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Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)

Discussion in 'International Relations' started by Agent_47, Nov 25, 2016.

  1. Agent_47

    Agent_47 Admin - Blog Staff Member MODERATOR

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    India, Pakistan become full SCO members

    Membership in the group potentially offers India greater access to the energy resources of Central Asia.
    India and Pakistan were on Friday accepted as full members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), a regional grouping including China and Russia, with which Prime Minister Narendra Modi offered to work in combating terror and boosting trade by easing barriers.

    India to become full member by 2016

    India was on Friday accepted as a full member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), a six-member regional grouping, to which Prime Minister Narendra Modi offered to work in combating terror and boosting trade by easing barriers.

    India, which has had an observer status for the past 10 years, will technically become a member by next year after completion of certain procedures.

    The Beijing-based SCO currently has China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan as members. Along with India, the process to include Pakistan as a member was initiated here on Friday.

    “I convey our deep sense of gratitude to the members of the SCO for accepting India as a full member,” Mr. Modi said after the announcement was made at the summit, attended by leaders like Russian President Vladimir Putin, Chinese President Xi Jinping and Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.

    http://www.thehindu.com/news/intern...sation-along-with-pakistan/article7407873.ece




     
    Last edited: Nov 25, 2016
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  2. Agent_47

    Agent_47 Admin - Blog Staff Member MODERATOR

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    India is Now In But Let’s Not Forget the ‘S’ in SCO Stands for Shanghai


    Russia and China have established a modus vivendi in Central Asia and India is not central to it. That said, India’s entry into the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation is still a positive development

    [​IMG]
    Prime Minister Narendra Modi at the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation summit in Ufa, Russia earlier this month. Credit: PTI

    India was admitted to the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation as an observer in 2005. It has taken ten years for India to be admitted as a full member at the SCO summit at Ufa in Russia in July this year. The principal reason for this long delay has been China’s reluctance to accept India’s membership without admitting Pakistan at the same time.

    Russia has been supportive of India’s inclusion, but has been advising India to pursue the application process for full membership only in close consultation with it. Russia has had reservations about Pakistan’s eligibility for full membership because of its terrorist affiliations, its support for the Taliban and its role in promoting instability in Afghanistan. It has wanted Pakistan’s policies in this regard to evolve before considering its inclusion.

    The Central Asian states have had serious concerns about the growth of religious extremism and terrorism in the Pakistan-Afghanistan region and the spill over of these pernicious forces into their region and destabilising their secular polities as a consequence. For both Russia and the Central Asian states, Pakistan’s membership was encumbered with unacceptable baggage. India’s membership, on the contrary, carried no uncomfortable baggage.

    India, as the largest economy in southern Asia, has much more to offer for the economic development of Central Asia than Pakistan. Its entry would have given the Central Asian states more options, while also achieving a better distribution of power within the organisation

    For Pakistan, it would have been a humiliating political defeat if India obtained membership before it did. Pakistan believes it has a Central Asian vocation. Geo-politically, it sees itself as the gateway for South Asia to Central Asia. As an extension of this thinking it treats Afghanistan as its strategic backyard. Pakistan would, if it could, exclude India even from Afghanistan, not to talk of Central Asia. India’s admission to the SCO without Pakistan would have dealt it an intolerable blow in terms of its self-image, its policy of denying access to India to Central Asia and its obsession of parity with India.

    Chinese clout

    China, ever sensitive to Pakistani views, would not have allowed a preferential decision in favour of India. The “iron” ties between Pakistan and China would explain why India could not become a member without Pakistan in the tow.

    China has enormous clout within the SCO. Although the Central Asian states were part of the Soviet Union a little more than two decades ago and Russia still retains great influence in a region that remains its strategic backyard, it has had to contend there with the expansion of Chinese power.

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia became enfeebled. It is during this period that China has grown in a spectacular way. The receding Russian power and expanding Chinese power has led to the creation of a new balance between the two in Central Asia. It is ironic that an area that was part of the Soviet Union has been brought together on a common platform, not in Russia, not in one of the Central Asian states, but in faraway Shanghai.

    China has already established itself solidly in Central Asia. It has harnessed the region’s hydrocarbon resources to fuel its economy. As the world’s largest exporter, it is not surprising that it has captured the markets in these countries. Russia does not have the economic strength to compete with China in this region. China, in fact, is successfully harnessing Russian oil and gas and other raw materials for the needs of its economy.

    This has meant that the two countries have had to establish a modus vivendi in Central Asia. They see it in their mutual interest to work cooperatively there. So, if Russia would have wanted India in and China would have wanted Pakistan in at the same time, neither could, or would, have wanted to over-rule each other’s preference. Hence the stalemate over membership all these years.

    In any case, Russia would have had no reason to overly push for India’s membership while keeping that of Pakistan in abeyance, because India is not central to the functioning of SCO and the issue is not of such importance as to justify causing a strain in the cooperative Russian and Chinese stewardship of the organisation.

