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World Military Strength, The 15 countries with the highest military expenditure

Discussion in 'International Relations' started by santosh, Mar 27, 2014.

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  1. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    hhhhhhhhhh :coffee:
     
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  2. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Indian Ordnance Factories: Military Vehicles

    The Indian Ordnance Factories organisation - a family of 41 Ordnance Factories under the aegis of its corporate headquarters Ordnance Factory Board, Kolkata - possesses the unique distinction of over 200 years experience in defence production. We are engaged in production, testing, logistics, research, development and marketing of a comprehensive product range in the area of land, sea and air systems.

    The patronage we receive both in India and abroad speaks of our quality of products and services. Undoubtedly, we are the force behind armed forces.

    Indian Ordnance Factories is the oldest and largest industrial setup which functions under the Department of Defence Production of the Ministry of Defence. The ordnance factories form an integrated base for indigenous production of defence hardware and equipment, with the primary objective of self reliance in equipping the armed forces with state of the art battlefield equipments.


    Military Vehicles

    MINE PROTECTED VEHICLE WITH RCWS
    [​IMG]

    LIGHT RECOVERY VEHICLE ON STALLION MK-III CHASSIS
    [​IMG]

    FIELD AMBULANCE ON LPTA
    [​IMG]

    Water Bowser - 2KL
    [​IMG]

    STALLION 7.5 / 5 TON MK-III
    [​IMG]

    Kitchen Container
    [​IMG]

    SATA Container On Stallion Chassis
    [​IMG]

    Indian Ordnance Factories: Military Vehicles


    =>
    [​IMG]
    Bharat Dynamics Limited

    Milan 2T
    [​IMG]


    Konkurs - M :
    [​IMG]


    Invar:
    [​IMG]


    Akash
    [​IMG]


    Advanced Light Weight Torpedo:
    [​IMG]


    Torpedo Counter Measure System (C303):
    [​IMG]


    Counter Measures Dispensing System (CMDS) :
    [​IMG]

    Bharat Dynamics Limited
     
  3. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Indian Ordnance Factories: Military Vehicles

    The Indian Ordnance Factories organisation - a family of 41 Ordnance Factories under the aegis of its corporate headquarters Ordnance Factory Board, Kolkata - possesses the unique distinction of over 200 years experience in defence production. We are engaged in production, testing, logistics, research, development and marketing of a comprehensive product range in the area of land, sea and air systems.

    The patronage we receive both in India and abroad speaks of our quality of products and services. Undoubtedly, we are the force behind armed forces.

    Indian Ordnance Factories is the oldest and largest industrial setup which functions under the Department of Defence Production of the Ministry of Defence. The ordnance factories form an integrated base for indigenous production of defence hardware and equipment, with the primary objective of self reliance in equipping the armed forces with state of the art battlefield equipments.

    Small Calibre

    Indian Ordnance Factories: Weapons

    0.22" Revolver
    [​IMG]

    SUB MACHINE GUN CARBINE 9 mm 1A1
    [​IMG]

    5.56 mm INSAS Rifle
    [​IMG]

    MIcro Assault Rifle 5.56mm
    [​IMG]

    GUN MACHINE 7.62 mm (MAG) 6A
    [​IMG]

    GUN MACHINE 7.62 mm (MAG) 2A1
    [​IMG]

    12.7 mm AIR DEFENCE GUN
    [​IMG]

    Indian Ordnance Factories: Weapons


    => Indian Ordnance Factories: Weapons
    METAMORPHOSIS 155 mm GUN
    [​IMG]
    Equipment 105/37 IFG E1 and 105/37 LFG E2
    [​IMG]

    EQUIPMENT 106 mm RCL GUN
    [​IMG]

    84mm RCL MK-III
    [​IMG]
    Multi Grenade Launcher 40 mm
    [​IMG]

    40MM L-70 UPGRADED GUN
    [​IMG]

    Anti Material Rifle VIDHWANSAK
    [​IMG]
    81mm LONG RANGE MORTAR
    [​IMG]

    Indian Ordnance Factories: Weapons
     
  4. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Indian Navy gets second p-8i from boeing in Tamil nadu
    16th November 2013

    The Indian Navy on Friday received the second of its eight Boeing P-8I long range maritime reconnaissance aircraft at the INS Rajali Air Base in Arakkonam, Tamil Nadu, raising surveillance capabilities that could extend from Gulf of Aden on the West to Malacca Straits on the East. The remaining six P-8Is of the eight-plane order would be delivered over the next one-and-half years.:thumb: “The second P-8I landed at Rajali during the day,” Defence officials said here. The aircraft, based on the Boeing 737-800(NG) airframe, is the Indian variant of the US Navy’s P-8A Poseidon that Boeing has built.

    India is pursuing the option of procuring four more of the P-8Is from Boeing for `4,381 crore, on the basis of its 2009 January contract for delivering eight of these planes for `11,000 crore.

    On Monday, the Defence Ministry’s acquisition council, chaired by Minister A K Antony, approved Boeing’s amended offset proposals for the four-plane order likely to be placed soon. Under the contract, 30 per cent of the deal would be ploughed back into India by Boeing as offsets in the form of purchases from the Indian defence, aerospace and internal security industry or technology transfers or capability building in modern technologies in these sectors.

    The P-8Is are fully integrated with state-of-the-art sensors and highly-potent anti-surface and anti-submarine weapons for maritime reconnaissance, anti-submarine operations and electronic intelligence missions.

    The planes are equipped with the Harpoon anti-submarine weapon systems, also from the Boeing stable.

    The P-8I not only incorporates India’s unique design features, but also India-built subsystems that are tailor-made to fit the country’s maritime patrol requirements.

