but giving heed to the call of the nation, renouncing all he again embraced poverty”.



    Journalism :

    Raja Rampal Singh of Kalakankar (Pratapgadh District) was impressed by the speech and the personality of Malaviyaji, during the 2nd Congress Session in Calcutta held in 1886. He requested him to edit the Hindi daily ‘Hindosthan’ in July 1887. Though he was young at that time, Malaviyaji’s earlier writings and speeches helped him acquire the characteristics of a journalist. His poems (sawaiyas) published (sometime in 1883-84) under the pseudonym of ‘Makrand’ in ‘Harischandra Chandrika’ magazine (brought out by the famous Bharatendu), articles on religious and contemporary subjects published in ‘Hindi Pradeepa’, editorial work for the English weekly ‘Indian Union’ (1885), work and speeches in social organizations stood him in good stead. Malaviyaji worked in the editorial of Hindi daily ‘Hindosthan’ (1887-1889), English daily ‘Indian Opinion’ (1889-), started Hindi weekly ‘Abhyuday’ (1907-1909 under his editorship). started English daily with the help of Motilal Nehru ‘Leader’ When the English Government tried to bring in the Press Act and Newspaper Act in 1908, Malaviyaji started a campaign against the Act and called an All India Conference in Allahabad. He then realized the need of an English Newspaper to make the campaign effective throughout the country. As a result, he started the English daily `Leader' in 1909 with the help of Pt. Motilal Nehru. He was associated with ‘Leader’ as Editor 1909-1911 and as the President 1911-1919. In 1910, Malaviyaji started the Hindi paper `Maryada'. He took active control of `Hindusthan Times' from Delhi in 1924. `Sanatana Dharma', a magazine dedicated to religious, dharmic interests, was started in 1933 from BHU.


    Hindu Ideals and Religion :

    Malaviyaji’s firm grounding in the tenets of Hindu Dharma led him to strong beliefs on right attitude, right thinking, right expression and right actions in every field of his activity. A few examples from his early years are: 1) worked as the Secretary of ‘Prayaga Hindu Samaj’ (in 1880), 2) active part in organizing the ‘Madhya Bharat Hindu Samaj Conference’ at Allahabad (in 1885), which discussed about the social good and the welfare of the nation. 3) association and lectures on Hinduism and Indian Culture in ‘Bharat Dharma Mahamandal’, Haridwar (from 1887 to 1902), 4) organizing a conference of ‘Sanatana Dharma Mahasabha’ (Prayag Kumbh in 1906), and in 1936, 5) President of the Education Committee for 10 years of ‘Rishikul Brahmacharya Ashram’ (started in 1906 by Pt Durgadutt Sharma) and many others of later years.



    Political :

    Malaviyaji was catapulted into the political arena immediately after his first thrilling speech at the Second Congress Session in Calcutta, held in 1886. He served the Congress for almost 50 years and worked with 50 Congress Presidents. He was the Congress President for a record of four times- in 1909 (Lahore), in 1918(Delhi), in 1930 (Delhi) and in 1932 (Calcutta). He was actively involved with the Allahabad Municipal Board till 1916. He was a member of the Provincial Legislative Council during 1903-1918, Central Council during 1910-1920, elected member of the Indian Legislative Assembly during 1924-1930, Industrial Commission during 1916-1918 and attended the second Round Table Conference in 1931. He bid farewell to active politics in 1937. In politics, Malaviyaji was midway between the Liberals and the Nationalists, the moderates and the extremists, as the followers of Gokhale and Tilak were respectively called.



    Educational :

    Malaviyaji visualized the importance of education and the hardships of the students early in life. He set up the ‘MacDonald Hindu Boarding House’ to accommodate 230 students in 1903 in Allahabad, by collecting a public donation of Rs 1.3 lakhs. This appears to be the precursor for his grand vision of the Banaras Hindu University, which he built up from a vision in 1900 to a reality in 1916. These examples show his keen analysis of a problem, ability to think of a workable solution, motivate a team to work, collect large amount of funds for a public cause and realize the dream. More of BHU separately.



    Service to the Needy/Downtrodden :

    Malaviyaji encouraged his son Ramakant to start the Yatri Sevadal (in 1912), which became ‘Deen Rakshak Samiti’ (1914), and later became ‘Prayag Seva Samiti’ under the chairmanship of Malaviyaji (1915). By 1918, it took the form of an Akhil Bharatiya Seva Samiti with centers at many places and a broad based objective of service to the needy during Kumbh Mela, floods, earthquakes, other natural calamities. In 1918, a sub unit modelled like the ‘Boy Scouts’ was started under the Akhil Bharatiya Seva Samiti. The main difference was that a patriotic leader was its Chief Scout and ‘Vande Mataram’ was sung instead of the British National Anthem. During the dreaded plague, he struggled hard to hospitalize the sick, rehabilitate others into safer areas, arrange for mass feeding and shelter for the poor and needy. The above occasion brought out the best of the human kindness in him, a quality which could be seen in his care of the downtrodden. Malaviyaji gave mantra dik„a to the untouchables in Calcutta in 1928, much before the Harijan movement started by Gandhiji on 1st August 1933. When Gandhiji addressed the varanasi crowd on 1st August 1934, Malaviyaji lent his support. He also carried out the ‘Shuddhi Movement’ by initiating the Harijanas with dik–a mantra on 12th March 1936, on the banks of Godavari. He repeated the initiation ceremony of Harijans, on the banks of Ganga in Varanasi on the Shivaratri day in 1936. The initiation was preceded by a mammoth procession of elephants carrying Vedas and religious books, followed by musical parties, citizens and scholars of Varanasi. Later shuddhikaran and mantra diksha was held in Nasik, Calcutta, Prayag. He worked for the emancipation of women. He was the President of the Conference in Bombay (1932) for the removal of untouchability.



