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World Military Strength, The 15 countries with the highest military expenditure

Discussion in 'International Relations' started by santosh, Mar 27, 2014.

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  1. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    The 15 countries with the highest military expenditure in 2012

    Figures for military spending calculated using purchasing power parity (PPP), ($ b., PPP)

    1. United States- $682bn
    2. China- $249bn
    3. India- $119bn
    4. Russia- $116.0bn
    5. Saudi Arabia- $63.9bn
    6. United Kingdom- $57.5bn
    7. France- $50.7bn
    8. Japan- $46.0bn
    9. South Korea- $44.2bn
    10. Germany- $42.8bn
    11. Brazil- $34.4bn
    12. Italy- $31.0bn
    13. Turkey- $25.9bn
    14. Canada- $18.3bn
    15. Australia- $16.3bn

    http://www.sipri.org/research/armaments/milex/Top 15 table 2012.pdf

    a, The figures for national military expenditure as a share of GDP are based on estimates for 2012 GDP
    from the International Monetary Fund’s (IMF) World Economic Outlook database, Oct. 2012.

    b, The figures for military expenditure at PPP exchange rates are estimates based on the projected implied PPP conversion rates for each country from the IMF World Economic Outlook database, Oct. 2012.

    => Recent trends in military expenditure — www.sipri.org
     
  2. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    we have a military strength comparison as below too. its the most recognized source in this regard, even if reliability of these sources is always on question. :coffee:

    Global Firepower Military Ranks - 2013

    here, PwrIndx of US at 0.2475 is sharp fall of "comparative" military strength of US. Russia at 0.2618 is very closed to it also. i remember, PwrIndx of US was very high in 2003-05, at around 0.13, can anyone confirm it?
     
  3. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    first India won't learn PPP calculation from you, and second, its a calculation by SIPRI, by using the factor advised by IMF, check post #1
     
  4. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    your post is almost a copy of what I have in my store to post here. here, 90% of $119bn itself put the whole defence budget of India well above $110bn+ on PPP, considering only 35% Budget allocation for arm purchase, the Capital Expenditure. and out of that 70% is invested with in the arm production lines based in India itself, along the amount comes back, as in your post too http://*********************/images/smilies/thumb.gif

    one day we discussed, Capital Expenditure of Indian Defence is around 35% of total expenditure, with around 50% to 70% of it is spent in buying foreign arms. and considering the fact that most of the production lines of the main arms like SU30mki, T90s, HAWK etc is in fact based in India itself. so this way we find around 90% of total Defence Expenditure is spent in India itself, somehow, some way http://*********************/images/smilies/thumb.gif

    one gentleman also calculated the same in the above http://*********************/images/smilies/ranger.gif
     
  5. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    India third most powerful nation

    Washington: A new official United States report has listed India as the third most powerful nation in the world after the U.S. and China and the fourth most powerful bloc.

    “The new global power line-up for 2010 also predicted that New Delhi's clout in the world will further rise by 2025,” as per ‘Global Governance 2025,' jointly issued by the National Intelligence Council (NIC) of the U.S. and the European Union's Institute for Security Studies (EUISS).

    The report — quoting the views of a host of experts from Brazil, Russia, India and China and depicting fictionalised scenarios — points to what could happen over the next 25 years in terms of global governance.

    U.S. on top of list

    The U.S. tops the list of powerful countries/regions in 2010, accounting for nearly 22 per cent of the global power. China is second, along with European Union at 16 per cent and India is placed third at eight per cent. Japan, Russia and Brazil follow India with less than five per cent each.

    According to the International Futures model, the power of the U.S., the E.U., Japan and Russia will decline by 2025, while that of China, India and Brazil will increase, even though there will be no change in this listing.