    The first P-8I was delivered to India by Boeing in mid-May this year and the plane had carried out its first long distance mission when it flew out of Arakkonam to Emerald Island in Andaman and Nicobar in the first week of August. The plane, with anti-submarine warfare capability, took off from the Naval Air Base INS Rajali then and landed at INS Utkrosh air field.

    India is the first international customer of this aircraft, which has provided a quantum leap to its maritime surveillance capabilities and its strategic reach, as it can fly non-stop to reach the eastern or western end of the Indian Ocean in quick time.

    Indian Navy gets second p-8i from boeing in Tamil nadu - The New Indian Express

     
  5. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    For Rs 6 lakh crore (USD 100 billion)Indian armed forces set to acquire Star Wars-like weapons
    Jun 27 2013

    Seeking to prepare itself for futuristic warfare of the kind seen in the iconic and sensational Star Wars movies, Indian armed forces are planning to spend around Rs 6 lakh crore to get hi-tech equipment such as robots for combat roles, precision-guided missiles and watch-dog satellites, according to a Defence Ministry document. :tup:

    In the document 'Technology and Capability Roadmap' for the armed forces for next 15 years, Defence Minister A K Antony has also made it clear that his department will make these acquisitions in a holistic manner "without compromising transparency, fairness and probity at any level."

    "In the next 15 years, Indian forces are poised for major modernisation... The volumes are high and the financial outlays large. There is substantial scope in the process for Indian industry to harness this market around USD 100 billion (Rs six lakh crore) to develop indigenous capability; especially in high technology areas," it said. The TCR has been provided by the Ministry as a step to provide a roadmap to the private and public sector indigenous industry about the requirements of the armed forces so that they can gear up themselves to provide the solutions.

    "The document is being put up in the public domain to establish a level playing field for the Indian defence industry, both public and private sector," the Ministry said. In the field of space, the TCR says the armed forces would require "watchdog satellites" to guard against the anti-satellite weapons, which have been developed by China.

    "With the advent of anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) a concept of `watchdog satellites to guard other satellites could also be explored," it said.The armed forces are also turning eco-friendly and have sought "eco-friendly solar, wind and electric power and propulsion systems which are capable of lowering fuel consumption, reduce pollution and better energy efficient while helping vessels to operate quietly." Seeking artificial warriors on field, the TCR said for winning land battles, the Army would need "Robots to assist troops in combat for tasks such as surveillance, reconnaissance, anti mine and anti IED role, urban area combat and casualty extraction."

    To deal with the threat of enemy ballistic missiles, the 45-page TCR says a capability called Joint Area Missile Defence would be required for air defence. "It will use air defence assets of the three services in conjunction with the surveillance sensors of other agencies to detect, track, acquire and destroy incoming theatre ballistic and cruise missiles," it said. Seeking capabilities to fight the menace of terrorism, the TCR said capabilities will have to to be developed to oppose terrorism throughout the threat spectrum including anti-terrorism and counter-terrorism.

    "It includes protection of personnel, assault, explosives detection and disposal, investigative sciences and forensics, physical security and protection of infrastructure and surveillance and collection. Successful execution of the wide range of R&D efforts will greatly improve the capability of the soldier," it said. The document, which is similar to a previous document issued in 2010, also envisages procurement of modern combat aircraft, combat drones, unmanned underwater systems, space-based capability, anti-submarine weapons launched from air, several types of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and training tools for the forces in next 15 years.

    For Rs 6 lakh crore, Indian armed forces set to acquire Star Wars-like weapons - Indian Express
     
  6. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    U.S. report says India third most powerful nation

    A new official United States report has listed India as the third most powerful nation in the world after the U.S. and China and the fourth most powerful bloc after the United States.

    “The new global power line-up for 2010 also predicted that New Delhi's clout in the world will further rise by 2025,” as per ‘Global Governance 2025,' jointly issued by the National Intelligence Council (NIC) of the U.S. and the European Union's Institute for Security Studies (EUISS). :coffee:

    The report — quoting the views of a host of experts from Brazil, Russia, India and China and depicting fictionalised scenarios — points to what could happen over the next 25 years in terms of global governance.

    U.S. on top of list

    The U.S. tops the list of powerful countries/regions in 2010, accounting for nearly 22 per cent of the global power. China is second, along with European Union at 16 per cent and India is placed third at eight per cent. Japan, Russia and Brazil follow India with less than five per cent each.

    According to the International Futures model, the power of the U.S., the E.U., Japan and Russia will decline by 2025, while that of China, India and Brazil will increase, even though there will be no change in this listing.

    The U.S. will still remain the most powerful country in 2025, but it will have a little over 18 per cent of the global power. China will closely follow the U.S. with 16 per cent, EU with 14 per cent and India with 10 per cent.

    U.S. report says India third most powerful nation - The Hindu
     
  7. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    PAK FA’s debut makes Washington ponder

    Russia’s fifth generation fighter, the PAK FA, will enter service by 2015, according to Russian Air Force Commander-in-Chief Colonel General Alexander Zelin speaking earlier this week, Defence Talk reports. Almost simultaneously, in 2016, the US will put into service two new fighter versions: the F-35A for the Air Force and the F-35C for the Navy. For the United States, this means that it must at any cost implement its plan to manufacturing the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter.

    The advantages of the new Russian fighter were demonstrated to the public at the MAKS 2011 air show – something western experts see as yet further confirmation of Russia’s firm intention not only to produce Т-50 fighters for the Russian army but also to export them to other countries.