    Other Social Activities :

    His keen interest in many social issues can be seen in examples of his involvement in : 1) The Minto Memorial Park not so well-known as it should be, was also the result of his efforts (1910), 2) opposing the construction of a dam across the Ganga in Haridwar as this would have reduced the flow of water in the canal (in 1916), and making the Govt to agree to the public proposal of maintaining an uninterrupted flow of water in the canal, 3) president of the special session of Hindu Mahasabha in Gaya in 1922, in Kashi in 1923 and his leadership till 1927, 4) starting the Cow Protection Society in 1941, 5) starting the Akhil Bharatiya Vikram Parishad in 1942.



    Malaviyaji’s Personality :

    His personality can not be condensed in a few words. Mahatma Gandhi called him pratah smaraniyaÌ, a pious person whose name when remembered in the morning would lift one out of the mire of one’s sordid self. Gandhiji compared Tilak to the lofty Himalayas, Gokhale to the deep seas and Malaviyaji to the crystal clear sacred river in which he decided to have ablution! Malaviyaji’s gentle, sweet, soft and graceful nature was a true reflection of his abundant love for humanity. A British official commented that Malaviyaji ‘wore the white flower of a blameless life’. Edgar Snow, a journalist, wrote that his personality radiated ‘the sweetness and simplicity of a child, yet his words carried the strength and conviction of a man with a settled philosophy of life’. For all his sweetness he could still be tougher than the toughest when occasion demanded it.



    Karma Yogi :

    Dr S. Radhakrishnan said “Pandit Malaviyaji is a Karmayogin. He is not only a representative of Hinduism but the soul of Hinduism. He had strived all through his life for the Hindu ideals and we see the combination of idealism and practical wisdom....... While preserving the imperishable treasures of our past, he is keen on moving forward with the times”. Kashi’s sacredness is usually described in a number of triads. To these sacred triads, we can add one more--the trinity of Ka„i, the Banaras Hindu University and Pt Madan Mohan Malaviya.
     
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  5. NKVD

    NKVD 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    Sri Aurobindo

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    Sri Aurobindo was a nationalist and one of the first to embrace the idea of complete political independence for India. He was inspired by the writings of Swami Vivekananda and the novels of He “based his claim for freedom for India on the inherent right to freedom, not on any charge of misgovernment or oppression”. He believed that the primary requisite for national progress, national reform, is the free habit of free and healthy national thought and action and that it was impossible in a state of servitude. He was part of the revolutionary group Anushilan Samiti and was involved in armed struggle against the British In his brief political career spanning only four years, he led a delegation from Bengal to the Indian National Congress session of 1907 and contributed to the revolutionary newspaper Bande Matram.



    In his famous Uttarpara Speech, he outlined the essence and the goal of India's nationalist movement thus:

    "I say no longer that nationalism is a creed, a religion, a faith; I say that it is the Sanatan Dharma which for us is nationalism. This Hindu nation was born with the Sanatan Dharma, with it, it moves and with it, it grows. When the Sanatan Dharma declines, then the nation declines, and if the Sanatan Dharma were capable of perishing, with the Sanatan Dharma it would perish."
    In the same speech, he also gave a comprehensive perspective of Hinduism, which is at variance with the geocentric view developed by the later day Hindu nationalist ideologues such as Veer Savarkar and Deendayal Upadhyay:

    "But what is the Hindu religion ? What is this religion which we call Sanatan, eternal ? It is the Hindu religion only because the Hindu nation has kept it, because in this Peninsula it grew up in the seclusion of the sea and the Himalayas, because in this sacred and ancient land it was given as a charge to the Aryan race to preserve through the ages.
    But it is not circumscribed by the confines of a single country, it does not belong peculiarly and for ever to a bounded part of the world. That which we call the Hindu religion is really the eternal religion, because it is the universal religion which embraces all others. If a religion is not universal, it cannot be eternal. A narrow religion, a sectarian religion, an exclusive religion can live only for a limited time and a limited purpose. This is the one religion that can triumph over materialism by including and anticipating the discoveries of science and the speculations of philosophy."
     
  6. omya

    omya Lt. Colonel ELITE MEMBER

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    nice thread
     
  7. Ankit Kumar 001

    Ankit Kumar 001 Major Technical Analyst

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    One of the best threads on this forum.
     