    There could have been a reason to bring India and Pakistan into the SCO some years ago when the US was promoting its New Silk Road idea with the objective of drawing the Central Asian states towards South Asia and tying them together in trade and energy partnerships with a view to lessening their dependence on Russia and China. That US strategy could have been thwarted by opening the doors of membership to India and Pakistan, but this was not done.

    Making the grade now

    There are several reasons why the membership has now been opened to both India and Pakistan.

    The relations between Russia and the West have deteriorated sharply, with the imposition of western sanctions on the country and attempts to isolate it internationally. Russia, as a result, has moved eastwards towards China and is pursuing a Eurasian strategy. China, which sees the US “rebalance” towards Asia as a form of containment of China in the east, has begun to move westwards more decisively. It too has new Eurasian ambitions. Both want to consolidate the SCO as a platform on which as many countries of the larger region can come together, as possible.

    This serves the Russian purpose of demonstrating that it is not isolated internationally, and that, in fact, more countries are joining a grouping that is dominated by it and China and one that excludes the West.

    Some are projecting the SCO as a potential counter to NATO, but that is a gross exaggeration of its purpose and potential. There is a vast difference in the political, economic and military potential between Europe and the Central Asian states.

    India would not want to view its membership of SCO as a political riposte to the West. It has legitimate interests in Central Asia independent of the quality of ties between Russia and China and the US.

    For China, the One Belt One Road (OBOR) initiative would get depth by the inclusion of the two South Asian countries. The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) project, which is an integral part of OBOR, would link Central Asia to the proposed Xinjiang-Gwadar link, giving an outlet to the sea to these landlocked countries. In this scheme the stabilisation of Afghanistan becomes necessary. Hence the Chinese involvement in promoting the reconciliation process between the Afghan government and the Taliban.

    India is wary of OBOR and the CPEC, as it sees these projects as means for China both to create market opportunities for the excess capacities it has built in certain sectors of its economy and, more importantly, as a tool for realising its great power ambitions by using the huge financial resources now at its disposal.

    China may be hoping that India’s SCO membership may whittle down India’s reservations and draw India into its initiative. The inclusion of Nepal and Sri Lanka as dialogue partner countries is a pointer.

    India’s stakes

    The expectation that the SCO can play a role in settling differences between India and Pakistan is far-fetched. China cannot be a broker because of its “higher than the Himalayas” and “deeper than the oceans” relationship with Pakistan and its own territorial differences with us, involving J&K too. Russia’s inclination to become a broker – any throwback to Tashkent – will create serious misunderstandings with us.

    On the issue of terrorism, Pakistan may come under some pressure in the SCO. Within SAARC, Pakistan can join the shared rhetoric against terrorism without any pressure to clean up its act, as the only victim of its jihadi policies is India. Within the SCO, Russia, China and all the Central Asian states are concerned about terrorism and Pakistani policies and actions will be under scrutiny.

    India may not get too much comfort from this, though. China has shown its colours in the UN Security Council on the Lakhvi case and would shield Pakistan on the issue of terrorism against India. Even Russia has been chary of naming Pakistan as a source of terrorism against India.

    All in all, India’s membership of the SCO is a positive development. It recognises India as a legitimate stake-holder in Central Asian developments. Pakistan’s policy of obstructing an Indian role in Central Asia has received a set back. India will have a say in drawing up the SCO agenda. It will have a platform on which it deal with the Central Asian states collectively rather than dealing only individually with them. It will have ideas and programmes to offer in niche areas of its strength for promoting the development of Central Asian countries.

    If India has failed to solve its problems with Pakistan within SAARC, our common membership of SCO will not help either.

    http://thewire.in/7057/india-is-now-in-but-lets-not-forget-the-s-in-sco-stands-for-shanghai/
     
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  3. BlackOpsIndia

    BlackOpsIndia Developers Guild Developers -IT and R&D

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    SCO is useless organization, more like OIC. Its been years and I am yet to see a single step that mean business. The objectives are high but nothing concrete in actions.
     
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  4. brahmos_ii

    brahmos_ii Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    The participation of Nepal in the work of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) should open up new vistas and perspectives for all member countries of the organization, said Pyotr Tolstoy, the vice-speaker of the State Duma, during a meeting with a parliamentary delegation from Nepal.

    Tolstoy said the trade and economic partnership between Russia and Nepal now lags far behind their political partnership, his press service stated.

    "For us it is very important that Nepal has recently joined the SCO, and we hope that this will open up new opportunities, new prospects for cooperation in areas such as trade, energy, investment in all the countries of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization," said Tolstoy, quoted by his press service.

    He noted that he was placing particular hope in the bilateral working group on energy.

    Tolstoy also pointed to the progress in the strengthening of bilateral relations between Russia and Nepal.

    "I mean the agreement that was signed in February 2015 in Moscow between the Russian Government and the Government of Nepal on the settlement of mutual financial obligations and the requirements associated with the transactions of the former Soviet Union," said the parliamentarian.

    He said he was hoping for further harmonization of a few documents that are currently pending consideration in the Nepalese capital Kathmandu.