    [​IMG]
    Russia announced plans to buy 60 PAK FA fighters by 2020. According to official information, there are plans to put into service 250 fighters and maybe more, western analysts say. India already intends to buy at least 250-300 Fifth-Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA) based on Russia’s Т-50 and adapted to India’s demands.Since the United States stopped producing its F-22 fighter, the F-35 multirole fighter has been the only alternative to the Russian PAK FA available for the US and other NATO countries. At this point, the Russian fighter outdoes its western counterpart in terms of speed, maneuverability, sight range, lifting capacity, and even radar evasion. Russia describes its PAK FA as a fighter that “thanks to the use of complex materials and advanced technology <...> can reduce recognition by radar, optic and infrared recognition systems to a minimum.”

    As for the limited optical visibility, experts largely attribute it to use of metamaterials and so-called “e-camouflage” in the more recent versions of the PAK FA. The negative refraction index of metamaterials makes them an ideal means for camouflaging military targets, as they cannot be discovered by radio reconnaissance equipment within a certain range of frequencies. Using this technology, on-board cameras record everything surrounding the aircraft, in real time mode.

    Supercomputers and metamaterials allow the cameras to project the image on to the aircraft’s surface, making it invisible. A similar effect was used in one James Bond movie, Die Another Day, where 007 was driving around in an Aston Martin invisible to the naked eye.

    Being a multirole fighter, the PAK FA can also be deployed to repulse daylight ground attacks. It does not have to wait until night to perform combat operations, as was the case with the now decommissioned American stealth attack aircraft F-117, or perhaps the already mentioned F-35. Being invisible to enemy pilot puts PAK FA in a much more advantageous position. Yet the F-35 has a super sensitive electronic optical recognition system, which, in combination with helmet-mounted displays, allows pilots quickly to detect the warmth emanating from the enemy fighter.

    Despite the PAK FA’s e-camouflage technology, Russia should not rest on its laurels, experts warn. The United States also has a fifth-generation fighter capable of competing with its closest analogues, both the Russian one and China’s J-20. Even so, the US will need to accumulate a lot of such aircraft if it wants not only to replenish its combat losses but also to get the upper hand in the fight for aerospace dominance.

    Western analysts call on the US Congress to take into consideration Russia’s plans to export its new fighter to other countries. Along with India, potential buyers include Iran (if the UN cancels its embargo on weapons supplies), Arab nations (if the US refuses to sell its fighters), as well as Venezuela, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, and perhaps even China, given that the PAK FA have a greater bomb-carrying capacity than the J-20, Defence Talk reports.

    [​IMG]
    Thus, conclusions have been drawn but it is unclear how Washington will react to calls for urgent measures.

    One thing is clear: Russia’s fifth generation fighter, the PAK FA, is a pioneer in the revival of Russia’s aerospace industry. Russia hopes to retain its position as the world’s leading manufacturer of military aviation equipment, Prime Minister Vladimir Putin said at the MAKS 2011 official opening ceremony.

    “The government has supported and will continue to support Russia’s aerospace industry. This is a clear strategic priority for us”, he stressed.

    From Russia with love: PAK FA’s debut makes Washington ponder | Russia & India Report
     
  8. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    India’s new Navy chief pilots ‘blue-water’ strategy
    2012-09-27

    India’s new Navy chief sits at the helm of an emergent, “blue-water navy” strategically positioning the country’s stated aspirations to command a dominant role in the Indian Ocean.

    Admiral Devendra Kumar Joshi, 58, replaced retiring Navy chief Admiral Nirmal Kumar Verma on Aug. 31. India’s Navy has 123 ships and 11 submarines.

    Blue-water navy refers to the ability to exercise sea control at wide ranges. Specifically, the term describes a “maritime force capable of sustained operation across open oceans, project power from the home country and usually includes one or more aircraft carriers,” according to U.S. Defense Security.

    Naval build up expected

    A total of 46 new war ships and submarines are under construction and about 15 are expected to be added to the fleet during Joshi’s three-year tenure. :tup:

    Projects slated for the next three years include a Russian-built aircraft carrier, U.S.-built long-range reconnaissance planes, an indigenous nuclear-powered submarine under construction, and a dedicated naval satellite.

    The new ships and submarines will add to India’s presence as a maritime power and reinforce its capabilities on the high seas.

    India’s maritime activity is gaining world recognition, marking the period as the country’s biggest naval power increase since independence from Britain in 1947.

    Visiting India in June, U.S. Secretary of Defense Leon E. Panetta said, “In terms of regional security, our vision is a peaceful Indian Ocean region supported by growing Indian capabilities.

    “India is one of the largest and most dynamic countries in the region. … India is at the crossroads of Asia, the crossroads of the new global economy, and at the crossroads of regional security. We will stand with India at those crossroads.”

    Developments during Joshi’s tenure will be watched from both sides of the Pacific Ocean.

    Anti-submarine warfare specialist at the helm

    Joshi, who was commissioned in 1974, is the 21st chief of the Navy since the country’s independence. He is a specialist in anti-submarine warfare and has served in command, staff and instructional appointments.

    His experience includes a stint in warship production and acquisition as the assistant controller of the Aircraft Carrier Program [ACCP]. He then worked at the “Operations Branch,” first as an assistant chief of naval staff [Information Warfare and Operations] and then as deputy chief of naval staff. Notably, Joshi has been the commander-in-chief of the Andaman and Nicobar Command, the only tri-service integrated command in India.

    He went on to serve as the chief of Integrated Defence Staff and was the Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief of the Western Naval Command at Mumbai. He served as the defense adviser in the Indian High Commission at Singapore from 1996 to 1999.

