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The Discovery of India, Bharat Ek Khoj

Discussion in 'Internal Affairs' started by santosh, Mar 26, 2014.

  1. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Below is the government website of India :coffee:


    => Interesting Facts about India

    Interesting Facts about India - My India, My Pride - Know India: National Portal of India

    India never invaded any country in her last 100000 years of history.

    When many cultures were only nomadic forest dwellers over 5000 years ago, Indians established Harappan culture in Sindhu Valley (Indus Valley Civilization)

    The name 'India' is derived from the River Indus, the valleys around which were the home of the early settlers. The Aryan worshippers referred to the river Indus as the Sindhu.


    The Persian invaders converted it into Hindu. The name 'Hindustan' combines Sindhu and Hindu and thus refers to the land of the Hindus.

    Chess was invented in India.

    Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus are studies, which originated in India.

    The 'Place Value System' and the 'Decimal System' were developed in India in 100 B.C.


    The World's First Granite Temple is the Brihadeswara Temple at Tanjavur, Tamil Nadu. The shikhara of the temple is made from a single 80-tonne piece of granite. This magnificent temple was built in just five years, (between 1004 AD and 1009 AD) during the reign of Rajaraja Chola.


    India is the largest democracy in the world, the 7th largest Country in the world, and one of the most ancient civilizations.

    The game of Snakes & Ladders was created by the 13th century poet saint Gyandev. It was originally called 'Mokshapat'. The ladders in the game represented virtues and the snakes indicated vices. The game was played with cowrie shells and dices. In time, the game underwent several modifications, but its meaning remained the same, i.e. good deeds take people to heaven and evil to a cycle of re-births.

    The world's highest cricket ground is in Chail, Himachal Pradesh. Built in 1893 after leveling a hilltop, this cricket pitch is 2444 meters above sea level.

    The world's first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education.

    Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to mankind. The Father of Medicine, Charaka, consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago.

    India was one of the richest countries till the time of British rule in the early 17th Century. Christopher Columbus, attracted by India's wealth, had come looking for a sea route to India when he discovered America by mistake.
    :tup:

    The Art of Navigation & Navigating was born in the river Sindh over 6000 years ago. The very word Navigation is derived from the Sanskrit word 'NAVGATIH'. The word navy is also derived from the Sanskrit word 'Nou'.

    Bhaskaracharya rightly calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the Sun hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart. According to his calculation, the time taken by the Earth to orbit the Sun was 365.258756484 days.

    The value of "pi" was first calculated by the Indian Mathematician Budhayana, and he explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem. He discovered this in the 6th century, long before the European mathematicians.

    Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus also originated in India.Quadratic Equations were used by Sridharacharya in the 11th century.
    The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Hindus used numbers as big as 10*53 (i.e. 10 to the power of 53) with specific names as early as 5000 B.C.during the Vedic period.Even today, the largest used number is Terra: 10*12(10 to the power of 12).

    Until 1896, India was the only source of diamonds in the world
    (Source: Gemological Institute of America).


    The Baily Bridge is the highest bridge in the world. It is located in the Ladakh valley between the Dras and Suru rivers in the Himalayan mountains. It was built by the Indian Army in August 1982.

    Sushruta is regarded as the Father of Surgery. Over2600 years ago Sushrata & his team conducted complicated surgeries like cataract, artificial limbs, cesareans, fractures, urinary stones, plastic surgery and brain surgeries.

    Usage of anaesthesia was well known in ancient Indian medicine. Detailed knowledge of anatomy, embryology, digestion, metabolism,physiology, etiology, genetics and immunity is also found in many ancient Indian texts.


    India exports software to 90 countries.

    The four religions born in India - Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism, are followed by 25% of the world's population.

    Jainism and Buddhism were founded in India in 600 B.C. and 500 B.C. respectively.

    Islam is India's and the world's second largest religion.

    There are 300,000 active mosques in India, more than in any other country, including the Muslim world.

    The oldest European church and synagogue in India are in the city of Cochin. They were built in 1503 and 1568 respectively.

    Jews and Christians have lived continuously in India since 200 B.C. and 52 A.D. respectively

    The largest religious building in the world is Angkor Wat, a Hindu Temple in Cambodia built at the end of the 11th century.

    The Vishnu Temple in the city of Tirupathi built in the 10th century, is the world's largest religious pilgrimage destination. Larger than either Rome or Mecca, an average of 30,000 visitors donate $6 million (US) to the temple everyday.


    Sikhism originated in the Holy city of Amritsar in Punjab. Famous for housing the Golden Temple, the city was founded in 1577.
    Varanasi, also known as Benaras, was called "the Ancient City" when Lord Buddha visited it in 500 B.C., and is the oldest, continuously inhabited city in the world today.

