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Sanskrit in Syria

Discussion in 'General History' started by Flyboy!, Apr 12, 2017.

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  1. Flyboy!

    Flyboy! Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    An interesting read. No wonder syria is said to be the cradle of civilization. Members with good historical knowledge please dive in and contribute.

    https://scroll.in/article/737715/fa...irst-place-sanskrit-was-recorded-it-was-syria


    Fact check: India wasn't the first place Sanskrit was recorded – it was Syria
    As the Narendra Modi government celebrates Sanskrit, a look at the oldest known speakers of the language: the Mitanni people of Syria.
    [​IMG]
    Creative Commons
    Shoaib Daniyal
    After yoga, Narendra Modi has turned his soft power focus to Sanskrit. The Indian government is enthusiastically participating in the 16th World Sanskrit Conference in Bangkok. Not only is it sending 250 Sanskrit scholars and partly funding the event, the conference will see the participation of two senior cabinet ministers: External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj, who inaugurated the conference on Sunday, and Human Resource Development Minister Smriti Irani, who will attend its closing ceremony on July 2. Inexplicably, Swaraj also announced the creation of the post of Joint Secretary for Sanskrit in the Ministry of External Affairs. How an ancient language, which no one speaks, writes or reads, will help promote India’s affairs abroad remains to be seen.

    On the domestic front, though, the uses of Sanskrit are clear: it is a signal of the cultural nationalism of the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party. Sanskrit is the liturgical language of Hinduism, so sacred that lower castes (more than 75% of modern Hindus) weren’t even allowed to listen to it being recited. Celebrating Sanskrit does little to add to India’s linguistic skills – far from teaching an ancient language, India is still to get all its people educated in their modern mother tongues. But it does help the BJP push its own brand of hyper-nationalism.

    Unfortunately, reality is often a lot more complex than simplistic nationalist myths. While Sanskrit is a marker of Hindu nationalism for the BJP, it might be surprised, even shocked, to know that the first people to leave behind evidence of having spoken Sanskrit aren't Hindus or Indians – they were Syrians.

    The Syrian speakers of Sanskrit

    The earliest form of Sanskrit is that used in the Rig Veda (called Old Indic or Rigvedic Sanskrit). Amazingly, Rigvedic Sanskrit was first recorded in inscriptions found not on the plains of India but in in what is now northern Syria.

    Between 1500 and 1350 BC, a dynasty called the Mitanni ruled over the upper Euphrates-Tigris basin, land that corresponds to what are now the countries of Syria, Iraq, and Turkey. The Mitannis spoke a language called Hurrian, unrelated to Sanskrit. However, each and every Mitanni king had a Sanskrit name and so did many of the local elites. Names include Purusa (meaning “man”), Tusratta (“having an attacking chariot”), Suvardata (“given by the heavens”), Indrota (“helped by Indra”) and Subandhu, a name that exists till today in India.

    Imagine that: the irritating, snot-nosed Subandhu from school shares his name with an ancient Middle Eastern prince. Goosebumps. (Sorry, Subandhu).

    The Mitanni had a culture, which, like the Vedic people, highly revered chariot warfare. A Mitanni horse-training manual, the oldest such document in the world, uses a number of Sanskrit words: aika (one), tera (three), satta (seven) and asua (ashva, meaning “horse”). Moreover, the Mitanni military aristocracy was composed of chariot warriors called “maryanna”, from the Sanskrit word "marya", meaning “young man”.

    The Mitanni worshipped the same gods as those in the Rig Veda (but also had their own local ones). They signed a treaty with a rival king in 1380 BC which names Indra, Varuna, Mitra and the Nasatyas (Ashvins) as divine witnesses for the Mitannis. While modern-day Hindus have mostly stopped the worship of these deities, these Mitanni gods were also the most important gods in the Rig Veda.

    This is a striking fact. As David Anthony points out in his book, The Horse, the Wheel, and Language, this means that not only did Rigvedic Sanskrit predate the compilation of the Rig Veda in northwestern India but even the “central religious pantheon and moral beliefs enshrined in the Rig Veda existed equally early”.

    How did Sanskrit reach Syria before India?

    What explains this amazing fact? Were PN Oak and his kooky Hindutva histories right? Was the whole world Hindu once upon a time? Was the Kaaba in Mecca once a Shivling?

    Unfortunately, the history behind this is far more prosaic.

    The founding language of the family from which Sanskrit is from is called Proto-Indo-European. Its daughter is a language called Proto-Indo-Iranian, so called because it is the origin of the languages of North India and Iran (linguists aren’t that good with catchy language names).