    A native of Dehradun in the northern state of Uttarakhand, Joshi studied at Hansraj College in New Delhi. He graduated from the U.S. Naval War College in Rhode Island and attended the National Defense College in New Delhi.

    Joshi is requesting not only changes to hardware, but infrastructure as well, saying, “We would need to professionally re-audit, train and consolidate preparedness.”

    Overall expansion plan

    In addition to the 46 ships under construction, “acceptance of necessity” for 49 more ships and submarines has been approved by the Indian government. The vessels under construction include an aircraft carrier to be constructed in India along with destroyers, corvettes and six submarines to be constructed in France.

    The first to be added to the fleet will be new warships of the existing “Delhi Class” destroyers, starting early next year. The ships feature improved stealth features and weapons. Also under construction are eight new landing craft utility [LCUs] vessels, used in amphibious warfare to augment the fleet in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bay of Bengal.

    The Navy commissioned 15 ships in the past three years, including four stealth frigates, two fleet tankers and eight water jet fast attack craft [WJFAC]. Future plans include a deep submergence and rescue vessel [DSRV], six additional submarines, four Landing Platform Docks and 16 shallow-water anti-submarine warfare [ASW] ships. :tup:

    Last month the Navy issued a request for proposals [RFP] to acquire 56 naval utility helicopters customized for surveillance, anti-submarine warfare, anti-terror, electronic intelligence gathering and search-and-rescue operations. The RFP, which may result in U.S. $1 billion in purchases, has been sent to leading U.S., European and Russian helicopter makers. The Navy has more than 100 helicopters.

    Another aircraft carrier on sea trial

    India is set to be a two-carrier Navy at the end of the year. [China will catch up soon with one aircraft carrier constructed in Ukraine and undergoing sea trials.] India’s new carrier is a refitted Russian craft previously named Admiral Gorshkov. Renamed Indian Naval Ship [INS] Vikramaditya, the vessel has gone through a U.S. $2.35 billion refit program and will have Russian-built MiG 29K fighters flying off its deck. The 49,130-ton carrier started a four-month sea trial in June in the Barents Sea and is slated to join the fleet by the end of the year.

    The other carrier, the INS Viraat, is set to be phased out by 2017 and replaced by another carrier being built at a state-owned shipyard in Kochi, Kerala, on India’s western seaboard.

    Meanwhile, India says the INS Arihant, “the slayer of enemies,” will be sea-launched soon. The 6,614-ton nuclear submarine will provide second-strike capability in response to a potential initial enemy nuclear strike. Modeled on the Russian Akula class submarine design, the Arihant is being constructed at Vishakapatnam on the east coast of India.

    At an August news conference, Verma, the then-navy chief, said: “Arihant is steadily progressing towards operationalization, and we hope to commence sea trials in the coming months. … Navy is poised to complete the [nuclear] triad, and our maritime and nuclear doctrines will then be aligned to ensure our nuclear insurance comes from the sea.”

    Long-range reconnaissance aircraft

    In November 2008 terrorists used the sea route to reach Mumbai on India’s west coast to launch an attack, killing 166 people. In response, the Indian government approved the purchase of 12 long-range reconnaissance planes, the P-8I, produced by Boeing. The first is slated to arrive in January 2013. India operates the Russian origin IL-38 and the Tupelov-142 for long-range reconnaissance at sea.

    The P-8I will provide real-time information and can be deployed in locations such as the Indian Naval Air Station, INS Baaz also known as “the Hawk.” The P-8I will provide constant updates on the Strait of Malacca and also the “six degree channel” – the main shipping channel between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

    The Strait is an important link between European markets and oil in the Gulf on one side, and China, Japan and Korea on the other side. Nearly 70,000 vessels pass through the Strait annually – about 40 percent of all global trade. :coffee:

    In conjunction with the Indian Space Research Organization, the Navy is slated to launch a communications satellite that will provide communications among all its warships, helicopters, aircraft and submarines.

    INDIA’S NEW NAVY CHIEF PILOTS ‘BLUE-WATER’ STRATEGY - Asia Pacific Defense Forum in English
     
  9. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Major Indian Missiles

    (along with Rassuian, Israeli and Western Missiles/ Air Defence Systems)


    . BrahMos

    [​IMG]
    BrahMos is the world's fastest cruise missile.

    BrahMos (Hindi:ब्रह्मोस, Russian: Брамос) is a stealth supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarines, ships, aircraft or land. It is a joint venture between Republic of India's Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Russian Federation's NPO Mashinostroeyenia who have together formed BrahMos Aerospace Private Limited. The name BrahMos is a portmanteau formed from the names of two rivers, the Brahmaputra of India and the Moskva of Russia.

    It is the world's fastest cruise missile in operation. The missile travels at speeds of Mach 2.8 to 3.0.[4] The land launched and ship launched versions are already in service with air launched and submarine launched versions currently under testing phase.[5] An Air launched variant of Brahmos is planned which is expected to come out in 2012 and will make India the only country with supersonic cruise missiles in their army, navy, and air force.[6] A hypersonic version of the missile is also presently under development with speed of Mach 7 to boost aerial fast strike capability.[7][8] . It is expected to be ready for testing by 2017.[9]


    . Shaurya (missile)

    [​IMG]

    The Shaurya missile (Sanskrit: Valour) is a canister launched hypersonic surface-to-surface tactical missile developed by the Indian Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) for use by the Indian Armed Forces. It has a range of between 750 to 1900 km [5] and is capable of carrying a payload of one ton conventional or nuclear warhead.[8] It gives the potential to strike in the short-intermediate range against any adversary.[9] [3]


    . Agni-V

    [​IMG]

