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Ukraine Turmoil : News, Commentary and Analysis

Discussion in 'International Politics' started by Marqueur, Mar 1, 2014.

  1. sangos

    sangos Lt. Colonel ELITE MEMBER

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    Keep up the 'good work' US of A :****:

     
  2. sangos

    sangos Lt. Colonel ELITE MEMBER

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  3. Averageamerican

    Averageamerican Colonel ELITE MEMBER

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    :toast_sign:

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    Congress Targets Russian ‘Satan’ Missile
    Earlier this month, the Russians announced they would discontinue the sale of rocket engines to the United States if those engines could be used for military purposes.
    At least some members of Congress are looking to retaliate in kind. An amendment to the annual Pentagon budget bill, expected to pass this week, instructs President Obama to begin talks with the Ukrainian government aimed at ending long-standing cooperation between Kiev and Moscow on the maintenance of their Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles, or ICBMs. The long-range missiles are known in Russia as the RS-20s and dubbed by NATO as the SATANs.
    Rep. Mike Rogers, the Alabama Republican who chairs the House Armed Services subcommittee that oversees the U.S. nuclear arsenal, will introduce the amendment Monday that focuses on Ukraine’s Yuzhnoye Design Bureau. During the Cold War, that bureau helped design and maintain the RS-20 missiles—as well as many, many other weapons. According to one Ukrainian think tank, out of nearly 600 missiles in the inventory of the Russian Strategic Missile Forces, only 40 or so are actually made in Russia. Today, the Ukrainian government continues to play a role in providing maintenance to the Russian missiles, as well.
    On February 26, the Russian newspaper Nezavisimaya Gazeta published an article quoting a recently retired chief of staff for Russia’s strategic missile command, Viktor Yesin, who acknowledged that Russia and Ukraine continued to have an agreement on the maintenance of the missiles. “This is a continuous benefit for the Ukrainian enterprise, which mainly exists due to the money that Russia pays for providing warrantee oversight for the Voyevoda missile system,” he told the newspaper. “These economic ties are valuable, regardless of who comes to power in Ukraine. And I do not foresee that this inter-governmental agreement will be revoked.”

    Rogers would like to see this agreement revoked—in part because Russia’s annexation of Crimea violates the terms of the “Budapest Memorandum” that guaranteed Ukraine’s territorial integrity after the cold war in exchange for Kiev giving up its nuclear arsenal.
    Rogers’ amendment urges the Obama administration to begin talks with Ukraine aimed at halting “the activities of the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau and any other Ukrainian industry that supports the military or military industrial base of the Russian Federation while Russia is violating its commitments under the Budapest Memorandum, illegally occupying Ukrainian territory and supporting groups that are inciting violence and fomenting secessionist movements in Ukraine.”

    In the February interview, Yesin said if the cooperation with Ukraine was halted, Russia had the capability to continue the maintenance of the RS-20 missiles, but also acknowledged “there will be difficulties” in part because the detailed plans and specifications for the missiles reside at the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau.
    If passed into law, the Rogers amendment would require Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel to submit a report within 30 days of the bill’s passage to Congress on the U.S. plan to end any Ukrainian cooperation with Russia on the ICBMs and “any recommendations it has for how the United States and its allies could benefit from the capability of the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau.”
    :toast_sign:
     