  8. NKVD

    NKVD 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    CHAPTER :TWO

    INDIAN HOUSE

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    India House was a student residence that existed between 1905 and 1910 at Cromwell Avenue in Highgate, North London. With the patronage of lawyer Shyamji Krishna Varma, it was opened to promote nationalist views among Indian students in Britain. The building rapidly became a hub for political activism, one of the most prominent for overseas revolutionary Indian nationalism. "India House" came to informally refer to the nationalist organisations that used the building at various times.

    Patrons of India House published an anti-colonialist newspaper, The Indian Sociologist, which the British Raj banned as "seditious".[1] A number of prominent Indian revolutionaries and nationalists were associated with India House, including Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, Bhikaji Cama, V.N. Chatterjee, Lala Har Dayal, V.V.S. Aiyar, M.P.T. Acharya and P.M. Bapat. In 1909, a member of India House, Madan Lal Dhingra, assassinated Sir W.H. Curzon Wyllie, political aide-de-camp to the Secretary of State for India.

    The investigations by Scotland Yard and the Indian Political Intelligence Office that followed the assassination sent the organisation into decline. A crackdown on India House activities by the Metropolitan Police prompted a number of its members to leave Britain for France, Germany and the United States. Many members of the house were involved in revolutionary conspiracies in India. The network created by India House played a key part in the Hindu–German Conspiracy for nationalist revolution in India during World War I. In the coming decades, India House alumni went on to playing a leading role in the founding of Indian communism and Hindu nationalism.


    Shyamji Krishna Varma

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    Pandit Shyamji Krishna Verma was one of those staunch nationalists and patriots who lived in England and mentored the cause of India's freedom from the British rule. He led an eventful life, largely in Europe during the most crucial period of India's struggle for freedom, helping revolutionaries and creating a nucleaus for their activities. Shyamji Krishna Verma was born on 4th october, 1857 at Mandvi village of Kutch District in Gujarat. He lost his mother during early childhood. He had his primary education in the village school at Mandvi and secondary education at Bhuj. He was a brilliant student. He acquired a deep knowledge of Sanskrit for which he was awarded the title of 'Pandit'. He was married to Bhanumati, the daughter of a rich merchant, Seth Chhabildas Lalubhai of Bombay in 1875.



    Shyamji Krishna Verma was a great disciple of Swami Dayanand Saraswati and became the first President of Bombay Arya Samaj. He later joined the Oxford University and was appointed Assistant Professor of Sanskrit at Blliol College. Subsequently, he entered Temple's Inn and was the first Indian Bar-at law. He returned to India in January, 1888 and served for a short time as Diwan of Ratlam. He started practice at Ajmer and earned fame as an advocate. He became a member of the Municipality of Ajmer city, served as Diwan of Ajmer and later as Diwan of Junagarh.



    He started the publication of a monthly 'Indian Sociologist' which became a vehicle of revolutionary ideas. In February 1905, he established the Indian Home Rule Society to raise his voice against British domination in India. He established 'India House' in London to help Indians visiting England. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar and his brother Ganesh, Lala Hardayal, Biren Chattopadhyaya and V.V.S. Iyer were some of the beneficiaries of 'India House'. He raised strong protests against the British rule in India by publishing pamphlets, writing books and delivering speeches. On account of his political activities, he was forced to leave England. He went to Paris, where he continued his activities supporting India's liberation. Due to the outbreak of the second World War, he could not stay in Paris and had to go to Geneva in Switzerland, where he spent the rest of his life.



    If the true and precise history of Indian Freedom Struggle was written and taught to the people of India after independence, the name of Pandit Shyamji Krishna verma would not have been unfamiliar to the general public of India. His name should be on the front page of the chapters of Indian Freedom Struggle in 19th century as Pandit Shyamji Krishna verma initiated the movement in London in 1905, twenty years before Gandhiji entered into the politics of Indian independence. He advocated the principle of non-cooperation & movement in his newspaper 13 years before Gandhiji put it into practice calling the movement Asahakar Andolan. Although Pandit Shymaji preached non-violence movement for the Indian Independence, he never ruled out the use of arms and violence if required to free his Motherland from British occupation.



    Pandit Shyamji Krishna verma was a great patriot, philanthropist and political propagandist of Bharat -India. He will be remembered in the history of the freedom movement of Bharat as a great revolutionary journalist, writer and a maker of freedom fighters and the most inspiring genius of freedom movement for Indian youths. Fired with a deep patriotic urge and nationalist emotion, Pandit Shyamji Krishna verma launched the freedom movement in England in 1905. He was not only a great freedom fighter and inspirer but also a great and profound Sanskrit & English scholar. Professor (Sir) Monier Williams held very high respect for Shyamji. In his testimonial he said, “Assuredly no English or European teacher could possibly be his equal in expounding the grammar of Indian languages according to the principles of native grammarians. I may add that I know no other Pandit who combines a considerable knowledge of Greek and Latin with great Sanskrit attainments.” A famous indologist and Sanskrit scholar professor Max Muller also spoke very highly of Shyamji. Pandit Shyamji sacrificed his whole life and earnings for the freedom of his motherland from the foreign rule of British Imperialism. He was a brave and committed comrade who made his headquarter right in the heart of British Empire, their capital, London, to fight against British Rule in India. He was one of the foremost leaders of New Nationalist Movement during the most critical years of awakening Indian mass. He carried out rigorous propaganda in Europe for the cause of Freedom Movement of Bharat. Pandit Shyamji was the first and foremost Indian political leader to demand complete independence from British despotism and to use the term Swaraj (SELF RULE), which was later adopted by Dadabhai Naoroji and his colleagues.