    The U.S. will still remain the most powerful country in 2025, but it will have a little over 18 per cent of the global power. China will closely follow the U.S. with 16 per cent, EU with 14 per cent and India with 10 per cent. — ANI

    The Hindu : Front Page : U.S. report says India third most powerful nation
     
  6. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    India’s new Navy chief pilots ‘blue-water’ strategy
    2012-09-27

    [​IMG]
    Outgoing Indian Navy chief Admiral Nirmal Kumar Verma, left, greets his successor, Indian Navy chief Admiral Devendra Kumar Joshi in an Aug. 31, 2012, ceremony in New Delhi where Joshi assumed command. [Indian Navy]

    India’s new Navy chief sits at the helm of an emergent, “blue-water navy” strategically positioning the country’s stated aspirations to command a dominant role in the Indian Ocean.

    Admiral Devendra Kumar Joshi, 58, replaced retiring Navy chief Admiral Nirmal Kumar Verma on Aug. 31. India’s Navy has 123 ships and 11 submarines.

    Blue-water navy refers to the ability to exercise sea control at wide ranges. Specifically, the term describes a “maritime force capable of sustained operation across open oceans, project power from the home country and usually includes one or more aircraft carriers,” according to U.S. Defense Security.

    [​IMG]

    Naval build up expected

    A total of 46 new war ships and submarines are under construction and about 15 are expected to be added to the fleet during Joshi’s three-year tenure. http://*********************/images/smilies/thumb.gif

    Projects slated for the next three years include a Russian-built aircraft carrier, U.S.-built long-range reconnaissance planes, an indigenous nuclear-powered submarine under construction, and a dedicated naval satellite.

    The new ships and submarines will add to India’s presence as a maritime power and reinforce its capabilities on the high seas.

    India’s maritime activity is gaining world recognition, marking the period as the country’s biggest naval power increase since independence from Britain in 1947.

    Visiting India in June, U.S. Secretary of Defense Leon E. Panetta said, “In terms of regional security, our vision is a peaceful Indian Ocean region supported by growing Indian capabilities.

    “India is one of the largest and most dynamic countries in the region. … India is at the crossroads of Asia, the crossroads of the new global economy, and at the crossroads of regional security. We will stand with India at those crossroads.”

    Developments during Joshi’s tenure will be watched from both sides of the Pacific Ocean.

    Anti-submarine warfare specialist at the helm

    Joshi, who was commissioned in 1974, is the 21st chief of the Navy since the country’s independence. He is a specialist in anti-submarine warfare and has served in command, staff and instructional appointments.

    His experience includes a stint in warship production and acquisition as the assistant controller of the Aircraft Carrier Program [ACCP]. He then worked at the “Operations Branch,” first as an assistant chief of naval staff [Information Warfare and Operations] and then as deputy chief of naval staff. Notably, Joshi has been the commander-in-chief of the Andaman and Nicobar Command, the only tri-service integrated command in India.

    He went on to serve as the chief of Integrated Defence Staff and was the Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief of the Western Naval Command at Mumbai. He served as the defense adviser in the Indian High Commission at Singapore from 1996 to 1999.

    A native of Dehradun in the northern state of Uttarakhand, Joshi studied at Hansraj College in New Delhi. He graduated from the U.S. Naval War College in Rhode Island and attended the National Defense College in New Delhi.

    Joshi is requesting not only changes to hardware, but infrastructure as well, saying, “We would need to professionally re-audit, train and consolidate preparedness.”

    Overall expansion plan

    In addition to the 46 ships under construction, “acceptance of necessity” for 49 more ships and submarines has been approved by the Indian government. The vessels under construction include an aircraft carrier to be constructed in India along with destroyers, corvettes and six submarines to be constructed in France.

    The first to be added to the fleet will be new warships of the existing “Delhi Class” destroyers, starting early next year. The ships feature improved stealth features and weapons. Also under construction are eight new landing craft utility [LCUs] vessels, used in amphibious warfare to augment the fleet in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal.