    India provides safety for more than 300,000 refugees originally from Sri Lanka, Tibet, Bhutan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh, who escaped to flee religious and political persecution.

    His Holiness, the Dalai Lama, the exiled spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhists, runs his government in exile from Dharmashala in northern India.

    Martial Arts were first created in India, and later spread to Asia by Buddhist missionaries.

    Yoga has its origins in India and has existed for over 5,000 years.

    Interesting Facts about India - My India, My Pride - Know India: National Portal of India


    => the same can be read on the Indian Government's website in Hindi as below:

    भारत के बारे में रोचक तथ्-य - राष्-ट्रीय दिवस - मेरा भारत मेरी शान - भारत के बारे में जानें: भारत का
     
    uniqueudai, m2monty and omya like this.
  2. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    JAWAHARLAL NEHRU

    The Discovery of India
    The Variety and Unity of India :india:

    Page 61

    The diversity of India is tremendous; it is obvious; it lies onthe surface and anybody can see it. It concerns itself with phy-sical appearances as well as with certain mental habits and traits.There is little in common, to outward seeming, between the Pathan of the North-West and the Tamil in the far South. Their racial stocks are not the same, though there may be common strands running through them; they differ in face and figure,food and clothing, and, of course, language. In the North-western Frontier Province there is already the breath of Central Asia, and many a custom there, as in Kashmir, reminds one of the countries on the other side of the Himalayas. Pathan popu-lar dances are singularly like Russian Cossack dancing. Yet,with all these differences, there is no mistaking the impress of India on the Pathan, as this is obvious on the Tamil. This isnot surprising, for these border lands, and indeed Afghanistanalso, were united with India for thousands of years. The oldTurkish and other races who inhabited Afghanistan and partsof Central Asia before the advent of Islam were largely Bud-dhists, and earlier still, during the period of the Epics,Hindus. The frontier area was one of the principal centres of old Indian culture and it abounds still with ruins of monu-ments and monasteries and, especially, of the great universityof Taxila, which was at the height of its fame two thousandyears ago, attracting students from all over India as well asdifferent parts of Asia. Changes of religion made a difference, but could not change entirely the mental backgrounds whichthe people of those areas had developed.The Pathan and the Tamil are two extreme examples; theothers lie somewhere in between. All of them have their dis-tinctive features, all of them have still more the distinguishingmark of India. It is fascinating to find how the Bengalis, theMarathas, the Gujratis, the Tamils, the Andhras, the Oriyas,the Assamese, the Canarese, the Malayalis, the Sindhis, thePunjabis, the Pathans, the Kashmiris, the Rajputs, and the greatcentral block comprising the Hindustani-speaking people, haveretained their peculiar characteristics for hundreds of years,have still more or less the same virtues and failings of whichold tradition or record tells us, and yet have been throughoutthese ages distinctively Indian, with the same national heritageand the same set of moral and mental qualities. There wassomething living and dynamic about this heritage which showed. itself in ways of living and a philosophical attitude to life andits problems. Ancient India, like ancient China, was a world initself, a culture and a civilization which gave shape to all things.Foreign influences poured in and often influenced that cultureand were absorbed. Disruptive tendencies gave rise immediatelyto an attempt to find a synthesis. Some kind of a dream of unityhas occupied the mind of India since the dawn of civilization.That unity was not conceived as something imposed from out-side, a standardization of externals or even of beliefs. It was something deeper and, within its fold, the widest tolerance of belief and custom was practised and every variety acknowledgedand even encouraged.Differences, big or small, can always be noticed even withina national group, however closely bound together it may be.The essential unity of that group becomes apparent when it iscompared to another national group, though often the differ-ences between two adjoining groups fade out or interminglenear the frontiers, and modern developments are tending to produce a certain uniformity every where. In ancient and medi-aeval times, the idea of the modern nation was non-existent, and feudal, religious, racial, or cultural bonds had more importance. Yet I think that at almost any time in recorded history an Indian would have felt more or less at home in any part of India, andwould have felt as a stranger and alien in any other country. He would certainly have felt less of a stranger in countries which had partly adopted his culture or religion. Those who professed areligion of non-Indian origin or, coming to India, settled downthere, became distinctively Indian in the course of a few genera-tions, such as Christians, Jews, Parsees, Moslems. Indian converts to some of these religions never ceased to be Indians on account of a change of their faith. They were looked upon in other countriesas Indians and foreigners, even though there might have been acommunity of faith between them.To-day, when the conccption of nationalism has developedmuch more, Indians in foreign countries inevitably form a nationalgroup and hang together for various purposes, in spite of their internal differences. An Indian Christian is looked upon as an Indian wherever he may go. An Indian Moslem is considered an Indian in Turkey or Arabia or Iran, or any other country where Islam is the dominant religion-All of us, I suppose, have varying pictures of our native landand no two persons will think exactly alike. When I think of India, I think of many things: of broad fields dotted with in-numerable small villages; of towns and cities I have visited; of the magic of the rainy season which pours life into the dry parched-up land and converts it suddenly into a glistening expanse of beauty and greenery, of great rivers and flowing water; of the Khyber Pass in all its bleak surroundings; of the southern tip of India; of people, individually and in the mass; and, above all,of the Himalayas, snow-capped, or some mountain valley in Kashmir in the spring, covered with new flowers, and with a brook bubbling and gurgling through it. We make and preserve the pictures of our choice, and so I have chosen this mountain background rather than the more normal picture of a hot, sub-tropical country. Both pictures would be correct, for India stret-ches from the tropics right up to the temperate regions, fromnear the equator to the cold heart of Asia.