    Shyamji was born in a historic year of 1857 when the first war of Indian Independence was fought against British Imperialism, where thousands of freedom fighters sacrificed their life to liberate their Motherland from foreign rule. Shyamji was borne 30th October 1857 in Mandavi of Kutchh province, according to the official register in Geneva. His Father, Karasan Bhanushali, known by nickname “ Bhulo Bhanushali” was economically poor. He worked as a labourer for cotton Press Company exporting cotton abroad. His mother, Gomatibai was very brave and pious lady. Unfortunately, she died when Shyamji was just eleven years old and her mother took over the responsibility to raise him. Shyamji was very intelligent from his childhood. He completed his primary and secondary education in Mandavi and Bhuj in Kutchh Province. He came to Mumbai for further education and joined Wilson High School. He had a great love for Sanskrit from his childhood. He acquired his preliminary lessons in Sanskrit language from Shri B B Pandya in Mandavi. He acquired further knowledge of Sanskrit language in great depth from Shashtri Vishvanath of Mumbai & mastered the language.



    Shyamji got married to Bhanumati, a daughter of a wealthy businessman Seth Shri Chahbildas Lallubhai of Bhatia community and sister of his school friend Ramdas, in 1875. In 1876, He came in touch with Swami Dayanand Saraswati, an exponent of Vedas, radical reformer, and staunch nationalist and founder of Arya Samaj. He became his disciple. Swamiji was very impressed with Shyamji’s knowledge of Sanskrit and religious literatures. He guided and inspired Shyamji to conduct lectures on Vedic Philosophy and Religion. In 1877, Shyamji toured all over Bharat propagating the philosophy of Vedas. This tour secured him a great public recognition all over Bharat and many prominent scholars admired him for his knowledge and speeches. He was the first non-Brahmin, who was conferred the prestigious title of Pandit by the Pandits of Kashi in 1877. Professor Monier Williams, learned Professor of Sanskrit at oxford, attended the lecture of Pandit Shyamji in Mumbai in 1876. He was so impressed with Shyamji’s deep knowledge, mastery and his oratory excellence over Sanskrit Language and literatures. He saw a great potential in this young man and offered Shyamji a job as his assistant in first instance.



    Shyamji arrived in England in 1879 on invitation of professor Monier Williams of Oxford University. He joined professor William as his assistant. Shyamji and also joined Balliol College on 25th April 1979 with the recommendation of professor Williams. He passed his B A in 1883. He was invited to read papers on “the origin of writing in India” by the secretary of Royal Asiatic Society. Pandit Shyamji’s speech was very well received there and he was elected as a non-resident member of the society. There he not only read his own paper on the subject of “ Sanskrit as a living language of India”, but also he read the patriotic Sanskrit poem sent by RamDas Sena, a learned ZAMINDAR of Behrampur, and translated it into English for audience. This patriotic poem might have created the spark of patriotism in Shyamji. In 1982 Shyamji was elected as honorary member of “Empire Club”. Here in England, he enacted from success to success. He came across many thinkers, Philosophers and scholars and they all admired this genius young man from India. Indologist Max Muller and vice chancellor of Oxford University, Dr B Jowett thought very highly of Shyamji. He returned to India in the end of 1883 and came back with his wife Bhanumati.



    In 1885 he returned to India and enrolled himself as advocate of Mumbai High Court on19th January 1985 and started his practice. Then he was appointed as Diwan (chief minister) of Ratlam State by the king of the state. He resigned his high post in May 1988 due to ill health. The king granted him a lump sum of RS 32052 as signal mark of his high regards for his service. Then he stayed in Mumbai for a while. He settled in Ajmer, headquarter of his Guru Swami Dayanand Saraswati, and started his practice at British Court, Ajmer. Here he earned the bigger income than Ratlam. He made industrial investment in three cotton presses and secured a permanent income, which made him independent of any services for remainder of his life. He also served for Maharaja of Udaipur as member of his council from 1893 to 1895. He took position of Diwan of Junagadh State in 1895 and resigned in 1897 due to bitter experience of British agent’s interference. This incidence shook his faith in British Rule.