    The Navy commissioned 15 ships in the past three years, including four stealth frigates, two fleet tankers and eight water jet fast attack craft [WJFAC]. Future plans include a deep submergence and rescue vessel [DSRV], six additional submarines, four Landing Platform Docks and 16 shallow-water anti-submarine warfare [ASW] ships. http://*********************/images/smilies/thumb.gif
    Last month the Navy issued a request for proposals [RFP] to acquire 56 naval utility helicopters customized for surveillance, anti-submarine warfare, anti-terror, electronic intelligence gathering and search-and-rescue operations. The RFP, which may result in U.S. $1 billion in purchases, has been sent to leading U.S., European and Russian helicopter makers. The Navy has more than 100 helicopters.

    Another aircraft carrier on sea trial

    India is set to be a two-carrier Navy at the end of the year. [China will catch up soon with one aircraft carrier constructed in Ukraine and undergoing sea trials.] India’s new carrier is a refitted Russian craft previously named Admiral Gorshkov. Renamed Indian Naval Ship [INS] Vikramaditya, the vessel has gone through a U.S. $2.35 billion refit program and will have Russian-built MiG 29K fighters flying off its deck. The 49,130-ton carrier started a four-month sea trial in June in the Barents Sea and is slated to join the fleet by the end of the year.

    The other carrier, the INS Viraat, is set to be phased out by 2017 and replaced by another carrier being built at a state-owned shipyard in Kochi, Kerala, on India’s western seaboard.

    Meanwhile, India says the INS Arihant, “the slayer of enemies,” will be sea-launched soon. The 6,614-ton nuclear submarine will provide second-strike capability in response to a potential initial enemy nuclear strike. Modeled on the Russian Akula class submarine design, the Arihant is being constructed at Vishakapatnam on the east coast of India.

    At an August news conference, Verma, the then-navy chief, said: “Arihant is steadily progressing towards operationalization, and we hope to commence sea trials in the coming months. … Navy is poised to complete the [nuclear] triad, and our maritime and nuclear doctrines will then be aligned to ensure our nuclear insurance comes from the sea.”

    Long-range reconnaissance aircraft

    In November 2008 terrorists used the sea route to reach Mumbai on India’s west coast to launch an attack, killing 166 people. In response, the Indian government approved the purchase of 12 long-range reconnaissance planes, the P-8I, produced by Boeing. The first is slated to arrive in January 2013. India operates the Russian origin IL-38 and the Tupelov-142 for long-range reconnaissance at sea.

    The P-8I will provide real-time information and can be deployed in locations such as the Indian Naval Air Station, INS Baaz also known as “the Hawk.” The P-8I will provide constant updates on the Strait of Malacca and also the “six degree channel” – the main shipping channel between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

    The Strait is an important link between European markets and oil in the Gulf on one side, and China, Japan and Korea on the other side. Nearly 70,000 vessels pass through the Strait annually – about 40 percent of all global trade. http://*********************/images/smilies/ranger.gif

    In conjunction with the Indian Space Research Organization, the Navy is slated to launch a communications satellite that will provide communications among all its warships, helicopters, aircraft and submarines.

    INDIA’S NEW NAVY CHIEF PILOTS ‘BLUE-WATER’ STRATEGY - Asia Pacific Defense Forum in English
     
  7. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Why Has India Become the World’s Top Arms Buyer?

    [​IMG]
    Defense Minister A.K. Antony poses with senior defense officials, in front of a Mi-17 V5 military utility transport helicopter from Russia, in New Delhi, Feb. 17, 2012.

    India has replaced China as the world’s largest arms buyer, accounting for 10 percent of all arms purchases during the past five years, a Swedish research group said.


    India purchased some $12.7 billion in arms, 80 percent of that from Russia, during 2007-2011, according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). China’s arms purchases during that time were $6.3 billion, 78 percent of which came from Russia. :coffee:

    India has tried, but failed, to create a sizable domestic manufacturing industry for weapons or even basic military goods, while China has increased production of defense supplies. About 75 percent of India’s weapons purchases came from imports during 2007-11, said Laxman Kumar Behra of the Institute of Defense Studies and Analysis, a government-funded research organization.

    Some analysts in India attribute the failure to create a domestic defense industry to government involvement. “India’s public sector is very inefficient and the private sector is by and large kept out of arms production,” Mr. Behra said.