    Agni-V is an intercontinental ballistic missile developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) of India. It is part of the Agni series of missiles, one of the missile systems under the original Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme. According to DRDO chief, the exact range of Agni V is "classified"[10] but afterwards he described Agni V as a missile with a range of 5,500-5,800 km.[3]


    . Nag (missile)

    [​IMG]

    Nag (Sanskrit: नाग, Nāg "Cobra") is a third generation "Fire-and-forget" anti-tank missile developed in India. It is one of five missile systems developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP). Nag has been developed at a cost of 300 crore (US$54.6 million).[2]


    . Advanced Light Torpedo (TAL) Shyena is the first indigenous new-generation light-weight torpedo of India, developed by Naval Science and Technological Laboratory of the DRDO for the Indian Navy.[1][2

    It is designed to be capable of launching from both a helicopter or from a triple-tube launcher on surface vessels. Its key design feature are maneuverability and ability to transition from warm to cold medium to ensure a hunt and kill.[1][2] The development period of the missile was quite long, starting in the 1990s, and was inducted into the Indian Navy on March 3, 2012, when the Indian Defence Minister A.K. Antony handed over the first consignment of TAL to the Navy in Hyderabad in March 3.[2]


    . Sudarshan is a Indian laser-guided bomb kit, developed by Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE), a DRDO lab with technological support from another DRDO lab Instruments Research and Development Establishment (IRDE), Dehradun,[1] for the Indian Air Force (IAF).[2][3][4] The announcement of this development was covered extensively by the Indian media.[5][6][7][8]


    . Akash (missile)

    [​IMG]

    Akash (Sanskrit: आकाश Ākāś "Sky") is a medium-range mobile surface-to-air missile defense system developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Ordnance Factories Board and Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) in India.[2][3][4] The missile system can target aircraft up to 30 km away, at altitudes up to 18,000 m.[5] A nuclear warhead could potentially give the missile the capability to destroy both aircraft and warheads from ballistic missiles.[6][7][8] It is in operational service with the Indian Army and the Indian Air Force.


    . Indian Ballistic Missile Defence Programme

    [​IMG]

    The Indian Ballistic Missile Defence Programme is an initiative to develop and deploy a multi-layered ballistic missile defense system to protect India from ballistic missile attacks.[1][2]
    Introduced in light of the ballistic missile threat from Pakistan,[3] it is a double-tiered system consisting of two interceptor missiles, namely the Prithvi Air Defence (PAD) missile for high altitude interception, and the Advanced Air Defence (AAD) Missile for lower altitude interception. The two-tiered shield should be able to intercept any incoming missile launched 5,000 kilometers away.[4]
    PAD was tested in November 2006, followed by AAD in December 2007. With the test of the PAD missile, India became the fourth country to have successfully developed an Anti-ballistic missile system, after United States, Russia and Israel.[5] :tup: On March 6, 2009, India again successfully tested its missile defense shield, during which an incoming "enemy" missile was intercepted at an altitude of 75 km.[6]

    According to scientist V. K. Saraswat of DRDO the missiles will work in tandem to ensure a hit probability of 99.8 percent. :tup:

    Indian Ballistic Missile Defence Programme - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


    . Astra (Sanskrit: अस्त्र, Astra "Weapon") is an active radar homing beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile (BVRAAM) developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), India. Astra is designed to be capable of engaging targets at varying range and altitudes allowing for engagement of both short-range targets (up to 20 km) and long-range targets (up to 80 km) using alternative propulsion modes.[3] As of May 2011, the missile is undergoing developmental trials.[1]


    . Prithvi

    [​IMG]

    Prithvi (Sanskrit: पृथ्वी, pṛthvī "Earth") is a tactical surface-to-surface short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) developed by DRDO of India under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program.
    5,600 kg (Prithvi III). The missile can carry a 1,000 kg warhead to a distance of 350 km and a 500 kg warhead to a distance of 600 kilometres and a 250 kilogram warhead up to a distance of 750 kilometres.


    . Prahaar (missile)
    Prahaar (Sanskrit:प्रहार, Strike) is a solid-fuelled surface-to-surface guided short-range tactical ballistic missile by DRDO of India. It would be equipped with omni-directional warheads and could be used for hitting both tactical and strategic targets.[2]
     
  10. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Why Has India Become the World’s Top Arms Buyer?

    India has replaced China as the world’s largest arms buyer, accounting for 10 percent of all arms purchases during the past five years, a Swedish research group said.

    India purchased some $12.7 billion in arms, 80 percent of that from Russia, during 2007-2011, according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). China’s arms purchases during that time were $6.3 billion, 78 percent of which came from Russia.

    India has tried, but failed, to create a sizable domestic manufacturing industry for weapons or even basic military goods, while China has increased production of defense supplies. About 75 percent of India’s weapons purchases came from imports during 2007-11, said Laxman Kumar Behra of the Institute of Defense Studies and Analysis, a government-funded research organization.

    Some analysts in India attribute the failure to create a domestic defense industry to government involvement. “India’s public sector is very inefficient and the private sector is by and large kept out of arms production,” Mr. Behra said.

    “We lack long-term vision,” and a culture of research and development, Mr. Behra said. “The government keeps on forming one committee after the other but there is hardly any implementation” of the committee’s recommendations, he said.

    In a recent article in The Economic Times, Uday Bhaskar, a retired commodore and leading strategic analyst, also criticized India’s weapons procurement policy.

    “More than 60 years after becoming a republic and 50 years after the debacle with China, the opaque Indian defense production establishment does not produce high quality clothing and personal inventory items like boots, let alone a suitable rifle for a one million army, or tanks and aircraft.”