    The Discovery of India -Jawaharlal Nehru
     
  3. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    [​IMG]


    GDP on PPP by 18th century

    GDP of India: $90,750mil
    GDP of China: $82,800mil
    GDP of Western Europe: $81,213mil

    List of regions by past GDP (PPP) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    (here, the prices are based at the year 1800.)


    => British Rule in India mainly started from 1818 :coffee:


    Marath Empire

    The Maratha Empire (Marathi: मराठा साम्राज्य Marāṭhā Sāmrājya; also transliterated Mahratta) or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian imperial power that existed from 1674 to 1818. At its peak, the empire covered much of what would become India, encompassing a territory of over 2.8 million km².[2] the Marathas are credited for ending the Mughal rule in India.[2]

    Marathas remained the preeminent power in India until their defeat in the Second and Third Anglo-Maratha Wars (1805–1818), which left Britain in control of most of India. http://*********************/images/smilies/UK.gif

    [​IMG]

    Maratha Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    .
     
    Last edited: Mar 27, 2014
  4. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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  5. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    INDIA'S DE-INDUSTRIALIZATION UNDER BRITISH RULE

    India was a major player in the world export market for textiles in the early 18th century, but by the middle of the 19th century it had lost all of its export market and much of its domestic market. Other local industries also suffered some decline, and India underwent secular de-industrialization as a consequence. While India produced about 25 percent of world industrial output in 1750, this figure fell to only 2 percent by 1900. We use an open, specific-factor model to organize our thinking about the relative role played by domestic and foreign forces in India's de-industrialization. The construction of new relative price evidence is central to our analysis. We document trends in the ratio of export to import prices (the external terms of trade) from 1800 to 1913, and that of tradable to non-tradable goods and own-wages in the tradable sectors going back to 1765. With this new relative price evidence in hand, we ask how much of the de-industrialization was due to local supply-side influences (such as the demise of the Mughal empire) and how much to world price shocks (such as world market integration and rapid productivity advance in European manufacturing), both of which had to deal with an offset n the huge net transfer from India to Britain before 1815. Whether the Indian de-industrialization shocks and responses were big or small is then assessed by comparisons with other parts of the periphery.

    http://www.nber.org/papers/w10586.pdf



    => India's De-Industrialization Under British Rule
    http://www.nber.org/papers/w10586.pdf

    India was a major player in the world export market for textiles in the early 18th century, but by the middle of the 19th century it had lost all of its export market and much of its domestic market. Other local industries also suffered some decline, and India underwent secular de-industrialization as a consequence. While India produced about 25 percent of world industrial output in 1750, this figure fell to only 2 percent by 1900.:shocked: We use an open, specific-factor model to organize our thinking about the relative role played by domestic and foreign forces in India's de-industrialization. The construction of new relative price evidence is central to our analysis. We document trends in the ratio of export to import prices (the external terms of trade) from 1800 to 1913, and that of tradable to non-tradable goods and own-wages in the tradable sectors going back to 1765. With this new relative price evidence in hand, we ask how much of the de-industrialization was due to local supply-side influences (such as the demise of the Mughal empire) and how much to world price shocks (such as world market integration and rapid productivity advance in European manufacturing), both of which had to deal with an offset the huge net transfer from India to Britain before 1815. Whether the Indian de-industrialization shocks and responses were big or small is then assessed by comparisons with other parts of the periphery.

    http://www.nber.org/papers/w10586.pdf

    http://www.nber.org/papers/w10586.pdf

    http://www.nber.org/papers/w10586.pdf
     
  6. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    we also have data's related to "manufacturing output" of the countries till 19th century, as below :coffee:

    [​IMG]


    Share of World Manufacturing Output, 1750 - 1900

    [​IMG]
     
    Last edited: Mar 27, 2014
  7. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Mahatma Gandhi

    [​IMG]

    Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (pronounced [ˈmoːɦənd̪aːs ˈkərəmtʃənd̪ ˈɡaːnd̪ʱi] ( listen); 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948), commonly known as Mahatma Gandhi or Bapu (Father of Nation), was the preeminent leader of Indian nationalism in British-ruled India. Employing non-violent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for non-violence, civil rights, and freedom across the world.[2][3]

    The son of a senior government official, Gandhi was born and raised in a Bania[4] community in coastal Gujarat, and trained in law in London. Gandhi became famous by fighting for the civil rights of Muslim and Hindu Indians in South Africa, using new techniques of non-violent civil disobedience that he developed. Returning to India in 1915, he set about organising peasants to protest excessive land-taxes. A lifelong opponent of "communalism" (i.e. basing politics on religion) he reached out widely to all religious groups. He became a leader of Muslims protesting the declining status of the Caliphate. Assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for easing poverty, expanding women's rights, building religious and ethnic amity, ending untouchability, increasing economic self-reliance, and above all for achieving Swaraj—the independence of India from British domination.

    Gandhi led Indians in protesting the national salt tax with the 400 km (250 mi) Dandi Salt March in 1930, and later in demanding the British to immediately Quit India in 1942, during World War II. He was imprisoned for that and for numerous other political offenses over the years. Gandhi sought to practice non-violence and truth in all situations, and advocated that others do the same. He saw the villages as the core of the true India and promoted self-sufficiency; he did not support the industrialization programs of his disciple Jawaharlal Nehru. He lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven with yarn he had hand spun on a charkha. His chief political enemy in Britain was Winston Churchill,[5] who ridiculed him as a half-naked fakir.[6] He was a dedicated vegetarian, and undertook long fasts as means of both self-purification and political mobilization.

    In his last year, unhappy at the partition of India, Gandhi worked to stop the carnage between Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs that raged in the border area between India and Pakistan. He was assassinated on 30 January 1948 by Nathuram Godse who thought Gandhi was too sympathetic to India's Muslims.:facepalm: 30 January is observed as Martyrs' Day in India. The honorific Mahatma ("Great Soul") was applied to him by 1914.[7] In India he was also called Bapu ("Father"). He is known in India as the Father of the Nation;[8] his birthday, 2 October, is commemorated there as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, and world-wide as the International Day of Non-Violence. Gandhi's philosophy was not theoretical but one of pragmatism, that is, practicing his principles in the moment. Asked to give a message to the people, he would respond, "My life is my message."[9]

    [​IMG]


    Non-cooperation

    [​IMG]
    Ghaffar Khan with Mahatma Gandhi :spartak:

    With Congress now behind him in 1920, Gandhi had the base to employ non-cooperation, non-violence and peaceful resistance as his "weapons" in the struggle against the British Raj. His wide popularity among both Hindus and Muslims made his leadership possible; he even convinced the extreme faction of Muslims to support peaceful non-cooperation.[70] The spark that ignited a national protest was overwhelming anger at the Jallianwala Bagh massacre (or Amritsar massacre) of hundreds of peaceful civilians by British troops in Punjab. Many Britons celebrated the action as needed to prevent another violent uprising similar to the Rebellion of 1857, an attitude that caused many Indian leaders to decide the Raj was controlled by their enemies. Gandhi criticised both the actions of the British Raj and the retaliatory violence of Indians. He authored the resolution offering condolences to British civilian victims and condemning the riots which, after initial opposition in the party, was accepted following Gandhi's emotional speech advocating his principle that all violence was evil and could not be justified.[71]:india:

    After the massacre and subsequent violence, Gandhi began to focus on winning complete self-government and control of all Indian government institutions, maturing soon into Swaraj or complete individual, spiritual, political independence.[72] During this period, Gandhi claimed to be a "highly orthodox Hindu" and in January 1921 during a speech at a temple in Vadtal, he spoke of the relevance of non-cooperation to Hindu Dharma, "At this holy place, I declare, if you want to protect your 'Hindu Dharma', non-cooperation is first as well as the last lesson you must learn up.".[73]

    In December 1921, Gandhi was invested with executive authority on behalf of the Indian National Congress. Under his leadership, the Congress was reorganised with a new constitution, with the goal of Swaraj. Membership in the party was opened to anyone prepared to pay a token fee. A hierarchy of committees was set up to improve discipline, transforming the party from an elite organisation to one of mass national appeal. Gandhi expanded his non-violence platform to include the swadeshi policy—the boycott of foreign-made goods, especially British goods. Linked to this was his advocacy that khadi (homespun cloth) be worn by all Indians instead of British-made textiles. Gandhi exhorted Indian men and women, rich or poor, to spend time each day spinning khadi in support of the independence movement.[74]