  4. Averageamerican

    Averageamerican Colonel ELITE MEMBER

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    World News
    05.19.14
    Why Putin Really Will Pull Back
    The Russian president has announced once again that he’s backing his troops away from the Ukrainian brink. This time he probably means it, and he has good reason.
    Before he hopped on a plane to China on Monday, Russian Commander-in-Chief Vladimir Putin met members of his Security Council in Sochi and ordered the withdrawal of the Russian army from Ukraine’s border. It was not the first time. Twice before, Putin has announced he’s pulling back his forces, but not many soldiers moved. This time, according to political experts who’ve been studying the president for over a decade, both liberals and conservatives, it sounds like he means it.
    What made Putin change his mind about leaving the army poised to help pro-Russian rebels in Eastern Ukraine? Why would he disappoint them as they’re waiting for the Russian soldiers as saviors?
    “Clever people finally managed to convince him that he was a little wrong about Ukraine,” says Igor Bunin, director of Center of Political Technologies, listing the reasons for Putin’s decision: “that pro-Russian sentiment is not necessarily as significant as some like to present it; that providing for the Luhansk and Donetsk regions would be expensive for Russia; and most importantly, that the third stage of sanctions threatened the Russian economy.”
    But the main reason for the withdrawal was the number of troops: “It is one thing to invade Ukraine, and a different thing to keep the occupied regions under control,” says military expert Alexander Golts. Putin had thousands of rapid-reaction troops at hand just 50 kilometers (31 miles) away from the Luhansk region, on highways leading into Ukraine. But to control millions of people living in the Luhansk and Donetsk regions, Russia would need to set up thousands of checkpoints that would require bringing draftees to Ukraine. “That all sounded too problematic,” Golts says.
    For over two months, Russia reserved its right to use military forces to defend Russian nationals in Ukraine. Images broadcast last month showed Russian tanks, fighter jets, and artillery that had been waiting near the border for Putin’s decision since mid-April. On the other side of the border, a military conflict increased by the day—the map of violence included towns of Slovyansk, Kramatorsk, Krasnoarmeisk, and Mariupol—and dozens of families cried at the funerals of victims of both the Ukrainian forces and the rebels.
    At the epicenter of the fighting, the town of Slovyansk, the rebels had believed that the Russian army would arrive within a day or two. “Where is Uncle Vova?” many of them wondered. “Is he going to help us?”
    “It is one thing to invade Ukraine, and a different thing to keep the occupied regions under control.”
    Artillery shelling is heard in Slovyansk almost every night. The region from Odessa to Donetsk has been flooded with stories about Ukrainian nationalists killing innocent men and women, many of them true. But the Russian army never came. The separatists held a referendum that they claim validated their quest for independence, if not indeed annexation back into the Russian empire. But even before that happened, Putin had started signaling his willingness to honor the results of other elections, to be held this weekend, for a Ukrainian national government.
    “Now Moscow will signal to the rebels to stop fighting—by the end of this week, the Kremlin is going to recognize the results of the elections in Kiev,” Bunin said.
     
  5. Averageamerican

    Averageamerican Colonel ELITE MEMBER

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    And Now the Fun Begins. Its all the Russians fault.

    Locals get angry with pro-Russia separatists

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    SLOVYANSK, Ukraine (AP) — Pro-Russia separatists fighting government forces in eastern Ukraine faced local anger Tuesday and a new challenge from the country's richest man who demanded they end their rebellion.

    Russia, meanwhile, said some troops were dismantling their camps along the border with Ukraine.
    A day after President Vladimir Putin issued a pullout order in an apparent bid to ease tensions with the West, Russia's Defense Ministry said its forces in the Bryansk, Belgorod and Rostov regions bordering Ukraine were preparing to return to their home bases. NATO, which estimates that Russia has 40,000 troops along the border with Ukraine, said it's watching the situation closely, but could not yet confirm a change.
    NATO spokeswoman Oana Lungescu on Tuesday challenged the Russians "to prove that they are doing what they are saying."
    In eastern Ukraine, separatists exchanged fire again Tuesday with government forces on the outskirts of Slovyansk, a city that has been the epicenter of the rebellion against the government in Kiev. But this time local anger at the fighting appeared to be growing.
    Yekaterina Len, a 61-year-old resident whose house was hit by a mortar shell, burst into tears as she looked at the wreckage. She survived the shelling by spending the night with neighbors.

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    Relatives of Yekaterina Len, 61, try to clean debris in her destroyed house following a shelling in …
    She and other residents sounded exasperated and angry with both the warring sides. Some said many houses has been hit when rebels moved around the area, shooting at government troops and drawing retaliatory fire.
    "They must stop with this banditry so that there can be peace!" said Slovyansk resident Lina Sidorenko. "How much longer can this go on? We had a united country and now look what's happened."
    Vyacheslav Ponomaryov, the separatist leader in Slovyansk, later met with about 200 residents, many of whom angrily shouted demands at him to end hostilities. Wearing a pistol on his belt and flanked by a bodyguard toting a Kalashnikov assault rifle, Ponomaryov yelled back at the crowd, saying he will compensate those whose houses were damaged.
    In another development, Ukraine's richest man, metals tycoon Rinat Akhmetov, rode the wave of public dismay with the hostilities to toughen his stance against the rebellion, saying it has devastated the nation's eastern industrial heartland.
    In a video statement, Akhmetov issued a strong call for an end to the mutiny in the east, which he described as a "fight against the citizens of our region."