    Russia, the world’s No. 2 weapons supplier in recent years after the United States, sold $7.8 billion in defense supplies in 2011, and $40.8 billion from 2005 to 2011. India bought about one-third of the supplies.

    India’s dependence on Russia is a holdover from the Cold War era, when the two were close allies.

    South Korea was the second-largest arms importer from 2007 to 2011, with $7 billion in purchases. Pakistan and China followed, each accounting for about 5 percent of the world’s total arms import during the five-year period, SIPRI said.

    India’s import of major weapons increased by 38 percent from the 2002-2006 period to the 2007-2011 period. India’s main acquisitions over the past five years were 120 Sukhoi and 16 MiG-29 jet fighter aircraft from Russia and 20 Anglo-French Jaguar fighters.

    India recently finalized a deal for 126 multi-role fighter aircraft with French defense contractor Rafael, in a deal worth $10 billion.

    Why Has India Become the World's Top Arms Buyer? - NYTimes.com


     
  11. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    F-16 vs MiG-29

    Both the F-16 and the MiG-29 were designed to correct mistakes and shortcomings of previous aircraft. With the USAF it was the low kill ratios over Vietnam as well as the lack of complete air superiority over the battle field a feat that was achieved with great success both over the battlefield's of Europe and Korea where the US Army was able to operate under little threat of air attack. With the Russians they wanted an aircraft that would perform the same roles as the MiG-25 and the Su-27 but at a shorter range. As well as an aircraft that for the first time could match Western fighters in ACM, while maintaining the ability to operate as an interceptor. Thus the MiG-29 became a smaller and shorter range F-15 while the F-16 became a larger and longer range F-5.

    Both teams designed craft that were cleared to operations of 9g and made use of wing-body blending to increase internal volume , reduce weight and improve maneuverability. They both located the intakes close to structures to reduce the AoA (angle of attack) sensed at the face of the intake/s thus increasing the AoA that the aircraft could take in comparison to other aircraft of their day. With the F-16A the AoA limit is 25deg where as the MiG-29 has been cleared of an AoA of up to 45deg. :tup:

    One of the major differences was in the engine arrangement with the General Dynamics team choosing a single P&W F100 this gave commonality with the F-15 and lower fuel consumption. In contrast the Mikoyan team choose a twin arrangement of the RD-33 with no thought give to using the Saturn/Lyulka AL-31F as used in the Su-27. The reasoning being that the use of two engines gave the aircraft greater survivability as the MiG-23/27's suffered a greater attrition ratio then the MiG-25. With the intakes the GD team adopted a fixed geometry intake as high mach number capability was not required for the role that the F-16 was to fill, while the requirement for a dash speed of mach 2.3+ led Mikoyan to adopt a two dimensional , four shock , variable geometry intake with one fixed ramp and two moving ramps.

    In regard to FOD (foreign object damage) the GD team took the position that FOD would not be a problem as the F-16 would operate form swept, paved runways. Where as the Russians felt that a rough field capability was an important capability and as such devised two movable ramps over the intakes to prevent FOD while on the ground or at low speed at low level. When the intakes are closed the engines breath via auxiliary intakes on the upper surface of the wing. :coffee:

    The F-16 has incorporated a number of features that are intended to enhance combat effectiveness. The pilot's seat is inclined at 30deg rather than the normal 13deg , he also has a side stick controller which allows the pilots arm to be supported this has not met with universal approval as some pilots prefer to be able to fly with either hand. The F-16 also for the first time incorporated a Fly-By-Wire flight control system, this allowed the aircraft to be made inherently unstable and would greatly improve maneuverability in air-combat. While the MiG introduced the first HMS (helmet-mounted sight) and IRST (infra-red search and track) sensor with a laser range finder for passive attacks and missile engagements up to 45deg off-borsight but maintained a conventional flight control system and achieved high maneuverability mainly due advanced aerodynamics. i.e. The tail of the MiG-29 is said to have been positioned to take advantage of the four vortices by the wing and fuselage. :coffee:

    In combat provided that the MiG-29's 7.5g above 0.85 mach can be avoided it should beat any F-16 due to its BVR capability , higher thrust/weight ratio and lower wing loading. While in recent exercises between USAF F-16 and German MiG-29A's showed that in ACM the greatest advantage the MiG-29 had was it's helmet mounted sight coupled with the AA-11 Archer which gives it a kill zone greater than any aircraft serving. F-16 pilots found that any aircraft within 45deg's of the nose of a MiG-29 was always under grave threat. :thumb: The ability to target aircraft well of boresight has proved to be such a success that helmet mounted sights have become requirements on any new fighter program.

    While both aircraft have short-commings those of the MiG-29 have effectively been solved with newer versions ( MiG-29 S/M/K and MiG-33 ) which have increased the fuel capacity of the MiG as well as adding an in-flight refueling system. The number of hard points has also been increased by two and the max warload has been doubled, along with the inclusion of a fly-by-wire flight control system and a new radar that allowed two targets to be engaged simultaneously with the new AA-12 Adder active radar missile as well as full clearance for flight at 9 g's . Most of these upgrades have been offered to current users of the MiG-29 with the Russian and Indian airforces conducting some upgrades. :tup:

    The F-16 by comparison has had few of it's problems solved in the past few years. One of it's greatest drawbacks the lack of a BVR capability was solved with the clearance of the AMRAAM for use on the F-16 but the second major problem of insufficient wing area on the F-16C has never been solved.