    In 1897, the atrocities inflicted during the plague crisis in Poona on Indians by British Government, stunned and shocked Shyamji. He then felt full justification for the nationalist stand taken by Nathu brothers and Tilak. On 20th June 1897, Chafekar brothers of Natu family assassinated the tyrant Commissioner of Plague, Mr Rand and his Lieutenant Ayerst. Shyamji was well acquainted with Damodar, one of the Natu Brothers, whom he employed as his bodyguard on recommendation of Bal Gangadhar Tilak, while Shyamji was Diwan of Junagadh. He has foreseen his future to ending up in jail like Tilak and others if he would carry out his future plan of this movement as the political climate of India became highly suppressive and repressive after the assassination of Mr Rand and Ayerst. Shyamji rejected his lucrative career to immigrate to England in March 1897, just after the arrest of Damodar, with a view to carry out the fight from abroad. He deliberately intended to launch uncompromising propaganda against autocratic, exploitative and oppressive regime of British Rule and to create support in England and Europe for THE INDEPENDENCE OF INDIA.



    Shyamji left his Motherland with the great determination to work restlessly for the liberation of India from foreign rule. He had only one business in mind to establish a business of training and inspiring the young sons and daughters of India to strive for the liberty of their Motherland. He decided to dedicate all his money, time, scholarship, literary power and above all his life to serve his Motherland selflessly.



    In 1898, when a free press defence committee was formed in order to resist police attack upon liberty of all opinions Shyamji subscribed generously to its funds. In the same year Pandit Shyamji met Sardarsinh Rana, his future desciple, associate and friend, who came to London to study law at inner Temple. In 1899, Shyamji strongly criticised Gandhiji, a lawyer from Natal, for supporting British Government in Boer war, when Boers were fighting for their very existence of their small nation. Shyamji started giving fiery speeches in the free atmosphere of Hyde Park in London, calling for the supports of progressive and sympathetic Britons in the right cause of India’s emancipation. The fire brand speech of Shyamji set a fire of patriotic feeling in the heart of by passing Indian lady in audience, who would be destined to be come a “ Mother of Indian Revolution” in future under the discipleship of Pandit Shyamji Krishna verma.



    Shyamji, a follower and disciple of Spencer’s philosophy, announced £1000 to establish the lectureship at university of Oxford in memory of Herbert Spencer, a apostle of the freedom of the individuals and principle of a British philosophers, at his funeral service held in Golders Green, on 14/12/1903, as a great tribute and respect to him and his work. He also planned the programme of carrying out Spencerian propaganda for the benefit of his countrymen. On Herbert Spencer’s 1st death anniversary, 8th Dec 1904, Shyamji announced that Herbert Spencer Indian fellowships of RS 2000 each were awarded to enable Indian graduates to finish education in England. He also announced additional fellowship in memory of the late swami Dayanand Saraswati the founder of Arya Samaj along with further four fellowships in the future.



    In 1905, Shyamji embarked on his great life work for the freedom of his motherland. Shyamji’s new career began as a full-fledged political propagandist and organiser for the alignment of complete independence of India. Shyamji finally made his debut in Indian politics by publishing first issue of his English monthly “The Indian Sociologist” – an organ of freedom and of political, social and religious reform in January 1905 from his address 9 Queens Wood Avenue, Highgate, now known as 60 Muswell Hill Road, Highgate. This strong, powerful, realistic, ideological monthly served a great purpose in uplifting mass against British rule and created many more intellectual revolutionaries in the India and abroad to fight for the freedom of India.



    On the 18th February 1905, Shyamji inaugurated a new organisation called “The Indian Home Rule Society”. The first meeting held at Shyamji’s residence at Highgate and the meeting unanimously decided to found “The Indian Home Rule Society” with the object of:



    1) Securing Home Rule for India



    2) Carrying on Propaganda in England by all practical means with a view to attain the same.



    3) Spreading among the people of India in knowledge of freedom and national unity.



    As the racial prejudice barred the way to many boarding houses and hostels to Indian students, he foresaw the necessity of starting a hostel for Indian students. He bought a freehold property at 65, Cromwell Avenue, Highgate and he made an announcement of forthcoming opening of famous India House, a hostel of Indian students with living accommodation for 25 students. India House formally inaugurated on 1st July by Mr. H. M. Hyndman, a leader of social, democratic federation, in presence of many dignitaries, such as Dadabhai Navarozji, Lala Lajpatrai, Madam Cama, Mr. Swinney (from positivist society), Mr. Quelch (the editor of Justice) and Madam Despard (Irish Republican and Suffragette). Declaring “India House” open, Mr H M Hyndman gave a most eloquent and sympathetic speech. He remarked, “ As things stands, loyalty to Great Britain means treachery to India. The institution of this India house means a great step in that direction of Indian growth and Indian emancipation, and some of those who are here this afternoon may live to witness the fruits of its triumphant success.” How Prophetic words of a great statesman!



    The main purpose of Shyamji Krishna verma to open this hostel was to create great patriotic revolutionaries by implementing his ideology for the freedom of India. He succeeded in his vision and he produced the greatest revolutionaries such as Madam Bhikhaiji Cama, Sardarsinh Rana, Krantivir Vinayak Savarkar, Virendra Chattopadhyay, and Hardayalji etc.