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    Yekaterina Len, 61, cries outside her ruined house following a shelling in Slovyansk, eastern Ukrain …
    "Is looting in cities and taking peaceful citizens hostage a fight for the happiness of our region? No, it is not!" Akhmetov said.
    He called on all workers in the region to hold a "peaceful warning protest" Tuesday at their companies by blowing sirens "in support of peace and against bloodshed" and keep up those protests in the coming days.
    Interior Minister Arsen Avakov quickly hailed Akhmetov's move, saying on Facebook that "the people's power and energy will sweep the terrorist scum away better than any counter-terrorist operation."
    Akhmetov had initially taken a noncommittal stance as the mutiny engulfed the east, drawing criticism from the authorities in Kiev. But last week, his company organized citizen patrols of steelworkers who worked alongside police in the Black Sea port of Mariupol to improve security and get insurgents to vacate the government buildings they had seized.
    In his statement, Akhmetov vowed to challenge the insurgents who declared independence last week in the eastern regions of Donetsk and Luhansk.

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    Yekaterina Len, 61, cries outside her ruined house following a shelling in Slovyansk, eastern Ukrain …
    "No one will frighten us, including those calling themselves a Donetsk People's Republic," he said.
    One of the leaders of rebels in Donetsk, Denis Pushilin, retaliated by threatening to nationalize Akhmetov's assets over his refusal to pay taxes to the Donetsk People's Republic.
    Russia has scathingly criticized the new Ukrainian authorities, who came to power in February after the toppling of a pro-Russian president, for using the military against the rebellion. Ukraine is holding a presidential election on Sunday, which the government in Kiev hopes will unite the country behind a new leader.
    However, Putin's order to withdraw troops from areas near the border and his support for Ukraine's presidential vote, which he had previously sought to postpone, appeared to reflect a desire to de-escalate the worst crisis between Russia and the West since the Cold-War era.
    The Russian Defense Ministry said it would take time for troops to dismantle their camps and load equipment on trucks for a march to railway stations. It didn't say how many troops were being pulled out or how long it would take.
    Footage broadcast by Russian television showed what it said were troops on their way out, but their exact locations and routes remained unclear.
    The U.S. and the European Union have imposed travel bans and asset freezes on members of Putin's inner circle over Russia's annexation of the Crimea Peninsula. They have threatened to target entire sectors of the Russian economy with sanctions if Russia tries to grab more land or attempts to derail Ukraine's presidential election.
    ___
    Isachenkov reported in Moscow and John-Thor Dahlburg in Brussels contributed to this report.
     
  6. sangos

    sangos Lt. Colonel ELITE MEMBER

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  7. MiG-23MLD

    MiG-23MLD Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    SHANGHAI, May 20 (RIA Novosti) – Russia and China are planning to increase the volume of direct payments in mutual trade in their national currencies, according to a joint statement on a new stage of comprehensive partnership and strategic cooperation signed during high-level talks in Shanghai on Tuesday.

    “The sides intend to take new steps to increase the level and expansion of spheres of Russian-Chinese practical cooperation, in particular to establish close cooperation in the financial sphere, including an increase in direct payments in the Russian and Chinese national currencies in trade, investments and loan services,” the statement said.

    The two countries are also set to deepen dialogue on macroeconomic policy issues, as well as boost growth in mutual investment, including in transportation infrastructure, the development of mineral deposits, and the construction of budget housing within Russia.

    Russian President Vladimir Putin arrived in China on Tuesday for high-level talks with President of the People’s Republic of China Xi Jinping. A large package of documents, including bilateral, intergovernmental, inter-departmental and corporate agreements are expected to be signed during the two-day visit, aimed at cementing Russian-Chinese relations.

    Russia, China Plan to Expand Payments in National Currencies | Russia | RIA Novosti
     
  8. WegWeg

    WegWeg 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    Up to a 100 dead Russians and Chechens at the airport and our resident warmongers don't seem to talkative anymore.