    “We lack long-term vision,” and a culture of research and development, Mr. Behra said. “The government keeps on forming one committee after the other but there is hardly any implementation” of the committee’s recommendations, he said.

    In a recent article in The Economic Times, Uday Bhaskar, a retired commodore and leading strategic analyst, also criticized India’s weapons procurement policy.

    “More than 60 years after becoming a republic and 50 years after the debacle with China, the opaque Indian defense production establishment does not produce high quality clothing and personal inventory items like boots, let alone a suitable rifle for a one million army, or tanks and aircraft.”

    Russia, the world’s No. 2 weapons supplier in recent years after the United States, sold $7.8 billion in defense supplies in 2011, and $40.8 billion from 2005 to 2011. India bought about one-third of the supplies.

    India’s dependence on Russia is a holdover from the Cold War era, when the two were close allies.

    South Korea was the second-largest arms importer from 2007 to 2011, with $7 billion in purchases. Pakistan and China followed, each accounting for about 5 percent of the world’s total arms import during the five-year period, SIPRI said.

    India’s import of major weapons increased by 38 percent from the 2002-2006 period to the 2007-2011 period. India’s main acquisitions over the past five years were 120 Sukhoi and 16 MiG-29 jet fighter aircraft from Russia and 20 Anglo-French Jaguar fighters.

    India recently finalized a deal for 126 multi-role fighter aircraft with French defense contractor Rafael, in a deal worth $10 billion.

    Why Has India Become the World's Top Arms Buyer? - NYTimes.com
     
  9. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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  10. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Ranking of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel

    State - Active Military - Reserve Military - Paramilitary - Total

    People's Republic of China - 2,285,000 - 800,000 - 3,969,000 - 7,054,000

    United States of America - 1,458,219 - 1,458,500 - 11,035 - 2,927,754

    India - 1,325,000 - 2,142,821 - 1,300,586 - 4,768,407 http://*********************/images/smilies/thumb.gif

    Russian Federation - 766,000 - 2,035,000 - 449,000 - 3,250,000

    Pakistan - 617,000 - 513,000 - 304,000 - 1,434,000

    Iran 523,000 1,800,000 1,510,000 3,833,000

    List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

     
  11. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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  12. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    List of main battle tanks by country

    United States:-8,000 M1A1/2/2SEP

    Russia:-300 T-90, 4,744 T-80, 7,144 T-72, 4,000 T-64, 689 T-62, 1,200 T-54/55

    China:- ~500 Type 99, Type 98, 2,500 Type 96, Type 90-IIM, Type 90, 500 Type 88, Type 85, Type 80

    India:-310+ T-90, 2,200 T-72, Orders capped at 124 Arjun MBT, 755 T-55, 500 PT-76

    List of main battle tanks by country - Military Power
     
  13. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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  14. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    India's elusive nuclear triad will be operational soon: Navy chief
    Aug 8, 2012

    NEW DELHI: India's nuclear triad - the ability to fire nukes from land, air and sea - will soon be in place. After some delays and hiccups, the country's first nuclear submarine INS Arihant is getting ready "to go to sea" within the next few months. :tup:

    "INS Arihant is steadily progressing towards becoming operational...we are pretty close to putting it to sea (for extensive trials and missile firings)," announced Navy chief Admiral Nirmal Verma on Tuesday.

    "Navy is poised to complete the triad, and our maritime and nuclear doctrines will then be aligned to ensure our nuclear insurance comes from the sea. Given our unequivocal 'no first-use commitment', a retaliatory strike capability that is credible and invulnerable is an imperative," he added.

    The Navy chief's emphatic statement comes a week after DRDO officially declared the country's first-ever SLBM (submarine-launched ballistic missile) or the K-15 missile, with a strike range of 750-km, was "ready for induction".

    India has for some time possessed the Agni series of ballistic missiles as well as fighter-bombers to constitute the land and air-based legs of the triad. The long-elusive underwater leg, considered the most effective for both pre-emptive as well as retaliatory strikes, now finally seems to be taking shape with INS Arihant and its two follow-on SSBNs (nuclear-powered submarines armed with ballistic nuclear-tipped missiles).