    The, well, encyclopedic, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, edited by JP Mallory and DQ Adams, writes of the earliest speakers of Proto-Indo-Iranian emerging in the southern Urals and Kazakhstan. These steppe people, representing what is called the Andronovo culture, first appear just before 2000 BC.

    From this Central Asian homeland diverged a group of people who had now stopped speaking Proto-Indo-Iranian and were now conversing in the earliest forms of Sanskrit. Some of these people moved west towards what is now Syria and some east towards the region of the Punjab in India.

    David Anthony writes that the people who moved west were possibly employed as mercenary charioteers by the Hurrian kings of Syria. These charioteers spoke the same language and recited the same hymns that would later on be complied into the Rig Veda by their comrades who had ventured east.

    These Rigvedic Sanskrit speakers usurped the throne of their employers and founded the Mitanni kingdom. While they gained a kingdom, the Mitanni soon lost their culture, adopting the local Hurrian language and religion. However, royal names, some technical words related to chariotry and of course the gods Indra, Varuna, Mitra and the Nasatyas stayed on.

    The group that went east and later on composed the Rig Veda, we know, had better luck in preserving their culture. The language and religion they bought to the subcontinent took root. So much so that 3,500 years later, modern Indians would celebrate the language of these ancient pastoral nomads all the way out in Bangkok city.

    Hindutvaising Sanskrit’s rich history

    Unfortunately, while their language, religion and culture is celebrated, the history of the Indo-European people who brought Sanskrit into the subcontinent is sought to be erased at the altar of cultural nationalism. Popular national myths in India urgently paint Sanskrit as completely indigenous to India. This is critical given how the dominant Hindutva ideology treats geographical indigenousness as a prerequisite for nationality. If Sanskrit, the liturgical language of Hinduism, has a history that predates its arrival in India, that really does pull the rug from out under the feet of Hindutva.

    Ironically, twin country Pakistan’s national myths go in the exact opposite direction: their of-kilter Islamists attempt to make foreign Arabs into founding fathers and completely deny their subcontinental roots.

    Both national myths, whether Arab or Sanskrit, attempt to imagine a pure, pristine origin culture uncontaminated by unsavoury influences. Unfortunately the real world is very often messier than myth. Pakistanis are not Arabs and, as the Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture rather bluntly puts it: “This theory [that Sanskrit and its ancestor Proto-Indo-European was indigenous to India], which resurrects some of the earliest speculations on the origins of the Indo-Europeans, has not a shred of supporting evidence, either linguistic or archeological”.
     
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  2. Mayawi

    Mayawi FULL MEMBER

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    Entire article is bogus , look at author and words hindutva/hindutvising . Its just political motivated . I wonder how on one talks about all humans are from Africa but pick Syrian European timelines
     
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  3. vstol jockey

    vstol jockey Colonel MILITARY STRATEGIST

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    I really do not know why the world wants us to believe that our forefathers came from central Asia while the genetic fingerprinting has very clearly established that there was "out of India" movement of people to Central Asia and beyond including Latvia, Estonia etc.
     
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  4. IndiranChandiran

    IndiranChandiran Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    The fact of the matter is that the AIT is discredited with most of its former proponents like Romila Thapar , etc now contending that Aryan is a term for a family of languages .

    The evidence in use of support for the AIT can also be used to prop up an OOI theory . The underlying evidence of both these theories are inconclusive .

    However , what's now almost confirmed ( or will be once a few loose ends are tied up ) are a few important developments - the discovery that Saraswati was no mythical river , the fact that it dried up / went underground around 2000 BC , the links between Tamil & Sanskrit , the fact that there wasn't any discontinuity between the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilisation between 3000 - 2500 BC timeline and the so called " arrival of the Aryans " around 1500 - 1000 BC , the pushing back of the date of supposed composition of the Rigveda from 1500 -2000 BC to around 2500 - 3000 BC if not earlier,etc . in keeping with the paleo archaeological evidence for the drying up of the Saraswati .

    For those interested - The Lost River - Michael Danino is a fascinating attempt to trace the Saraswati , rich in details and surprisingly engaging for a topic so dry and unappealing .

    As usual Shoaibmiah attempts to use ancient history as a stick to beat the BJP with , without quite grasping the essence of the facts and conveniently ignoring latest developments in the field .

    If his contention is agreed upon & the incumbent Government's attempts to promote a "dead language " like Sanskrit be ridiculed , the language of the Koran is redundant too , since it was written in archaic Arabic , barely understood by current speakers of the language .
     
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