    He arrived in Paris in early 1907 and continued his work vigorously. The British media still remained highly critical of him and tried to use their influence in French media circle. The British government tried to extradite him from France with no success as Shyamji established a great friendship with many top French politicians who supported him. Shyamji’s name was dragged into the most sensational trial of Mr. Merlin, an Englishmen, at Bows Court for writing an article in “liberators” published by Shyamji’s friend, Mr. James. Shyamji restlessly worked in Paris to procure support for Indian Independence from European countries with great success. He agitated for the release of Savarker and acquired great support all over Europe and Russia. Guy Aldred wrote an article in the Daily Herald under the heading of “Savarker the Hindu Patriot whose sentences expire on 24th December 1960”. This created a great support in England too. As the presence of Indian nationalist in Paris would be seriously jeopardised on outbreak of a European war and the visit of King George to Paris, to set a final seal of Entente Cordiale. In 1914, Shyamji foresaw the fate and shifted his headquarter to Geneva. He continued his struggle for Indian independence, morally and financially, with same enthusiasm but with some restriction as the pledge of political in-action he had given to Swiss government during the entire period of war. He kept in touch with his old friends but he could not support them fully. As he was restricted from all political activities and isolated from his friends, e.g. Ranaji, Madam Cama, and his created revolutionaries, like Savarker, Hardayal, etc. this isolation threw him into the company of Dr. Briess who was president of Pro India Committee in Geneva. Shyamji was later shocked and heartbroken when he found out that Dr. Briess was a paid secret agent of the British government, as well as the treachery of his old friend. This event left a deep scar in his heart but his support to the cause remained at his heart throughout.



    He was always prepared to help for the cause of freedom and injustice. He offered a sum of 10 000 francs to the league of nations for the purpose of endowing a lectureship to be called President Wilson (USA) Lectureship for the discourse on the best means of acquiring and safe guarding national independence consistently with freedom, justice, and the right of asylum accorded to political refugees. It is said that the league rejected his offer due to political pressure from British government. When he made a similar offer to Swiss government, it was also turned down. He declared another lectureship to the president of Press Association of Geneva at the banquet given by Press Association of Geneva where 250 journalists and publicists which included the president of Swiss Federation and the league of nations. Shyamji’s offer was applauded on the spot but it met with the same fate as before. Shyamji was very much disappointed with such decision and he published all his abortive correspondence in this matter in his new issue of the Sociologist on Dec. 1920, after a lapse of almost 6 years. His last 2 issues of Indian Sociologist were published in August and September 1922, could be taken as his last political will and testament of his work. After several health problems, a great Indian patriot, Shyamji Krishna verma, breathed his last in hospital at 11:30pm on 30th March 1930 leaving his wife Shrimati Bhanumati Krishna verma with no heir.



    British government in India and Britain suppressed the death news of Pandit Shyamji. Although the best tribute paid to him by a great revolutionary, Sadar Bhagat Singh and his co-revolutionist brothers in Lahore Jail where they were undergoing a long-term drawn out trial. Maratha, a daily newspaper started by Shri Tilak in Marathi, paid very touching tribute to a great revolutionary.



    His wife Bhanumati carried out the good work of Shyamji even after his death. She donated 10,000 Swiss Francs in memory of Shyamji to the Geneva University to be used every year for printing and approved thesis on subject of sociological interest. She also donated 10 000 Swiss Francs to the hospital in Geneva for the treatment of poor and needy. She presented the whole of the Sanskrit and Oriental Library of Pandit Shyamji to the institute De Civilisation Indienne in the Surbonne. She donated 90,000 franks to established a trust in Surbonne University for awarding scholarship to a suitable number of selected Indian students for prosecuting higher studies in the university. Even today the memory of Shyamji and his wife is preserved in Sorbonne University in the form a memorial plaque.



    Pandit Shyamji Krishna verma did not live to witness the independence of Bharat, but his efforts, conviction and confidence of India gaining its freedom from British rule in future was strong and unshakable as he made the prepaid arrangements with the local government of Geneva, Ville de Geneve, and St Georges cemetery to preserve his & his wife’s ashes (Asthis) at the cemetery for one hundred years and to send their urns to India whenever it becomes independent during that period.


    He published two more issues of Indian Sociologist in August and September 1922, before ill health prevented him continuing. He died in hospital at 11:30pm on 30 March 1930 leaving his wife, Bhanumati Krishnavarma.

    News of his death was suppressed by the British government in India. Nevertheless, tributes were paid to him by Bhagat Singh and other inmates in Lahore Jail where they were undergoing a long-term drawn-out trial. Maratha, an English daily newspaper started by Bal Gangadhar Tilak paid tribute to him.

    He had made prepaid arrangements with the local government of Geneva and St Georges cemetery to preserve his and his wife’s ashes at the cemetery for 100 years and to send their urns to India whenever it became independent during that period. Requested by Paris-based scholar Dr Prithwindra Mukherjee, the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi agreed to repatriate the ashes. Finally on 22 August 2003, the urns of ashes of Shyamji and his wife Bhanumati were handed over to then Chief Minister of Gujarat State Narendra Modi by the Ville de Genève and the Swiss government 55 years after Indian Independence. They were brought to Mumbai and after a long procession throughout Gujarat, they reached Mandvi, his birthplace.[6] A memorial called Kranti Teerth dedicated to him was built and inaugurated in 2010 near Mandvi. Spread over 52 acres, the memorial complex houses a replica of India House building at Highgate along with statues of Shyamji Krishna Varma and his wife. Urns containing Krishna Verma's ashes, those of his wife, and a gallery dedicated to earlier activists of Indian independence movement is housed within the memorial. Krishna Verma was disbarred from the Inner Temple in 1909. This decision was revisited in 2015, and a unanimous decision taken to posthumously reinstated him.