    Vayu Sena - F-16 versus MiG-29
     
  12. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    F-35 defeated in air combat simulation

    September 7, 2011 (by Eric L. Palmer) - An unnamed source stated that earlier this year a presentation was given by an industry air combat threat assessment expert to defense officials of a NATO country which showed that the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) would not survive air combat against threats it is likely to see in its alleged service lifetime. :tsk:

    Part of the presentation showed a computer simulation which calculated that the F-35 would be consistently defeated by the Russian-made SU-35 fighter aircraft. The defeat calculated by the scenario also showed the loss of the F-35's supporting airborne-early warning and air-to-air refueling aircraft.

    The technology in the SU-35 will also see its way into growth upgrades of other SU-fighter variants used by countries like Indonesia, India, Malaysia and Vietnam. Chinese variants of these aircraft should also see similar growth capability in the coming years.
    :tup: (to "Super Sukhoi" standard)

    The Russian-made T-50, PAK-FA low-observable fighter now in development is expected to be much more lethal than the SU-35 in air-to-air combat against the U.S. made F-35. The SU-35 and T-50 made appearances this year at the Russian aerospace industry air show known as MAKS2011. Both aircraft will include sensors and networking which can minimise the effects of the limited low-observable qualities of the F-35. They will also have higher performance and carry more air-to-air weapons than an F-35.

    The F-35 defeat briefing runs counter to the claims by the Lockheed Martin corporation that the F-35 will be a go-it-alone aircraft in high threat situations (brief to Israel, 2007) or that it will be “8 times” more effective than “legacy” aircraft in air-to-air combat.

    In 2009, then U.S. Secretary of Defense Mr. Gates was successful in halting additional production of the F-22 which is the only aircraft that can take on emerging threats. His reasoning was that the F-35—built in numbers—would be sufficient to fill any strategic gaps in air power deterrence for the U.S. and its allies.

    There was never any robust strategic study performed by the U.S. Department of Defense to verify Gates theory.

    Since Gates endorsement of the troubled F-35 program, it has continued with its history of cost blow-outs and delay and is unlikely to see a large number built.

    If Gates is wrong, he will have helped put the the air power deterrent capability of the U.S. and its allies at significant risk in the coming years. According to the assumptions of the joint operational requirement of the F-35 signed off on in 2000, the F-35 was not supposed to take on high-end threats. The requirement assumed that there would be hundreds of combat-ready F-22s. With the F-22 program ending, the maximum number of combat-ready F-22s will be somewhere between 120 and 140.

    Independent air combat analysts from Air Power Australia have also stated that the F-35 is not capable of facing high end threats; that what will be delivered (if it ever arrives) will be obsolete; and that the F-35 is not affordable or sustainable. :hang2:

    A recent briefing by Australian Defence officials, while showing support for the F-35 program, admitted that it will cost more to operate than the F-18 Hornet. A separate U.S. Navy study also agreed. This is counter to the claim by Lockheed Martin, that the F-35 will be cheaper to operate than existing aircraft it is planned to replace.

    In 2012, Australian Defence will decide to put down money for its first order of F-35s or to go ahead with a “plan-B” that could include purchase of 24 more F-18 Super Hornets made by Boeing. The Super Hornet is also unable to take on high-end threats in the Pacific Rim region in the coming years.

    F-35 defeated in air combat simulation
     
  13. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    India's elusive nuclear triad will be operational soon: Navy chief
    Aug 8, 2012

    NEW DELHI: India's nuclear triad - the ability to fire nukes from land, air and sea - will soon be in place. After some delays and hiccups, the country's first nuclear submarine INS Arihant is getting ready "to go to sea" within the next few months. :tup:

    "INS Arihant is steadily progressing towards becoming operational...we are pretty close to putting it to sea (for extensive trials and missile firings)," announced Navy chief Admiral Nirmal Verma on Tuesday.

    "Navy is poised to complete the triad, and our maritime and nuclear doctrines will then be aligned to ensure our nuclear insurance comes from the sea. Given our unequivocal 'no first-use commitment', a retaliatory strike capability that is credible and invulnerable is an imperative," he added.

    The Navy chief's emphatic statement comes a week after DRDO officially declared the country's first-ever SLBM (submarine-launched ballistic missile) or the K-15 missile, with a strike range of 750-km, was "ready for induction".

    India has for some time possessed the Agni series of ballistic missiles as well as fighter-bombers to constitute the land and air-based legs of the triad. The long-elusive underwater leg, considered the most effective for both pre-emptive as well as retaliatory strikes, now finally seems to be taking shape with INS Arihant and its two follow-on SSBNs (nuclear-powered submarines armed with ballistic nuclear-tipped missiles).

    The 6,000-tonne submarine, which has four missile silos on its hump to carry either 12 K-15s or four of the under-development 3,500-km range K-4 missiles :tup:, will head for sea only after its 83 MW pressurized light-water reactor goes "critical". So far, it has been undergoing systematic checks of all its sub-systems as well as "harbour-acceptance trials" on shore-based steam at Vizag.

    With 46 warships and submarines being constructed, and another 49 in the pipeline under overall plans worth Rs 2.73 lakh crore, Admiral Verma said, "Today, I am confident we do not suffer asymmetries with anyone. We have the wherewithal to defend our maritime interests." :tup:

    Brushing aside questions on the new US strategy to "rebalance" forces towards the Asia-Pacific as well as China's growing maritime might and assertiveness, the Navy chief said India's "primary" area of strategic interest lay between the Gulf and Malacca Strait, extending "down south to the Cape of Good Hope".

    While India is not going to "actively deploy" in the contentious South China Sea, where China is enmeshed in territorial disputes with Vietnam, the Philippines and others, he said "all the players" there should ensure hostilities do not erupt in the region and hit global shipping and trade.