    Gandhi even invented a small, portable spinning wheel that could be folded into the size of a small typewriter.[75] This was a strategy to inculcate discipline and dedication to weeding out the unwilling and ambitious and to include women in the movement at a time when many thought that such activities were not respectable activities for women. In addition to boycotting British products, Gandhi urged the people to boycott British educational institutions and law courts, to resign from government employment, and to forsake British titles and honours.[76]:coffee:

    [​IMG]

    "Non-cooperation" enjoyed widespread appeal and success, increasing excitement and participation from all strata of Indian society. Yet, just as the movement reached its apex, it ended abruptly as a result of a violent clash in the town of Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh, in February 1922. Fearing that the movement was about to take a turn towards violence, and convinced that this would be the undoing of all his work, Gandhi called off the campaign of mass civil disobedience.[77] This was the third time that Gandhi had called off a major campaign.[78] Gandhi was arrested on 10 March 1922, tried for sedition, and sentenced to six years' imprisonment. He began his sentence on 18 March 1922. He was released in February 1924 for an appendicitis operation, having served only 2 years.[79]

    Without Gandhi's unifying personality, the Indian National Congress began to splinter during his years in prison, splitting into two factions, one led by Chitta Ranjan Das and Motilal Nehru favouring party participation in the legislatures, and the other led by Chakravarti Rajagopalachari and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, opposing this move. Furthermore, cooperation among Hindus and Muslims, which had been strong at the height of the non-violence campaign, was breaking down. Gandhi attempted to bridge these differences through many means, including a three-week fast in the autumn of 1924, but with limited success.[80] In this year, Gandhi was persuaded to preside over the Congress session to be held in Belgaum. Gandhi agreed to become president of the session on one condition: that Congressmen should take to wearing homespun khadi. In his long political career, this was the only time when he presided over a Congress session.[81]

    Mahatma Gandhi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
     
    Last edited: Mar 27, 2014
  8. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Salt Satyagraha (Salt March)

    Gandhi stayed out of active politics and, as such, the limelight for most of the 1920s. He focused instead on resolving the wedge between the Swaraj Party and the Indian National Congress, and expanding initiatives against untouchability, alcoholism, ignorance and poverty. He returned to the fore in 1928. In the preceding year, the British government had appointed a new constitutional reform commission under Sir John Simon, which did not include any Indian as its member. The result was a boycott of the commission by Indian political parties. Gandhi pushed through a resolution at the Calcutta Congress in December 1928 calling on the British government to grant India dominion status or face a new campaign of non-cooperation with complete independence for the country as its goal. Gandhi had not only moderated the views of younger men like Subhas Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru, who sought a demand for immediate independence, but also reduced his own call to a one year wait, instead of two.[82]

    The British did not respond. On 31 December 1929, the flag of India was unfurled in Lahore. 26 January 1930 was celebrated as India's Independence Day by the Indian National Congress meeting in Lahore. This day was commemorated by almost every other Indian organisation. Gandhi then launched a new Satyagraha against the tax on salt in March 1930. This was highlighted by the famous Salt March to Dandi from 12 March to 6 April, where he marched 388 kilometres (241 mi) from Ahmedabad to Dandi, Gujarat to make salt himself. Thousands of Indians joined him on this march to the sea. This campaign was one of his most successful at upsetting British hold on India; Britain responded by imprisoning over 60,000 people.[83]


    World War II and Quit India

    Gandhi initially favoured offering "non-violent moral support" to the British effort when World War II broke out in 1939, but the Congressional leaders were offended by the unilateral inclusion of India in the war without consultation of the people's representatives. All Congressmen resigned from office.[102] After long deliberations, Gandhi declared that India could not be party to a war ostensibly being fought for democratic freedom while that freedom was denied to India itself. As the war progressed, Gandhi intensified his demand for independence, calling for the British to Quit India in a speech at Gowalia Tank Maidan. This was Gandhi's and the Congress Party's most definitive revolt aimed at securing the British exit from India.[103]

    Gandhi was criticised by some Congress party members and other Indian political groups, both pro-British and anti-British. Some felt that not supporting Britain more in its struggle against Nazi Germany was unethical. Others felt that Gandhi's refusal for India to participate in the war was insufficient and more direct opposition should be taken, while Britain fought against Nazism, it continued to refuse to grant India Independence. Quit India became the most forceful movement in the history of the struggle, with mass arrests and violence on an unprecedented scale.[104] :coffee:

    In 1942, although still committed in his efforts to "launch a non-violent movement", Gandhi clarified that the movement would not be stopped by individual acts of violence, saying that the "ordered anarchy" of "the present system of administration" was "worse than real anarchy."[105][106] He called on all Congressmen and Indians to maintain discipline via ahimsa, and Karo ya maro ("Do or die") in the cause of ultimate freedom.[107]