    In the 1970s, a new town developed in his native state of Kutch, was named after him as Shyamji Krishna Varmanagar in his memory and honor. India Post released postal stamps and first day cover commemorating him. Kuchchh University was renamed after him

     
    Last edited: Sep 9, 2017
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  9. NKVD

    NKVD 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    Madan Lal Dhingra

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    Gets thrown out of College
    In 1904 he lead a student protest against Principal's order to have college blazer made out of Imported Cloth from England.He was thrown out of college.
    He deeply studied the literature concerning the cause of Indian Poverty and famines and as solution to these problems Swaraj and Swadeshi became key issues.



    Studies in England
    In 1906, Madan Lal departed for England to enroll at University College, London, to study Mechanical Engineering. He was supported by his elder brother and some nationalist activists in England.

    With Savarkar
    Dhingra came into contact with noted Indian independence & political activists Vinayak Damodar Savarkar and Shyamji Krishna Varma, who were impressed by Dhingra's perseverance and intense patriotism which turned his focus to the freedom struggle.
    During this period, Savarkar, Dhingra and other student activists were enraged by the execution of freedom fighters such as Khudiram Bose, Kanhai Lal Dutt, Satinder Pal and Pandit Kanshi Ram in India. It is this event that is attributed by many historians as having led Savarkar and Dhingra to exact direct revenge upon the British.

    Curzon Wyllie's assassination
    On the evening of 1 July 1909 he assassinated Curzon Wyllie.

    Trial
    He stated that he did not regret killing of Curzon Wyllie as he had played his part in order to set India free from the inhuman British rule.

    "I am proud to have the honour of laying down my life for my country. But remember we shall have our time in the days to come."

    Statement of Dhingra in the court
    "I do not want to say anything in defence of myself, but simply to prove the justice of my deed. As for myself, no English law court has got any authority to arrest and detain me in prison, or pass sentence of death on me. That is the reason I did not have any counsel to defend me.""And I maintain that if it is patriotic in an Englishman to fight against the Germans if they were to occupy this country, it is much more justifiable and patriotic in my case to fight against the English.I hold the English people responsible for the murder of 80 millions of Indian people in the last fifty years, and they are also responsible for taking away ₤100,000,000 every year from India to this country. I also hold them responsible for the hanging and deportation of my patriotic countrymen, who did just the same as the English people here are advising their countrymen to do. And the Englishman who goes out to India and gets, say, ₤100 a month, that simply means that he passes a sentence of death on a thousand of my poor countrymen, because these thousand people could easily live on this ₤100, which the Englishman spends mostly on his frivolities and pleasures. Just as the Germans have no right to occupy this country, so the English people have no right to occupy India, and it is perfectly justifiable on our part to kill the Englishman who is polluting our sacred land. I am surprised at the terrible hypocrisy, the farce, and the mockery of the English people. They pose as the champions of oppressed humanity—the peoples of the Congo and the people of Russia—when there is terrible oppression and horrible atrocities committed in India; for example, the killing of two millions of people every year and the outraging of our women. In case this country is occupied by Germans, and the Englishman, not bearing to see the Germans walking with the insolence of conquerors in the streets of London, goes and kills one or two Germans, and that Englishman is held as a patriot by the people of this country, then certainly I am prepared to work for the emancipation of my Motherland. Whatever else I have to say is in the paper before the Court I make this statement, not because I wish to plead for mercy or anything of that kind. I wish that English people should sentence me to death, for in that case the vengeance of my countrymen will be all the more keen. I put forward this statement to show the justice of my cause to the outside world, and especially to our sympathisers in America and Germany.""I have told you over and over again that I do not acknowledge the authority of the Court, You can do whatever you like. I do not mind at all. You can pass sentence of death on me. I do not care. You white people are all-powerful now, but, remember, it shall have our turn in the time to come, when we can do what we like."


    Hanged..He was just 26!
    Dhingra was hanged on 17 August 1909. His executioner, gave him an unnecessarily and inhumanely cruel long drop of eight feet, three inches at the execution. The reasons behind this remain unknown and can only be speculated at.

    Last words from gallows
    The following are said to be Madan Lal Dhingra's last words, just before he died at the gallows:
    "I believe that a nation held down by foreign bayonets is in a perpetual state of war. Since open battle is rendered impossible to a disarmed race, I attacked by surprise. Since guns were denied to me I drew forth my pistol and fired. Poor in wealth and intellect, a son like myself has nothing else to offer to the mother but his own blood. And so I have sacrificed the same on her altar. The only lesson required in India at present is to learn how to die, and the only way to teach it is by dying ourselves. My only prayer to God is that I may be re-born of the same mother and I may re-die in the same sacred cause till the cause is successful. Vande Mataram!"