    The 6,000-tonne submarine, which has four missile silos on its hump to carry either 12 K-15s or four of the under-development 3,500-km range K-4 missiles :tup:, will head for sea only after its 83 MW pressurized light-water reactor goes "critical". So far, it has been undergoing systematic checks of all its sub-systems as well as "harbour-acceptance trials" on shore-based steam at Vizag.

    With 46 warships and submarines being constructed, and another 49 in the pipeline under overall plans worth Rs 2.73 lakh crore, Admiral Verma said, "Today, I am confident we do not suffer asymmetries with anyone. We have the wherewithal to defend our maritime interests." :tup:

    Brushing aside questions on the new US strategy to "rebalance" forces towards the Asia-Pacific as well as China's growing maritime might and assertiveness, the Navy chief said India's "primary" area of strategic interest lay between the Gulf and Malacca Strait, extending "down south to the Cape of Good Hope".

    While India is not going to "actively deploy" in the contentious South China Sea, where China is enmeshed in territorial disputes with Vietnam, the Philippines and others, he said "all the players" there should ensure hostilities do not erupt in the region and hit global shipping and trade.

    Turning to maritime terrorism, Admiral Verma said both the Navy and Coast Guard were now much better prepared and equipped to tackle 26/11-like attacks from outfits like Lashkar-e-Taiba. "Even before Abu Jundal (key 26/11 handler) said it, we had factored in such possibilities," he said.

    "Terrorism from the sea and terrorism at sea are now realities of our times. In our external environment, one of our core concerns is the coalescing of the 'state' with 'non-state' entities," he added.

    India's elusive nuclear triad will be operational soon: Navy chief - Times Of India
     
  15. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    A Nuclear Triad refers to a nuclear arsenal which consists of three components, traditionally strategic bombers, ICBMs and submarine-launched ballistic missiles ( SLBMs). The purpose of having a three-branched nuclear capability is to significantly reduce the possibility that an enemy could destroy all of a nation's nuclear forces in a first-strike attack; this, in turn, ensures a credible threat of a second strike, and thus increases a nation's nuclear deterrence.[1][2][3]

    Triad nuclear powers

    The following nations are considered triad nuclear powers. They possess nuclear forces consisting of land-based missiles, ballistic or long-range cruise missile submarines, and strategic bombers or long-range tactical aircraft.

    United States[1][3][4]
    The US operates Minuteman ICBMs from underground hardened silos, Trident SLBMs carried by Ohio-class submarines, it also operates B-1, B-52, B-2 strategic bombers, as well as land- and carrier-based tactical aircraft, some capable of carrying strategic and tactical B61 and large strategic B83 gravity bombs, AGM-86 ALCM, and AGM-129 Advanced Cruise Missiles. While the US no longer keeps nuclear armed bombers on airborne alert it has the ability to do so along with the airborne nuclear command and control aircraft with its fleet of KC-10 and KC-135 aerial refueling planes. The US Navy also retains reserve stocks of undeployed nuclear warheads to equip existing Tomahawk ship or submarine-launched cruise missiles. Previous to development of submarine-launched ballistic missiles the US Navy strategic nuclear role was provided by aircraft carrier–based bombers and for a short time submarine-launched cruise missiles. With the end of the cold war, the US never deployed the rail mobile version of the Peacekeeper ICBM or the road mobile Midgetman small ICBM. The US destroyed its stock of road mobile Pershing II IRBMs and ground-launched cruise missiles in accordance with the INF treaty. The US also has shared strategic nuclear weapons and still deploys shared tactical nuclear weapons to some NATO countries.