    Gandhi and the entire Congress Working Committee were arrested in Bombay by the British on 9 August 1942. Gandhi was held for two years in the Aga Khan Palace in Pune. It was here that Gandhi suffered two terrible blows in his personal life. His 50-year old secretary Mahadev Desai died of a heart attack 6 days later and his wife Kasturba died after 18 months imprisonment on 22 February 1944; six weeks later Gandhi suffered a severe malaria attack. He was released before the end of the war on 6 May 1944 because of his failing health and necessary surgery; the Raj did not want him to die in prison and enrage the nation. He came out of detention to an altered political scene—the Muslim League for example, which a few years earlier had appeared marginal, "now occupied the centre of the political stage"[108] and the topic of Jinnah's campaign for Pakistan was a major talking point. Gandhi met Jinnah in September 1944 in Bombay but Jinnah rejected, on the grounds that it fell short of a fully independent Pakistan, his proposal of the right of Muslim provinces to opt out of substantial parts of the forthcoming political union.[109][110]

    While the leaders of Congress languished in jail, the other parties supported the war and gained organizational strength. Underground publications flailed at the ruthless suppression of Congress, but it had little control over events.[111] At the end of the war, the British gave clear indications that power would be transferred to Indian hands. At this point Gandhi called off the struggle, and around 100,000 political prisoners were released, including the Congress's leadership.[112] :india:

    Mahatma Gandhi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
     
  9. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose

    [​IMG] [​IMG]

    Subhas Chandra Bose is one of those great freedom fighters who martyred their lives for India’s independence. He is popularly known as Netaji because he was considered to be a born leader. He was born on January 23, 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa. And was the ninth child of a famous lawyer Janaki Nath Bose and a religious lady Prabhavati Devi. He completed his graduation in Calcutta and went to England in 1919 to appear for Indian Civil Service Examination and achieved fourth place on merit. :tup:

    [​IMG]

    Filled with the feelings of patriotism, Bose was resolved to drive British out of the country. When in England, he was shaken by the incident of Jalianwala Bagh massacre and returned back to India in 1921. Under the influence of Mahatma Gandhi he joined the Indian National Congress and actively participated in Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930.

    Subash along with Tilak and Auribindo were not convinced with Gandhi Ji’s method of achieving independence. They were in favor of armed revolution and Netaji strongly believed that the only way to earn freedom was by shedding blood. With this strong belief, he involved himself in various revolutionary activities for which he was imprisoned many times.

    [​IMG]


    In 1938, Subash was elected as the President of All India Congress. At the time of World War II, Gandhi and Nehru did not support him for armed revolution and so he escaped to Germany to approach Hitler for help. Being impressed by Netaji, Hitler helped him to organize the Indian National Army with the soldiers of the prisoners of war. On October 21, 1943, Subash declared the formation of Azad Hind Government and hosted the Indian National Flag in Kohima, Assam on March 18, 1944. :coffee:

    [​IMG]
    Netaji with Adolf Hitler


    In August 1945, Japan surrendered the territory and somehow Netaji escaped from there. He left in a war plane to an undisclosed destination and expired due to plane crash on August 17, 1945. :coffee:

    [​IMG] [​IMG]

    subhas chandra bose
     
    Last edited: Mar 28, 2014
  10. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    SELECTED LETTERS FROM SELECTED WORKS OF MAHATMA GANDHI

    To Subhash Chandra Bose


    Birla House,
    New Delhi,

    2-4-1939

    [​IMG]


    My dear Subhash,

    I have yours of 31st march as also the previous one. You are quite frank and I like your letters for the clear enunciation of your views.

    The view you express seem to be so diametrically opposed to those of the others and my own that I do not see any possibility of bridging them. I think that such school of thought should be able to put forth its views before the country without any mixture. And if this is honestly done, I do not see why there should be any bitterness engaging in civil war.

    What is wrong is not the differences between us but loss of mutual respect and trust. This will be remedied by time which is the best healer. If there is real non-violence in us, there can be no civil war and much bitterness.

    Taking all things into consideration, I am of opinion that you should at once form your own Cabinet fully representing your views. Formulate your programme definitely and put it before the forthcoming A. I. C. C. If the Committee accepts the programme all will be plain-sailing and you should be enabled to prosecute it unhampered by the minority. If on the other hand your programme is not accepted you should resign and let the committee choose it president. And you will be free to educate the country along your lines.:coffee: I tender this advice irrespective of Pandit pant's resolution.

    My prestige does not count. It has an independent value of its own. When my motive is suspected or my policy or programme rejected by the country, the prestige must go. India will rise and fall by the quality of the sum total of her many millions.:india:Individuals, however high they may be, are of no account except in so far as they represent the many millions. :wave: Therefore let us rule it out of consideration.