    Still, at least the pretense that the Russian invasion of Ukraine is a 'uprising by Ukrainians' has been dropped and the Russian leaders of the Mercenaries/Terrorists has formally admitted that they are mainly Russian.


    Ukraine's first victory over eastern rebels leads Russia to show its hand
    In the last seven days, Ukraine's bid to retake the east has gained ground - but Russia's part in the turmoil has become increasingly obvious
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    Pro-Russian fighters of Vostok (East) battalion rest in the regional state building in the eastern Ukrainian city of Donetsk Photo: AFP

    By Roland Oliphant, Donetsk and David Blair

    1:05PM BST 31 May 2014


    Sergei Prokofiev International Airport was once a gleaming symbol of Donetsk’s revival as an industrial city.

    Opened in time for Ukraine to co-host the European Championships in 2012, it regularly received passenger jets from nearly a dozen countries and its shining halls defied the expectations of travellers accustomed to post-Soviet sparsity.

    Not anymore. On Saturday, the seven-storey terminal was scarred by automatic gunfire and rocket-propelled grenades; only the occasional burst of shooting broke the eerie silence in surrounding streets.

    The battle for the airport was one of a series of key developments that could amount to a turning point in eastern Ukraine’s crisis. In the space of the last seven days, the country has elected a new president, the army retook Prokofiev airport from pro-Russian insurgents - achieving its first significant victory since the conflict began - and the eastern rebellion itself seemed to change shape, emerging as an overtly Russian operation.

    Ukraine’s bid to re-impose government control over the east finally began to gain ground last week, in turn forcing Russia’s hand in the turmoil into the open.

    Petro Poroshenko’s victory in the presidential election last Sunday was the first turning point. It gave the country a legitimate, elected leader for the first time since Viktor Yanukovych was overthrown in the revolution in February.

    With 55 per cent of the vote, Mr Poroshenko has a mandate to integrate Ukraine with Europe and reform the economy. His victory also gives Ukraine a single leader with whom the Kremlin can do business - and, despite much truculence, Russia says that it will deal with him.

    Mr Poroshenko has also denounced rebels in Donetsk and Luhansk regions as “terrorists” and ruled out negotiations. It may not have been a coincidence the biggest battle between government forces and pro-Russian rebels took place the day after his election victory.

    The thinking behind the rebel decision to take over Prokofiev airport in the early hours of last Monday morning remains unclear. Alexander Borodai, the “prime minister” of the “Donetsk People’s Republic”, claimed the Ukrainian security forces broke an agreement. “There was a deal: the Ukrainians would have been allowed to leave with all their equipment and the airport would have remained neutral,” he said.

    Whatever the reasoning, the seizure of the airport was to prove a mistake. Taking advantage of the relative absence of civilian homes nearby, the Ukrainians deployed every bit of firepower at their disposal, including fighter bombers and helicopter gunships, to take it back.

    They achieved their goal within hours, killing dozens of rebels. This was a military blunder from which the insurgents may not recover. Exactly how many rebel fighters died is still not known. At least 33 lay in Donetsk city morgue the following day, but Mr Borodai has placed the toll as high as 100, with many bodies still not recovered. So far, however, the Ukrainians have not followed up their success with an assault on Donetsk city itself. For now, the conflict appears to have settled into a tense stalemate.

    The second key development - the Russification of the rebel movement - came in response to this defeat. Rebel leaders have previously denied that their fighters were from anywhere but Ukraine, insisting that the movement is a homegrown uprising, born of hatred towards the new post-revolutionary “fascist” government in Kiev.

    But the leadership has now changed tack. Mr Borodai and other leaders summoned the media to witness the repatriation of the bodies of 33 Russian citizens killed in the fighting.

    The US government has confirmed that most of the 40,000 Russian troops previously massed near Ukraine’s eastern frontier have withdrawn. But that does not mean Russia is abandoning the rebels.

    Instead, the movement of irregular forces across the border appears to have been stepped up and Russian citizens have assumed the leadership of the insurgents. Mr Borodai himself is from Moscow - as are some key aides. Some fighters have admitted to being from Chechnya and other parts of Russia, suggesting that a steady drip-feed of men and equipment across the border is keeping the rebellion alive.

    It is unclear how far the Kremlin, or anyone else, controls the forces at work in Donetsk today.