    The Chairman of the Nepal Parliament Onsari Gharti Magar said that "political relations are very good, but in economic terms we really have something to work on."

    She added that the recently adopted new Constitution in Nepal lays the groundwork for the federal structure of the country.

    "Once again I want to express words of gratitude to the Russian Federation and the State Duma, for the support provided to us and to our Constitution. The Russian Federation is a multi-ethnic country, your Constitution is one of the leading constitutions of the world. According to our new Constitution, Nepal has been transferred to the federal structure of the state, so we have something we can learn from you, for example, the state system", concluded Magar.

    Speaking of the necessity of bilateral cooperation at all levels, Tolstoy said Nepal recently hosted the ‘Days of Russian Culture’ festival. "We are ready to hold the Days of Culture of Nepal in Russia", he said.

    Nepal has the status of an SCO partner country in dialogue, along with Armenia, Azerbaijan, Cambodia, Turkey and Sri Lanka.

    Founded in 2001, the SCO includes Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The procedure to admit India and Pakistan in the SCO was launched in 2015.
     
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  5. brahmos_ii

    brahmos_ii Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Erdogan looks to SCO as alternative to EU
    The Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said Turkey considers joining the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) as a real alternative to membership of the European Union.​

    “Turkey is not hung up on the question of the EU,” TV Channel Haberturk broadcast Erdogan’s words to a group of journalists who accompanied him to Pakistan and Uzbekistan.

    Erdogan said events similar to ‘Brexit’ may occur in Europe in the foreseeable future.

    “Such voices are now being heard in France, and in Italy. Under these circumstances, Turkey should simply relax. No need to say that the European Union is the only option. Why should Turkey not become a member of the SCO? I talked about this with (Vladimir) Putin and (Nursultan) Nazarbayev. Participation in the SCO will provide us with greater freedom of manoeuvre,” said the President of Turkey.

    Erdogan criticized the European Union which, according to him, has stretched the process of Turkey’s accession to the union to infinity. “During the first years, they used to invite our Prime Minister to the EU Summits, but this practice has now ended. They introduced a visa-free regime with Latin America, but we are still being forced to wait,” he lamented.

    Some days earlier, the Turkish President said Turkey could hold a referendum in 2017 on continuing negotiations on accession to the EU. He also said he was ready to sign a law on the death penalty if it was adopted by Parliament and approved by voters. (Turkey abolished the death penalty in 2002 as it was a key criterion for EU membership). Meanwhile, European Parliament President Martin Schulz warned on November 13 that, “If Turkey should return the death penalty, then accession negotiations will be terminated.”

    Pyotr Topychkanov, researcher at the Carnegie Moscow Centre, told Kommersant that the Shanghai Cooperation Organization cannot be an alternative to the EU for Turkey.

    “It seems that Erdogan does not fully understand what the SCO really is,” said Topychkanov. “If this statement of the President was prepared by his speech writers, then they have demonstrated their incompetence. The EU and the SCO are two completely different phenomenon, they work in different fields, and do not compete with each other. The EU is a multi-national quasi-state formation, while the SCO is a much “looser” structure, membership of which, unlike the EU, permits differences on many issues, particularly on the political development of the state.”

    Topychkanov said that Turkey, regardless of its relations with the EU, has been throwing long glances in the direction of the SCO, and today has the status of partner of this organization. “Ankara is attracted to the SCO as a platform, on which infrastructure projects are being implemented with the participation of China. Turkey is not capable of completing such large-scale projects on its own. I do not see any serious obstacles to its inclusion in the list of observers. However, the SCO must first digest the membership of India and Pakistan, which should take about five years,” Topychkanov said.
     
  6. Arya21

    Arya21 IDF NewBie

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    China and Russia knew that it is important for an organisation like SCO to have India as a member because wihout India it was nohing more than a communist bloc amassing yo challenge the west and america. Moreover, India has a very important place now in geopolitics and no one can dare to offend India for a longer duration for their own good and intrest. SCO is not a military organisation as they say but in essence it is and will be.
     
  7. dadeechi

    dadeechi Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    India got an opportunity to join SCO when Indo-Russian relations were still going strong..

    With Russo-Indian relations going south, there is high likelihood that India would be kicked out of SCO...
     
  8. ghost4551

    ghost4551 IDF NewBie

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    well,perhaps in your eyes,indian is a strong country,and your army can destroy any country(at least china).but in our eyes,you......【手动滑稽】
     
  9. GSLV Mk III

    GSLV Mk III Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Learn to behave, Chinese newbie.

    India is the only other nuclear power in the region with an independent foreign policy & is the second largest economy of the region. Despite all of Beijing's propaganda.
     
  10. Ripcord322

    Ripcord322 Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    Why even bother to reply brother....Just report him/her/it....

    .
     
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  11. GSLV Mk III

    GSLV Mk III Lieutenant FULL MEMBER

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    That was hilarious :lol: Sometimes I wonder whether they are just bots.
     
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  12. nik141993

    nik141993 FULL MEMBER

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    welcome to the forum :)
     

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