    Turning to maritime terrorism, Admiral Verma said both the Navy and Coast Guard were now much better prepared and equipped to tackle 26/11-like attacks from outfits like Lashkar-e-Taiba. "Even before Abu Jundal (key 26/11 handler) said it, we had factored in such possibilities," he said.

    "Terrorism from the sea and terrorism at sea are now realities of our times. In our external environment, one of our core concerns is the coalescing of the 'state' with 'non-state' entities," he added.

    India's elusive nuclear triad will be operational soon: Navy chief - Times Of India
     
  14. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    Lowest Defence Budget increase in over 30 years
    Mar 01 2013

    India will spend its lowest on defence expenditure in over three decades with several major modernisation projects set to be affected after the Union government proposed a modest hike in the annual Budget that amounts to just over 5 per cent over the last year.

    As the government scrambles to cut costs given the dismal growth rate, defence spending is one of the hardest hit with the projected Budget of Rs 2.03 lakh crore coming up to barely 1.79 per cent of the Gross Domestic Product. This is a record low for India in at least three decades, with the figure dropping considerably from 3.16 per cent of the GDP in 1987.

    The expenditure Budget has also revealed that the Defence Ministry suffered a Budget cut of over Rs 14,000 crore last year, a majority of which — over Rs 10,000 crore — had been marked for procurement of new defence systems.

    While Finance Minister P Chidambaram promised that extra funds will be made available for the defence of the nation if the need arises, the amount allocated for purchase of new equipment is marked as Rs 86,740 crore, an 8.2 per cent hike from last year.

    Modernisation of the naval fleet is set to be the hardest hit, with a cut of over 13 per cent from what was allocated last year, throwing questions on several acquisitions, including new generation conventional submarines.

    The modest hike is likely to hit the acquisition of air systems hard, given the large number of aircraft purchase proposals that have been floated by all three forces and the minimal hike proposed under this subhead in the Budget. The biggest being the multi-billion dollar contract to procure 126 new fighter aircraft for which French fighter Rafale has been shortlisted.

    The capital Budget for acquisition of new aircraft for the three forces is Rs 33,776 crore, a hike of just over Rs 1,000 crore from the last year. It remains to be seen whether this would cater to the first few payments that India will need to make if it signs the contract for the new generation of fighters. By conservative estimates, the first tranche of payments could come out to be over Rs 5,000 crore. The Army's much delayed hunt for 197 new light helicopters to replace the Cheetah fleet also seems to be heading for a cancellation with the allocation for aircraft for the land force being cut drastically from Rs 3,052 crore in the last financial to Rs 1527 crore in the Budget, leaving minimal scope for new acquisitions.

    Despite the dismal Budget, Defence Minister A K Antony put up a brave front by saying it is the best possible, taking into account the "difficult economic situation both at home and abroad". "Factoring the current economic scenario, he (Chidambaram) has been fair to the defence sector also by increasing the Budget and assuring that should there be any urgent need in future the same would be provided," he said.

    However, as the records show, not only is this year's allocation the lowest in over three decades in terms of ratio to the GDP, it is also the lowest in terms of percentage of the total annual government expenditure. This year's defence budget is 12.23 per cent of the estimated spending of the government in the upcoming financial year, considerably down from the 15.79 per cent in 1999 as well as lower from last year's 12.97 per cent.

    A surprise revelation in the Budget is that the Defence Ministry's much valued funding for prototype manufacturing of defence systems under the 'Make' category of procurement has failed to make a mark. The Budget document indicates that none of the Rs 89 crore earmarked for prototype development was spent, forcing a cut in this year's allocation to a symbolic Rs 1 crore. -

    Lowest Defence Budget increase in over 30 years - Indian Express
     
  15. santosh

    santosh Major SENIOR MEMBER

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    India's major defence deals may get hit due to shortage of funds :facepalm:

    New Delhi: Faced with a resource crunch, the Defence Ministry will undertake a review next month of major military projects such as plans for acquiring 126 combat aircraft and raising a Strike Corps in the northeastern sector.

    The review will be carried out after an assessment is made on the performance of the economy at the end of the second quarter of this fiscal, Government sources said.

    The Defence Ministry has been allocated Rs. 1.93 lakh crore for the current fiscal but it had made a demand for additional funds of more than Rs. 40,000 crore for meeting its capital requirements.

    Sources said the lack of funds may also affect the Army's plans to raise a Mountain Strike Corps alongwith China under a Rs. 64,000 crore project.

    The plan has already hit a roadblock due to objections raised by the Government over the accretion along the boundary with China.

    The Defence Ministry has undertaken a major defence modernisation project under which it is planning to spend $100 billion on procurements for armed forces in the next five to ten years.

    Recently, Defence Minister A K Antony also reviewed the expenditure made by the armed forces in a meeting with the three Services Vice Chiefs, they said.

    During the meeting, the Defence Minister was apprised about the progress made by the defence forces in their respective procurements plans.

    Sources said the shortage of resources may also affect the Army's plans to raise a Mountain Strike Corps alongwith China under a proposed Rs. 64,000 crore project.

    The plan has already hit a roadblock due to objections raised by the Government over the accretion of forces along the Chinese boundary.

    In recent times, the services have also been asked to priortise their procurements and avoid duplication in acquisitions.

    The major Indian defence procurement programmes include the multi-billion dollar deal for procuring 126 multirole combat aircraft, over $2 billion deal for procuring six mid-air refuelling tankers, six additional C-130J Super Hercules aircraft from the US.

    In recent times, the Defence Ministry has cleared several proposals expected to be worth over Rs. 40,000 crore at the meetings of the Defence Acquistion Council (DAC).

    Indias major defence deals may get hit due to shortage of funds - NDTVProfit.com
     
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