    [​IMG]

    I wholly dissent from your view that the country has been never so violent as now. I smell violence in the air I breath. But the violence has pout on a subtle form. Our mutual distrust I a bad form of violence. The widening gulf between Hindus and Mussalmans points to the same thing. I can give further illustrations.

    We seem to differ ad to the amount of corruptions in the Congress. My impression is that it is in the increase. I have been pleading for the past many months for a thorough scrutiny.

    In these circumstances I se no atmosphere of non-violent mass action. An ultimatum without effective sanction is worse than useless.

    But as I have told you that I am an old man perhaps growing timid and over-cautious and you have youth before you and reckless optimism born of youth. I hope you are right. I am wrong. I have the firm belief that the Congress as it is today cannot deliver goods, cannot offer civil disobedience worth the name. Therefore if your prognosis is right, I am s back and played out as the generalissimo of Satyagraha.

    I am glad you have mentioned the little Rajkot affair. It brings into prominent relief the different angles from which we look at things. I have nothing to repent of in the steps I have taken I connection with it. I feel that it has great national importance. I have not stopped civil disobedience in the other States for the sake of Rajkot. But Rajkot opened my eyes. It showed me the way. I am not in Delhi for my health. I am reluctantly in Delhi awaiting the Chief Justice's decision. I hold it to be my duty to be in Delhi till the steps to be taken in due fulfillment of the Viceroy's declaration in his last wire to me are finally taken. I may not run any risk. If I was invited the Paramount Power to do its duty, I was bound to be in Delhi to see that the duty as fully performed. I saw nothing wrong in the Chief Justice being appointed the interpreter of the document whose meaning was put in doubt by the Thakor Sahib. By the way, Sir Maurice will examine the document not in his capacity as Chief Justice but as a trained jurist trusted by the Viceroy. By accepting the Viceroy's nominee as judge, I fancy I have shown both wisdom and grace and what is more important I have increased the Vice regal responsibility in the matter,

    Though we have discussed sharp differences of opinion between us, I am quite sure that our private relations will not suffer in the least. If they are from the heart, I believe they are, they will bear the strain of these differences.

    Love

    BAPU

    Mahatma Gandhi : Selected Letters
     
    Last edited: Mar 27, 2014
  11. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi


    [​IMG]

    Mahatma Gandhi popularly known as ‘Father of the Nation’ was one of the charismatic Indian leaders who fought for the freedom of the country. This great leader was born in Porbandar, Gujarat on Oct 2, 1869. He was the youngest of the three sons of Putlibai and Karamchand Gandhi. He completed his primary studies in Rajkot and was married to Kasturba at the age of 13.

    [​IMG]
    Gandhi with Badashah Khan and Kasturba, the "Frontier Gandhi" :spartak:

    In 1891, Gandhi went to London to study Law but after having admitted to Britisah bar he returned to India and began law practice in Bombay. After a span of two years he was called by an Indian company in South Africa to work as a legal advisor.:coffee: There he found that he was ill-treated and abused because of inferior race and color discrimination. This was a common problem with all Indians. He then decided to throw himself into the freedom struggle to secure rights for Indian people. For this cause, Gandhi stayed in South Africa for almost 25 years. :coffee:

    Influenced by the Bhagvad Gita and Hindu beliefs, the Jain religion and the Christian teachings of Leo Tolstoy, Gandhi moved on the path of Satya and Ahimsa. ‘Satya’ meaning ‘truth’ and ‘ahimsa’ meaning ‘non-violence’ were the two weapons that Gandhi used to fight the enemy. He led the campaign in South Africa with the principle of Satyagraha for Indian rights and was arrested many times for his political activities. In 1914, many of Gandhi’s demands were accepted by the Government of the Union of South Africa. After his struggle in South Africa he returned to India and started Non-Cooperation movement there.


    [​IMG]

    Gandhi, after returning to India inspired people to boycott British goods and refuse earthy possessions. This movement was known as Swaraj and was economically significant because Indian home industries were virtually destructed by British industrialists. He advocated renewal of native Indian industries and began to use a spinning wheel as a token of return to simple village life. Thereafter, he constantly began promoting satyagraha, non-violence, non-cooperation and swaraj to achieve independence. Finally, in August 1947, the British were forced to leave India.

    Mahatma Gandhi, symbol of Free India, was assassinated by Nathuram Godse in January 1948. :facepalm: His mortal frame has already turned into ashes years ago but he still lives in the hearts of millions of people. Mahatma Gandhi, an embodiment of eternal love and truth, will live for immortal ages.

    mohandas karamchand gandhi

    mohandas karamchand gandhi
     
    Last edited: Mar 27, 2014
  12. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    and to get to know how exactly British Ruled India then also. we have many movies made on it, one of them is the Oscar Nominated Mr Amir Khan's movie as below:

    like in this movie in between 4.30min to 6.20min to have an idea of how British ruled India. "Divide and Rule":coffee:

    And double Lagaan (tax) charged to poor farmers if one of those regional hindu king doesn’t eat meat in between 20.30min to 22.45min.




    young generation of today's India are not aware of the facts about the British Rule, even if they study all from the primary schools, they generally forget till the age of 20-21. too many movies were made to state the sudden change occurred when British left India in 1947, like this movie as below, see from 2.40min onward, how 'life' of poor affected when British left India and how these landlords then came to foot.....