    One glimmer of hope for a diplomatic solution is that Mr Poroshenko is expected to meet President Vladimir Putin during the commemoration of the D-Day landings in France next week. At the very least, the prospect of a full-scale Russian invasion of Ukraine has receded.

    ”It seems that Russia did decide at the end of the day to step back from the brink,” said John Lough, an associate fellow of the Russia and Eurasia programme at Chatham House. “But they are probably looking for other means to achieve their goal.”

    The underlying causes of the confrontation between Russia and Ukraine remain unresolved: Mr Poroshenko has promised to sign an association agreement with the European Union and bring his country into the European mainstream. Mr Lough warned that that Russia would probably use the eastern insurgency as a tool to thwart these goals. “The danger is that Russia keeps this simmering on a low flame and uses this to say ‘if you don’t give us what we want, then this can get a great deal worse’,” he said.

    If Mr Poroshenko and the EU sign an association agreement, Mr Lough predicted that Russia would react by “telling us to ‘go ahead, be our guests - but this will divide Ukraine’. The subtext will be ‘we’ll make damn sure it divides the country’.”
     
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  9. ГЛОНАСС

    ГЛОНАСС BANNED BANNED

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    I am against War polish boy. Serve me a coffe, NATO warmonger.
     
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  10. WegWeg

    WegWeg 2nd Lieutant FULL MEMBER

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    Right,... your Fascist armies have invaded Crimean and now they have started a war in Eastern Ukraine.

    Show me one NATO soldier, weapon or bullet within 500km of the Russian fascist invasion.
     
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  11. MiG-23MLD

    MiG-23MLD Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    What a hypocrite! why do not you remember how Poland conquered Ukraine in the 17th century, Today Poland as your own minister said

    Aides to Sikorski and Rostowski said they had no immediate comment. A government spokeswoman said it was hard to form a view based on a few excerpts of a conversation, but there might be a comment later.

    According to a transcript of excerpts of the conversation that was published by Wprost on its Internet site, Sikorski told Rostowski: "You know that the Polish-U.S. alliance isn't worth anything."

    "It is downright harmful, because it creates a false sense of security ... Complete bullshit. We'll get in conflict with the Germans, Russians and we'll think that everything is super, because we gave the Americans a blow job. Losers. Complete losers."

    http://www.newsweek.com/we-gave-americans-blow-job-got-nothing-says-polish-foreign-minister-255863
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    Last edited: Jul 1, 2014
    ГЛОНАСС and Zeus_@21 like this.
  12. MiG-23MLD

    MiG-23MLD Major SENIOR MEMBER

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  13. Averageamerican

    Averageamerican Colonel ELITE MEMBER

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    Crimea euphoria fades for some Russians
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    By By Olesya Astakhova and Elizabeth Piper 2 hours ago
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    Women inspect T-shirts, displaying images of Russia's President Vladimir Putin, which are on sale …