    Times,London on Dhingra's death
    After Dhingra went to the gallows, the Times, London wrote an editorial (24 July 1909) titled 'Conviction of Dhingra'. The editorial said, "The nonchalance displayed by the assassin was of a character, which is happily unusual in such trials in this country. He asked no questions. He maintained a defiance of studied indifference. He walked smiling from the Dock."

    Grudging admiration from the British Cabinet
    Blunt writes "Again we sat up late. Among the many memorable things Churchill said was this.Talking of Dhingra, he said that there has been much discussion in the Cabinet about him. Lloyd George had expressed to him his highest admiration of Dhingra's attitude as a patriot, in which he shared…He will be remembered two thousand years hence, as we remember Regulus and Caractacus and Plutarch's heroes and Churchill quoted with admiration Dhingra's last words, as the finest, ever made in the name of patriotism…"


    Remembrance

    After his execution, Dhingra's body was denied Hindu rites and was buried by British authorities. His family having disowned him, the authorities refused to turn over the body to Savarkar. Dhingra's coffin was accidentally found while authorities searched for the remains of Shaheed Udham Singh, and re-patriated to India on 12 December 1976. His remains are kept in one of the main squares, which has been named after him, in the city of Akola in Maharashtra. Dhingra is widely remembered in India today, and was an inspiration at the time for revolutionaries such as Bhagat Singh and Chandrasekhar Azad.

    There was a demand from some groups that his ancestral home be converted into a museum. However, his descendants refuse to acknowledge his legacy and refused to participate in events organised to honour his death in August 2015. The family sold his ancestral house and refused an offer to purchase it made by BJPleader Laxmi Kanta Chawla who intended to turn it into a museum



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  10. vstol jockey

    vstol jockey Colonel MILITARY STRATEGIST

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    I had written earlier also in some other thread that Congress was looking to replicate the model of South Africa in which the administration went in to the hands of locals while they remained a subject under Crown. Patel and Nehru imported Gandhi from SA to do the same in India. Remember Home rule of Annie Basent? Gandhi was a plant of British with active connivance of so called Naram Dal comprising Patel, Nehru and others. This was not acceptable to Garam Dal comprising Lal-Bal-Pal. To subdue these people Gandhi was imported as a plant of British with the dalals of India called Nehru Dynasty. First Motilal and after that Jawaher played key role in it. Indian freedom struggle is replete with instances where Gandhi used his influence and cooked up stature to change the narrative to suit British. Gandhi supported Indian troops in WW1, kept quiet about Jallianwala bagh massacre, did not raise his voice about the forced famine of Bengal when millions of Indians were left to die to support British war effort by diverting food grain from India, Called Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, Sahdev, Chandra Shekhar Azad and others as misguided youth of India. Did not oppose separate electorate for muslims while he negotiated with Ambedkar to not have separate electorate for dalits- this laid the foundation for division of India. Opposed Netaji Subhash tooth and nail just before WW2 when he knew that British will need India again to fight the war in Europe. Suspended Quit India movement when Britain needed India the most in 1942 after having faced a series of defeats in Europe and Africa. He gave his name to the muslim Husband of Indira to give legitimacy to their union and make it acceptable to Hindus of India. And his final dagger in the heart of India was when he asked Patel to step down as a candidate to be India's interim PM and let Nehru become the PM of India. Gandhi did exactly what his British masters told him to do.he was loyal to the Crown and a cheat of this nation and yet we call him father of the nation-A man who cheated & raped Mother India.
    We celebrate of republic day on 26th Jan every year. Does anyone of you know the reason why? On 26th jan 1930 in Lahore conclave of Congress, they had demanded "Poorna Swaraj" for the first time. I want to know what was Gandhi and his dalals asking for before that? What kind of Swaraj were they asking for from 1885 till 1930? Why wwas Congress forced to ask for "Poorna Swaraj" and who forced it on them to retain the leadership of freedom movement? Lala Lajpat Rai was killed as of a conspiracy to subdue Right wingers within Congress who were opposed to Nehru dynasty and Gandhi. The actions of Bhagat Singh and his band of Freedom fighters had rejuvenated India and Congress found itself hopeless in retaining the control of the so called freedom movement. Just see the damage Gandhi did to India with his actions and decisions.
    I have never called him Mahatama nor will any of my children call him so and they do not till date. We need to study history from a different perspective and generate a thinking of our own rather than go by the highly distorted history taught to us thru NCERT which praises only Gandhi & Nehru. IMHO, Indian freedom struggle shud project them as DALALs of Mother India.
     
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  11. vstol jockey

    vstol jockey Colonel MILITARY STRATEGIST

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    @NKVD, Do you know that even the body of Godsey was burnt in the jail premises and ashes thrown in a nalla by Nehru. His family managed to recover part of those ashes as He had only one wish while being hanged-My ashes may please be kept intact and immersed in River Indus when India is united again. His ashes have been preserved till date by his family.
     
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