     
    Last edited: Mar 27, 2014
  13. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Indian Democracy and it Values, we Proud on

    The meaning of Independence India got in 1947

    in short i may say,

    "as part of our freedom, there is no law in India which makes difference among the people based on religion/ race/ language/ state etc, there is no super human like British anymore in India, and now we pay taxes to that Indian government which use it for the purpose to help the people based in India, not for the WW1 and WW2 to help Britain. with providing Equal Rights to all and more opportunities to the weak part of Indian society like Dalits/ Women, at the same time we proud to say that we had many minorities Presidents/ PMs/ Chief Ministers/ Governors/ Chief Justice/ IAS topper/ Bollywood superstar/ Cricket Team Captain etc, and we proud to say that we got this type of country from our elders who fought for our freedom and we are responsible to give the same type of country to our coming generation too. we just can't compromise our "Independence" for any reason. and we have to defend our Independence from any type of external threat, which we are currently facing in terms of Sectarian War mainly in North East, from the Bangladeshi infiltration..."
    => http://indiandefence.com/threads/il...has-turned-assam-explosive.44643/#post-392965
    "We now pay tax to that Indian government which use the tax money to help the people based in India itself, develop infrastructure in India to improve life of the people based in India, while before that we were paying tax to those British to help them in their wars. Mr Gandhi struggled to have Industries in India, who may them provide jobs to Indians and hence pay taxes to Indian government for the purpose to use this tax for the people based in India. and yes we have got that 'freedom', and trying to improve. and we now proud to say that we have made a place where the most deserving people get higher success, regardless in which family they took birth, (of any religion/ race/ language/state etc). and we hope India will become one of the best place to live by using their talent/ knowledge this way" :india:


    (the above statement used the word "super human British" before 1947, frequent use of "freedom", "independence", as i prepared my above statement on 15th August this year........ the above statement has a clear sense to demonstrate "democratic structure" of India on the world platform, in terms of "Equal Rights" for all, "more opportunities" for weak part of society like Women/Dalits in different exams/ jobs, as we have. with putting concern over the growing threats of "Sectarian Wars" in north east region due to Bangladeshi Infiltration. here, Freedom/ Independence of India is defined in terms of "non-religious" foundation of Indian Democracy of Hindu Majority, and our Independence/ Freedom has the main threats from Sectarian Wars, fueled and funded by the rogue neighbors of India......)
     
    Last edited: Mar 27, 2014
  14. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    and yes, a Dreamed India must be inspired from its Father of Nation, and my post as below may have a place here too. i think :tup:


    => The Greatest indian of 20th century
    http://*********************/forum/defence-strategic-issues/10299-greatest-indian-20th-century.html

    I find Mr Gandhi would get the first spot without any controversy, even if Netaji SC Bose and Sardar Patel always attracted the young age people.....

    it was really interesting while reading history of Mr Gandhi, a man who was among the highly qualified in his time of 19th century itself, a professional Lawyer having foreign visits for the purpose that time too, who is mainly known for his contribution in South Africa. an Iron man walking on the road from top to bottom of India to unite people, sitting in the 3rd class of trains for the purpose to be among the common people bla bla..... once there was a joke that he couldn't become PM or president of free India and it was really a joke, did he want too? :rofl:

    [​IMG]

    there is a way to fight with the most powerful military of the world without any arm on hands, and he did that, even if he himself started running Charkha etc too, to boycott foreign products under his efforts to protect the home industries. once i discussed, he was an Upper Caste person in Hindu Religion and this is how people sit on the chair when their President of Indian National Congress sewing cloths for himself, as below........ we find Mr Gandhi always winning this competition among all the Indians born during 20th century, by a hefty margin in fact :india:

    [​IMG]

    and the best part of his life was the way India's Father of Nation died, after being shot down by a Hindu Extremist for favoring Pakistan :spartak:
     
  15. vstol jockey

    vstol jockey Colonel MILITARY STRATEGIST

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    he shud be called the biggest bastard of India ever born and also given the title of Ghazi-The slayer of Kafirs(Hindus). Anyone who calls him a goodman is in my opinion a badman, illiterate, idiot who believes in what has been force fed by a doctored history and such a person is devoid of balanced reasoning and an independent mind.
    Pls forgive me if I had hurt your sensibility, but you have hurt my senses for sure by this post.
     

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