    Russia
    Also a nuclear power,[5] Russia inherited the arsenal of all of the former Soviet states; this consists of silo-based as well as rail and road mobile ICBMs, sea-based SLBMs, strategic bombers, strategic aerial refueling aircraft, and long-range tactical aircraft capable of carrying gravity bombs, standoff missiles, and cruise missiles. The Russian Strategic Rocket Forces have ICBMs able to deliver nuclear warheads[citation needed], silo-based R-36M2 (SS-18), silo-based UR-100N (SS-19), mobile RT-2PM "Topol" (SS-25), silo-based RT-2UTTH "Topol M" (SS-27), mobile RT-2UTTH "Topol M" (SS-27), mobile RS-24 "Yars" (SS-29) (Future replacement for R-36 & UR-100N missiles). Russian strategic nuclear submarine forces are equipped with the following SLBM's, R-29R "Vysota", NATO name SS-N-18 "Stingray", RSM-54 R-29RMU "Sineva", NATO name SS-N-23 "Skiff" and the R-29RMU2.1 "Liner" are in use with the Delta class submarine, but the RSM-56 R-30 "Bulava", NATO name SS-NX-32 is under development for the Borei class submarine. The Russian Air Force operates supersonic Tupolev Tu-22M, and Tupolev Tu-160 bombers and the long range turboprop powered Tupolev Tu-95, they are all mostly armed with strategic stand off missiles or cruise missiles such as the KH-15 and the KH-55. These bombers and nuclear capable strike aircraft such as the Sukhoi Su-24 are supported by Ilyushin Il-78 aerial refuelling aircraft. The USSR was required to destroy its stock of IRBMs in accordance with the INF treaty.

    People's Republic of China
    Unlike the US and Russia where strategic nuclear forces are enumerated by treaty limits and subject to verification, China, a nuclear power since 1964, is not subject to these requirements but may have a triad structure of some sort. China's nuclear force is much smaller than the US or Russia and is closer in number and capability to that of France or the UK. This force is mainly land-based missiles including ICBMs, IRBMs, and tactical ballistic missiles as well as cruise missiles. Unlike the US and Russia, China stores many of its missiles in huge underground tunnel complexes; US Representative Michael Turner[6] referring to 2009 Chinese media reports said “This network of tunnels could be in excess of 5,000 kilometers (3,110 miles), and is used to transport nuclear weapons and forces,”,[7] the Chinese Army newsletter calls this tunnel system an underground Great Wall of China.[8] China has one inactive Type 092 submarine,[9] after its twin was lost at sea and is working on several new Type 094 submarines carrying SLBMs although the reliability of the new type is also in question[10] in addition the single type 94 boat has not received its SLBM's.[9] There is an aging bomber force consisting of Xian H-6s with an unclear nuclear delivery role as well as several tactical aircraft types that could be equipped with nuclear weapons. The PLAF has a limited capability fleet of H-6 bombers modified for aerial refuelling as well as forthcoming Russian Ilyushin Il-78 aerial refuelling tankers.[11]

    India
    India maintains a no first use nuclear policy and has been developing a nuclear triad capability as a part of its credible minimum deterrence doctrine.[12] India's nuclear-weapons program possesses surface-to-surface missiles such as the Agni II and Agni III. In addition, the 5,000 km range Agni-V ICBM was also tested on 19 April 2012 which is believed to be having a range of 5,800 km [13] and is expected to enter service by 2014.[14] India's nuclear-weapons program possesses surface-to-air missiles like the Akash. India has nuclear-capable fighter aircraft such as the Dassault Mirage 2000H, Sukhoi Su-30 MKI (a variant of the Su-30MK and comparable to Sukhoi Su-35), MIG-29 and the indigenously built HALTejas. With land and air strike capabilities already in place under the control of Strategic Forces Command which is a part of Nuclear Command Authority (India). India has a nuclear propelled submarine INS Chakra but it has not been equipped with strategic nuclear cruise missiles.[15] INS Arihant is designed for strategic deterrence and will carry nuclear-tipped SLBMs, and is expected to enter service by the end of 2012. Indian state-owned defense R&D agency, DRDO, is working on a submarine-launched ballistic missile, known as the K-15 Sagarika. This missile is expected to provide India with a credible sea-based second-strike capability. Also, K-4, part of the K Missile family is being developed.

    Nuclear triad - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
     
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