    By Olesya Astakhova and Elizabeth Piper

    MOSCOW (Reuters) - When she was asked to give up a day's pay to help Crimea, Russian hospital therapist Tatyana could not hide her anger - why should she subsidise others when struggling to make ends meet herself?
    Living in southern Russia close to the border with Ukraine, Tatyana was caught up in the euphoria that gripped the nation when Russia annexed Crimea in March and still welcomes "our" people back in the fold.
    But more than three months on, she is worried that her wage of 9,000 roubles ($260) a month is not stretching as far as it used to, and fears she will be forced to take on extra work to cover the rising cost of food and utilities.
    Patriotism spurred by President Vladimir Putin's annexation of Ukraine's Crimea still runs deep in Russia, but the cold reality of paying for the Black Sea region is setting in and threatens to test an economy brought low by Western sanctions.
    In Tatyana's hometown of Taganrog, the request for hospital workers to sacrifice a day's pay was taken up by only a few - by those people, she says, who wanted to impress their employers.
    "The bosses informed us of this in June in a tone which made clear they recommended it ... They distributed and asked us to fill out a form for the donation. People started complaining - why should they donate to Crimea?" said Tatyana, 52, who declined to give her surname for fear of retribution.
    "In our department, not one of us made the donation and our boss understood because she was of the same opinion," she said by telephone.
    Initially people across Russia were keen to help Crimea, convinced by Russian media that the Russian-speaking region was under threat from fascists in the Ukrainian capital Kiev who, they were told, were behind the overthrow of a president sympathetic to Moscow in February.
    Similar collections were set up in state enterprises and people were pressed to give "humanitarian aid".
    Russians were also encouraged to visit Crimea - once the playground of the Soviet elite - and some state-controlled companies said they would ship their workers to the region's spas for group summer holidays.
    Russia even started a new low-cost airline to Crimea, Dobrolyot (Good Flight), which made its maiden flight to the region's capital, Simferopol, last month.
    But with the first wave of tourists back in Russia and complaining about bad service and amenities, the 'champagne effect' of feeling that Russia had outwitted the West over Crimea may have started to wear off.
    Rising prices and stagnating wages may make hundreds more Russians think twice about the government's price tag of between 800 billion and 1 trillion roubles ($23-30 billion) for Crimea, and may come to pose the first real threat to Putin.
    WAGES FALL
    The Russian leader for now looks unassailable, with popularity ratings running at over 80 percent and his critics reluctant to speak out against him for fear of being labelled a traitor against the popular cause of building a Greater Russia.
    Russian markets have bounced back, recovering all their losses since the start of the year to trade slightly higher, and some bankers are encouraging their clients to dive back into a market they say is undervalued.
    But Russia's economy, riddled with corruption and nepotism, is still weak and, increasingly isolated by Western sanctions, is for now teetering on the edge of recession.
    Fighting in eastern Ukraine, an influx of Ukrainian refugees and the threat of further sanctions all hang over an economy, which the International Monetary Fund sees growing by just 0.2 percent this year. Russia's central bank hopes for 0.4 percent and the Economy Ministry 0.5 percent growth.
    After weeks of saying visa bans and asset freezes imposed by the European Union and United States against a number of firms and officials close to Putin could not harm the economy, Russian leaders are increasingly testy over the damage wrought if not by the current sanctions, then by the threat of more.
    "In fact, we are dealing with a new offensive type of weapon," Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Ryabkov said of the U.S. sanctions in an interview with the Kommersant daily.
    Investment has all but dried up, forcing the government to dip into reserves meant for pensions to finance projects, and the government says it will sell a stake in Russia's state-controlled oil company, Rosneft, to cover some of the costs of developing Crimea.
    Finance Minister Anton Siluanov had to backtrack after coming under fire for saying that all the funds accumulated in Russia's personal pension plans in 2014 had been spent on "anti-crisis measures" and on Crimea.
    The next day, he said Russians "would lose nothing", but stopped short of saying whether the sum of $8 billion would be returned to the personal pension plans.
    While such measures may take a while to hurt the population, Karen Vartapetov, an analyst at Standard & Poor's rating agency, said a more immediate danger was the stagnation of real disposable incomes, which show only 0.2 percent real growth (adjusted for inflation) this year.
    "Zero growth of real disposable incomes against continuing growth of public sector pay indicates that salaries in the private sector and non-salary incomes are shrinking," he said.
    "The economy outside the public sector has been stagnating."
    On top of this, the Finance Ministry's efforts to try to meet Putin's demands to increase public sector pay, including proposing a new regional sales tax, mean that prices could rise further, putting pressure on stretched salaries.
    In the major cities such as the capital Moscow and Russia's second city of St Petersburg - where Putin faced street protests in the winter of 2011-12 that at times drew tens of thousands - core inflation running at an annual rate of more than seven percent has had little impact on a population largely wealthy enough to cover higher prices.
    But in Taganrog, Tatyana has little to fall back on out of her 9,000 rouble per month salary.
    "Prices are continually rising, for utilities, and for food," she said.
    "I also rely on private consultations ... I give consultations outside work hours at people's homes. Plus some patients also give tips, or bring presents to consultations at the hospital, but there are fewer and fewer of them."
    ($1 = 34.3325 Russian Roubles)
    (additional reporting by Alexander Winning, Katya Golubkova, Lidia Kelly and Gabriela Baczynska, editing by Anna Willard)
     
  14. MiG-23MLD

    MiG-23MLD Major SENIOR MEMBER

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  15. Averageamerican

    Averageamerican Colonel ELITE MEMBER

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    In 1982 a Russian Ruble at Russian Government bank was worth $1.25, but about 20 Rubles on the black market.
     

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